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Msgmerge binary options

Hence each locale will need to specify which codeset they need to use and will need to have the appropriate character handling routines to cope with the codeset. The symbols used vary from country to country as does the position used by the symbol. Software needs to be able to transparently display currency figures in the native mode for each locale.

The format of date varies between locales. Time of the day may be noted as hh : mm , hh. Some locales require time to be specified in hour mode rather than as AM or PM. Further, the nature and yearly extent of the Daylight Saving correction vary widely between countries. Numbers can be represented differently in different locales. For example, the following numbers are all written correctly for their respective locales:. Some programs could go further and use different unit systems, like English units or Metric units, or even take into account variants about how numbers are spelled in full.

The most obvious area is the language support within a locale. This is where GNU gettext provides the means for developers and users to easily change the language that the software uses to communicate to the user. These areas of cultural conventions are called locale categories. The concrete data that describes the cultural conventions for such an area and for a particular culture is also called a locale category.

In this sense, a locale is composed of several locale categories: the locale category describing the codeset, the locale category describing the formatting of numbers, the locale category containing the translated messages, and so on.

GNU libc fully implements this, and most other modern systems provide a more or less reasonable support for at least some of the missing components. The letters PO in. This paradigm, as well as the PO file format, is inspired by the NLS standard developed by Uniforum, and first implemented by Sun in their Solaris system. PO files are meant to be read and edited by humans, and associate each original, translatable string of a given package with its translation in a particular target language.

A single PO file is dedicated to a single target language. If a package supports many languages, there is one such PO file per language supported, and each package has its own set of PO files. These PO files are best created by the xgettext program, and later updated or refreshed through the msgmerge program.

Program xgettext extracts all marked messages from a set of C files and initializes a PO file with empty translations. Program msgmerge takes care of adjusting PO files between releases of the corresponding sources, commenting obsolete entries, initializing new ones, and updating all source line references. Files ending with. MO files are meant to be read by programs, and are binary in nature.

A few systems already offer tools for creating and handling MO files as part of the Native Language Support coming with the system, but the format of these MO files is often different from system to system, and non-portable. The following diagram summarizes the relation between the files handled by GNU gettext and the tools acting on these files.

It is followed by somewhat detailed explanations, which you should read while keeping an eye on the diagram. Having a clear understanding of these interrelations will surely help programmers, translators and maintainers. As a programmer, the first step to bringing GNU gettext into your package is identifying, right in the C sources, those strings which are meant to be translatable, and those which are untranslatable.

This tedious job can be done a little more comfortably using emacs PO mode, but you can use any means familiar to you for modifying your C sources. Beside this some other simple, standard changes are needed to properly initialize the translation library. See Sources , for more information about all this. For newly written software the strings of course can and should be marked while writing it.

The gettext approach makes this very easy. Simply put the following lines at the beginning of each file or in a central header file:. Doing this allows you to prepare the sources for internationalization. Later when you feel ready for the step to use the gettext library simply replace these definitions by the following:. That is all you have to change. Once the C sources have been modified, the xgettext program is used to find and extract all translatable strings, and create a PO template file out of all these.

This package. It has sets of pointers to exactly where in C sources each string is used. All translations are set to empty. The letter t in. See xgettext Invocation , for more details about how one calls the xgettext program. If you are really lazy, you might be interested at working a lot more right away, and preparing the whole distribution setup see Maintainers.

By doing so, you spare yourself typing the xgettext command, as make should now generate the proper things automatically for you! The first time through, there is no lang. See Creating for details. Then comes the initial translation of messages.

Translation in itself is a whole matter, still exclusively meant for humans, and whose complexity far overwhelms the level of this manual. Nevertheless, a few hints are given in some other chapter of this manual see Translators. You will also find there indications about how to contact translating teams, or becoming part of them, for sharing your translating concerns with others who target the same native language. While adding the translated messages into the lang.

This is surely not an impossible task, as this is the way many people have handled PO files around On the other hand, by using a PO file editor, most details of PO file format are taken care of for you, but you have to acquire some familiarity with PO file editor itself. If some common translations have already been saved into a compendium PO file, translators may use PO mode for initializing untranslated entries from the compendium, and also save selected translations into the compendium, updating it see Compendium.

Compendium files are meant to be exchanged between members of a given translation team. Programs, or packages of programs, are dynamic in nature: users write bug reports and suggestion for improvements, maintainers react by modifying programs in various ways. The fact that a package has already been internationalized should not make maintainers shy of adding new strings, or modifying strings already translated.

They just do their job the best they can. For the Translation Project to work smoothly, it is important that maintainers do not carry translation concerns on their already loaded shoulders, and that translators be kept as free as possible of programming concerns. The only concern maintainers should have is carefully marking new strings as translatable, when they should be, and do not otherwise worry about them being translated, as this will come in proper time.

Consequently, when programs and their strings are adjusted in various ways by maintainers, and for matters usually unrelated to translation, xgettext would construct package. It is important for translators and even maintainers to understand that package translation is a continuous process in the lifetime of a package, and not something which is done once and for all at the start.

After an initial burst of translation activity for a given package, interventions are needed once in a while, because here and there, translated entries become obsolete, and new untranslated entries appear, needing translation. The msgmerge program has the purpose of refreshing an already existing lang.

The refreshing operation adjusts all references to C source locations for strings, since these strings move as programs are modified. Also, msgmerge comments out as obsolete, in lang. It finally discovers new strings and inserts them in the resulting PO file as untranslated entries see Untranslated Entries.

See msgmerge Invocation , for more information about what msgmerge really does. Whatever route or means taken, the goal is to obtain an updated lang. The temporal mobility, or fluidity of PO files, is an integral part of the translation game, and should be well understood, and accepted. People resisting it will have a hard time participating in the Translation Project, or will give a hard time to other participants!

In particular, maintainers should relax and include all available official PO files in their distributions, even if these have not recently been updated, without exerting pressure on the translator teams to get the job done. The pressure should rather come from the community of users speaking a particular language, and maintainers should consider themselves fairly relieved of any concern about the adequacy of translation files.

On the other hand, translators should reasonably try updating the PO files they are responsible for, while the package is undergoing pretest, prior to an official distribution. Once the PO file is complete and dependable, the msgfmt program is used for turning the PO file into a machine-oriented format, which may yield efficient retrieval of translations by the programs of the package, whenever needed at runtime see MO Files.

See msgfmt Invocation , for more information about all modes of execution for the msgfmt program. Finally, the modified and marked C sources are compiled and linked with the GNU gettext library, usually through the operation of make , given a suitable Makefile exists for the project, and the resulting executable is installed somewhere users will find it. The MO files themselves should also be properly installed.

Given the appropriate environment variables are set see Setting the POSIX Locale , the program should localize itself automatically, whenever it executes. The remainder of this manual has the purpose of explaining in depth the various steps outlined above.

Nowadays, when users log into a computer, they usually find that all their programs show messages in their native language — at least for users of languages with an active free software community, like French or German; to a lesser extent for languages with a smaller participation in free software and the GNU project, like Hindi and Filipino.

How does this work? How can the user influence the language that is used by the programs? This chapter will answer it. The default language is often already specified during operating system installation. When the operating system is installed, the installer typically asks for the language used for the installation process and, separately, for the language to use in the installed system.

Some OS installers only ask for the language once. This determines the system-wide default language for all users. But the installers often give the possibility to install extra localizations for additional languages. At this point it is good to consider the intended use of the machine: If it is a machine designated for personal use, additional localizations are probably not necessary.

If, however, the machine is in use in an organization or company that has international relationships, one can consider the needs of guest users. If you have a guest from abroad, for a week, what could be his preferred locales? It may be worth installing these additional localizations ahead of time, since they cost only a bit of disk space at this point. The system-wide default language is the locale configuration that is used when a new user account is created.

But the user can have his own locale configuration that is different from the one of the other users of the same machine. He can specify it, typically after the first login, as described in the next section. Individual GUI programs that are not part of the desktop environment can have their locale specified either in a settings panel, or through environment variables.

This means, instead of starting a program through a menu or from the file system, you can start it from the command-line, after having set some environment variables. This can be done from your. You find a list of the language codes in appendix Language Codes and a list of the country codes in appendix Country Codes.

You might think that the country code specification is redundant. But in fact, some languages have dialects in different countries. The country code serves to distinguish the dialects. These are in use because between and , most users have switched to locales in UTF-8 encoding. It can denote a particular monetary unit. A locale is composed of several locale categories , see Aspects.

When a program looks up locale dependent values, it does this according to the following environment variables, in priority order:. LANG is the normal environment variable for specifying a locale. For example, assume you are a Swedish user in Spain, and you want your programs to handle numbers and dates according to Spanish conventions, and only the messages should be in Swedish.

UTF-8 ; these two locales come already preinstalled with the operating system. It is typically used in scripts that run particular programs. Not all programs have translations for all languages. By default, an English message is shown in place of a nonexistent translation. If you understand other languages, you can set up a priority list of languages. On Windows, consoles such as the one started by the cmd.

Note: This problem does not exist for Cygwin consoles; these consoles do input and output in the UTF-8 encoding. Note: This has an effect only on strings looked up in message catalogs; other categories of text are usually not affected by this setting. Languages are not equally well supported in all packages using GNU gettext , and more translations are added over time.

Usually, you use the translations that are shipped with the operating system or with particular packages that you install afterwards. But you can also install newer localizations directly. For doing this, you will need an understanding where each localization file is stored on the file system. Each ll. The GNU gettext toolset helps programmers and translators at producing, updating and using translation files, mainly those PO files which are textual, editable files. This chapter explains the format of PO files.

A PO file is made up of many entries, each entry holding the relation between an original untranslated string and its corresponding translation. All entries in a given PO file usually pertain to a single project, and all translations are expressed in a single target language. One PO file entry has the following schematic structure:. The general structure of a PO file should be well understood by the translator.

When using PO mode, very little has to be known about the format details, as PO mode takes care of them for her. Entries begin with some optional white space. Usually, when generated through GNU gettext tools, there is exactly one blank line between entries. Then comments follow, on lines all starting with the character. There are two kinds of comments: those which have some white space immediately following the - the translator comments -, which comments are created and maintained exclusively by the translator, and those which have some non-white character just after the - the automatic comments -, which comments are created and maintained automatically by GNU gettext tools.

Comment lines starting with. Comment lines starting with , contain flags; more about these below. Comment lines starting with contain the previous untranslated string for which the translator gave a translation. After white space and comments, entries show two strings, namely first the untranslated string as it appears in the original program sources, and then, the translation of this string.

The original string is introduced by the keyword msgid , and the translation, by msgstr. The msgid strings, as well as automatic comments, are produced and managed by other GNU gettext tools, and PO mode does not provide means for the translator to alter these. The most she can do is merely deleting them, and only by deleting the whole entry.

On the other hand, the msgstr string, as well as translator comments, are really meant for the translator, and PO mode gives her the full control she needs. The comment lines beginning with , are special because they are not completely ignored by the programs as comments generally are.

The comma separated list of flag s is used by the msgfmt program to give the user some better diagnostic messages. Currently there are two forms of flags defined:. This flag can be generated by the msgmerge program or it can be inserted by the translator herself. It shows that the msgstr string might not be a correct translation anymore.

Only the translator can judge if the translation requires further modification, or is acceptable as is. Once satisfied with the translation, she then removes this fuzzy attribute. The msgmerge program inserts this when it combined the msgid and msgstr entries after fuzzy search only.

See Fuzzy Entries. These flags should not be added by a human. Instead only the xgettext program adds them. The c-format flag indicates that the untranslated string and the translation are supposed to be C format strings. When the c-format flag is given for a string the msgfmt program does some more tests to check the validity of the translation.

See msgfmt Invocation , c-format Flag and c-format. Likewise for Java MessageFormat format strings, see java-format. Likewise for Java printf format strings, see java-format. Likewise for Object Pascal, see object-pascal-format. Likewise for the GCC sources, see gcc-internal-format. The context serves to disambiguate messages with the same untranslated-string. It is possible to have several entries with the same untranslated-string in a PO file, provided that they each have a different context.

Note that an empty context string and an absent msgctxt line do not mean the same thing. Here also, a msgctxt context can be specified before msgid , like above. This flag is followed by a range of non-negative numbers, using the syntax range: minimum-value.. It designates the possible values that the numeric parameter of the message can take. In some languages, translators may produce slightly better translations if they know that the value can only take on values between 0 and 10, for example.

The previous-untranslated-string is optionally inserted by the msgmerge program, at the same time when it marks a message fuzzy. It helps the translator to see which changes were done by the developers on the untranslated-string.

It happens that some lines, usually whitespace or comments, follow the very last entry of a PO file. Such lines are not part of any entry, and will be dropped when the PO file is processed by the tools, or may disturb some PO file editors. The remainder of this section may be safely skipped by those using a PO file editor, yet it may be interesting for everybody to have a better idea of the precise format of a PO file.

On the other hand, those wishing to modify PO files by hand should carefully continue reading on. An empty untranslated-string is reserved to contain the header entry with the meta information see Header Entry. This header entry should be the first entry of the file. The empty untranslated-string is reserved for this purpose and must not be used anywhere else.

Each of untranslated-string and translated-string respects the C syntax for a character string, including the surrounding quotes and embedded backslashed escape sequences. When the time comes to write multi-line strings, one should not use escaped newlines.

Instead, a closing quote should follow the last character on the line to be continued, and an opening quote should resume the string at the beginning of the following PO file line. For example:. In this example, the msgid keyword is followed by three strings, which are meant to be concatenated. Concatenating the empty string does not change the resulting overall string, but it is a way for us to comply with the necessity of msgid to be followed by a string on the same line, while keeping the multi-line presentation left-justified, as we find this to be a cleaner disposition.

Outside strings, white lines and comments may be used freely. For the programmer, changes to the C source code fall into three categories. First, you have to make the localization functions known to all modules needing message translation. Second, you should properly trigger the operation of GNU gettext when the program initializes, usually from the main function.

Last, you should identify, adjust and mark all constant strings in your program needing translation. Presuming that your set of programs, or package, has been adjusted so all needed GNU gettext files are available, and your Makefile files are adjusted see Maintainers , each C module having translated C strings should contain the line:. The initialization of locale data should be done with more or less the same code in every program, as demonstrated below:.

For now consult the gettext or hello sources for more information. This latter category is responsible for determining character classes with the isalnum etc. The standards say that additional formats but the one known in the "C" locale might be recognized. But some systems seem to reject numbers in the "C" locale format. In some situation, it might also be a problem with the notation itself which makes it impossible to recognize whether the number is in the "C" locale or the local format.

This can happen if thousands separator characters are used. Some locales define this character according to the national conventions to '. Before strings can be marked for translations, they sometimes need to be adjusted. Usually preparing a string for translation is done right before marking it, during the marking phase which is described in the next sections. What you have to keep in mind while doing that is the following.

Translatable strings should be in good English style. If slang language with abbreviations and shortcuts is used, often translators will not understand the message and will produce very inappropriate translations. This is nearly untranslatable: Is the displayed item a parameter or the parameter?

The ambiguity in this message makes it unintelligible: Is the program attempting to set something on fire? Does it mean "The given object does not match the template"? Does it mean "The template does not fit for any of the objects"? In both cases, adding more words to the message will help both the translator and the English speaking user.

Translatable strings should be entire sentences. It is often not possible to translate single verbs or adjectives in a substitutable way. Change this to. This way the translator will not only understand the message, she will also be able to find the appropriate grammatical construction. A French translator for example translates "write protected" like "protected against writing". There are usually more interdependencies between words than in English. The consequence is that asking a translator to translate two half-sentences and then combining these two half-sentences through dumb string concatenation will not work, for many languages, even though it would work for English.

If a sentence is output using two subsequent printf statements, like this. It is necessary to merge the two printf statements so that the translator can handle the entire sentence at once and decide at which place to insert a line break in the translation if at all :. Should these two statements merged into a single one? I would recommend to merge them if the two sentences are related to each other, because then it makes it easier for the translator to understand and translate both.

On the other hand, if one of the two messages is a stereotypic one, occurring in other places as well, you will do a favour to the translator by not merging the two. Identical messages occurring in several places are combined by xgettext, so the translator has to handle them once only. The reason is that when the translatable string changes, the translator is faced with the task of updating the entire translated string.

It is a courtesy towards the translators to split such a message into several ones of five to ten lines each. While doing that, you can also attempt to split the documented options into groups, such as the input options, the output options, and the informative output options. This will help every user to find the option he is looking for. In order to present to the translator only entire sentences, and also because in some languages the translator might want to swap the order of object1 and object2 , it is necessary to change this to use a format string:.

A similar case is compile time concatenation of strings. It expands to a constant string, usually "d" or "ld" or "lld" or something like this, depending on the platform. Assume you have code like. You can therefore simply write.

This means, you put the platform dependent code in one statement, and the internationalization code in a different statement. Note that a buffer length of is safe, because all available hardware integer types are limited to bits, and to print a bit integer one needs at most 54 characters, regardless whether in decimal, octal or hexadecimal.

All this applies to other programming languages as well. For example, in Java and C , string concatenation is very frequently used, because it is a compiler built-in operator. Like in C, in Java, you would change. Unusual markup or control characters should not be used in translatable strings.

Translators will likely not understand the particular meaning of the markup or control characters. It might be better to have the translator translate the left-hand and right-hand part separately. This is flawed. Some translators may convert it to a simple newline, some to blank lines.

With some PO file editors it may not be easy to even enter a vertical tab control character. All strings requiring translation should be marked in the C sources. Marking is done in such a way that each translatable string appears to be the sole argument of some function or preprocessor macro. There are only a few such possible functions or macros meant for translation, and their names are said to be marking keywords.

The marking is attached to strings themselves, rather than to what we do with them. This approach has more uses. A blatant example is an error message produced by formatting. This marking operation has two goals. The first goal of marking is for triggering the retrieval of the translation, at run time. The keyword is possibly resolved into a routine able to dynamically return the proper translation, as far as possible or wanted, for the argument string.

Most localizable strings are found in executable positions, that is, attached to variables or given as parameters to functions. But this is not universal usage, and some translatable strings appear in structured initializations. See Special cases. The second goal of the marking operation is to help xgettext at properly extracting all translatable strings when it scans a set of program sources and produces PO file templates.

However, for packages using the gettext interface more heavily, it is usually more convenient to give the main keyword a shorter, less obtrusive name. Indeed, the keyword might appear on a lot of strings all over the package, and programmers usually do not want nor need their program sources to remind them forcefully, all the time, that they are internationalized.

Further, a long keyword has the disadvantage of using more horizontal space, forcing more indentation work on sources for those trying to keep them within 79 or 80 columns. Further, the coding rule, from GNU standards, wanting that there is a space between the keyword and the opening parenthesis is relaxed, in practice, for this particular usage.

So, the textual overhead per translatable string is reduced to only three characters: the underline and the two parentheses. However, even if GNU gettext uses this convention internally, it does not offer it officially. It is also possible to define marking functions that take it at another argument position. Note also that long strings can be split across lines, into multiple adjacent string tokens. Later on, the maintenance is relatively easy. In PO mode, one set of features is meant more for the programmer than for the translator, and allows him to interactively mark which strings, in a set of program sources, are translatable, and which are not.

Even if it is a fairly easy job for a programmer to find and mark such strings by other means, using any editor of his choice, PO mode makes this work more comfortable. Further, this gives translators who feel a little like programmers, or programmers who feel a little like translators, a tool letting them work at marking translatable strings in the program sources, while simultaneously producing a set of translation in some language, for the package being internationalized. The set of program sources, targeted by the PO mode commands describe here, should have an Emacs tags table constructed for your project, prior to using these PO file commands.

This is easy to do. In any shell window, change the directory to the root of your project, then execute a command resembling:. This command will explore all said files and create a TAGS file in your root directory, somewhat summarizing the contents using a special file format Emacs can understand. For packages following the GNU coding standards, there is a make goal tags or TAGS which constructs the tag files in all directories and for all files containing source code. Once your TAGS file is ready, the following commands assist the programmer at marking translatable strings in his set of sources.

But these commands are necessarily driven from within a PO file window, and it is likely that you do not even have such a PO file yet. This is not a problem at all, as you may safely open a new, empty PO file, mainly for using these commands. This empty PO file will slowly fill in while you mark strings as translatable in your program sources. Search through program sources for a string which looks like a candidate for translation po-tags-search. Mark the last string found with a keyword taken from a set of possible keywords.

This command with a prefix allows some management of these keywords po-select-mark-and-mark. The , po-tags-search command searches for the next occurrence of a string which looks like a possible candidate for translation, and displays the program source in another Emacs window, positioned in such a way that the string is near the top of this other window.

If the string is too big to fit whole in this window, it is positioned so only its end is shown. In any case, the cursor is left in the PO file window. If the shown string would be better presented differently in different native languages, you may mark it using M-, or M-.

Otherwise, you might rather ignore it and skip to the next string by merely repeating the , command. A string is a good candidate for translation if it contains a sequence of three or more letters. A string containing at most two letters in a row will be considered as a candidate if it has more letters than non-letters.

The command disregards strings containing no letters, or isolated letters only. It also disregards strings within comments, or strings already marked with some keyword PO mode knows see below. If you have never told Emacs about some TAGS file to use, the command will request that you specify one from the minibuffer, the first time you use the command.

Each time you use the , command, the search resumes from where it was left by the previous search, and goes through all program sources, obeying the TAGS file, until all sources have been processed. Using this , command does not prevent using of other regular Emacs tags commands. For example, regular tags-search or tags-query-replace commands may be used without disrupting the independent , search sequence. However, as implemented, the initial , command or the , command is used with a prefix might also reinitialize the regular Emacs tags searching to the first tags file, this reinitialization might be considered spurious.

The M-. Both commands will automatically create a new PO file untranslated entry for the string being marked, and make it the current entry making it easy for you to immediately proceed to its translation, if you feel like doing it right away. It is possible that the modifications made to the program source by M-, or M-. You may use the O command from PO mode, or any other window changing command from Emacs, to break out into the program source window, and do any needed adjustments.

You will have to use some regular Emacs command to return the cursor to the PO file window, if you want command , for the next string, say. The first such speedup is that you are presented with a preferred keyword, which you may accept by merely typing RET at the prompt.

The second speedup is that you may type any non-ambiguous prefix of the keyword you really mean, and the command will complete it automatically for you. This also means that PO mode has to know all your possible keywords, and that it will not accept mistyped keywords.

If you reply? In this case, the command asks for a keyword, written in full, which becomes a new allowed keyword for later M-. Moreover, this new keyword automatically becomes the preferred keyword for later commands. All keywords known for M-. If many PO files are opened simultaneously, each one has its own independent set of known keywords.

There is no provision in PO mode, currently, for deleting a known keyword, you have to quit the file maybe using q and reopen it afresh. In C programs strings are often used within calls of functions from the printf family. Assume we have the code. A C programmer, even if he cannot speak German, will recognize that there is something wrong here. This will most probably lead to problems because now the length of the string is regarded as the address.

To prevent errors at runtime caused by translations, the msgfmt tool can check statically whether the arguments in the original and the translation string match in type and number. Because not all strings in a program will be format strings, it is not useful for msgfmt to test all the strings in the.

This might cause problems because the string might contain what looks like a format specifier, but the string is not used in printf. Therefore xgettext adds a special tag to those messages it thinks might be a format string. There is no absolute rule for this, only a heuristic. In the. The careful reader now might say that this again can cause problems. The heuristic might guess it wrong. This is true and therefore xgettext knows about a special kind of comment which lets the programmer take over the decision.

If in the same line as or the immediately preceding line to the gettext keyword the xgettext program finds a comment containing the words xgettext:c-format , it will mark the string in any case with the c-format flag. This kind of comment should be used when xgettext does not recognize the string as a format string but it really is one and it should be tested. Please note that when the comment is in the same line as the gettext keyword, it must be before the string to be translated.

This situation happens quite often. The printf function is often called with strings which do not contain a format specifier. Of course one would normally use fputs but it does happen. In this case xgettext does not recognize this as a format string but what happens if the translation introduces a valid format specifier? The printf function will try to access one of the parameters but none exists because the original code does not pass any parameters. In this case the msgfmt might give too many warnings and would prevent translating the.

The method to prevent this wrong decision is similar to the one used above, only the comment to use must contain the string xgettext:no-c-format. If a string is marked with c-format and this is not correct the user can find out who is responsible for the decision. See xgettext Invocation to see how the --debug option can be used for solving this problem. The attentive reader might now point out that it is not always possible to mark translatable string with gettext or something like this.

Consider the following case:. While it is no problem to mark the string "a default message" it is not possible to mark the string initializers for messages. What is to be done? We have to fulfill two tasks. First we have to mark the strings so that the xgettext program see xgettext Invocation can find them, and second we have to translate the string at runtime before printing them.

The first task can be fulfilled by creating a new keyword, which names a no-op. For the second we have to mark all access points to a string from the array. So one solution can look like this:. Please convince yourself that the string which is written by fputs is translated in any case. But this has a drawback. A use of gettext could have in rare cases unpredictable results. One advantage is that you need not make control flow analysis to make sure the output is really translated in any case.

But this analysis is generally not very difficult. If it should be in any situation you can use this second method in this situation. Code sometimes has bugs, but translations sometimes have bugs too. The users need to be able to report them. Reporting translation bugs to the programmer or maintainer of a package is not very useful, since the maintainer must never change a translation, except on behalf of the translator.

Hence the translation bugs must be reported to the translators. Here is a way to organize this so that the maintainer does not need to forward translation bug reports, nor even keep a list of the addresses of the translators or their translation teams. Every program has a place where is shows the bug report address. In this place, instruct the translator to add her own bug reporting address. For example, if that code has a statement.

Should names of persons, cities, locations etc. People who only know languages that can be written with Latin letters English, Spanish, French, German, etc. However, in general when translating from one script to another, names are translated too, usually phonetically or by transliteration. For example, Russian or Greek names are converted to the Latin alphabet when being translated to English, and English or French names are converted to the Katakana script when being translated to Japanese.

This is necessary because the speakers of the target language in general cannot read the script the name is originally written in. As a programmer, you should therefore make sure that names are marked for translation, with a special comment telling the translators that it is a proper name and how to pronounce it. In its simple form, it looks like this:.

In this more comfortable form, it looks like this:. As a translator, you should use some care when translating names, because it is frustrating if people see their names mutilated or distorted. If your language uses the Latin script, all you need to do is to reproduce the name as perfectly as you can within the usual character set of your language. In this particular case, this means to provide a translation containing the c-cedilla character. If the programmer used the simple case, you should still give, in parentheses, the original writing of the name — for the sake of the people that do read the Latin script.

Here is an example, using Greek as the target script:. Because translation of names is such a sensitive domain, it is a good idea to test your translation before submitting it. When you are preparing a library, not a program, for the use of gettext , only a few details are different.

Here we assume that the library has a translation domain and a POT file of its own. If it uses the translation domain and POT file of the main program, then the previous sections apply without changes. The typical idiom used to achieve this is a static boolean variable that indicates whether the initialization function has been called.

Like this:. In other words, dgettext is used instead of gettext. Similarly, the dngettext function should be used in place of the ngettext function. After preparing the sources, the programmer creates a PO template file. This section explains how to use xgettext for this purpose.

You should then rename it to domainname. The answer is: for historical reasons. Read the names of the input files from file instead of getting them from the command line. Add directory to the list of directories. Source files are searched relative to this list of directories. The resulting. Write output to specified file instead of name.

Specifies the language of the input files. Specifies the encoding of the input files. This option is needed only if some untranslated message strings or their corresponding comments contain non-ASCII characters. Place comment blocks starting with tag and preceding keyword lines in the output file. Without a tag , the option means to put all comment blocks preceding keyword lines in the output file. Note that comment blocks supposed to be extracted must be adjacent to keyword lines. For example, in the following C source code:.

The second comment line will not be extracted, because there is one blank line between the comment line and the keyword. The option has an effect on all input files. To enable or disable checks for a certain string, you can mark it with an xgettext: special comment in the source file. The xgettext: comment can be followed by flags separated with a comma. If a flag is prefixed by no- , the meaning is negated.

Some tests apply the checks to each sentence within the msgid, rather than the whole string. The number is specified with the --sentence-end option. Specify keywordspec as an additional keyword to be looked for. Without a keywordspec , the option means to not use default keywords. If keywordspec is a C identifier id , xgettext looks for strings in the first argument of each call to the function or macro id. Note that when used through a normal shell command line, the double-quotes around the xcomment need to be escaped.

The default keyword specifications, which are always looked for if not explicitly disabled, are language dependent. They are:. Specifies additional flags for strings occurring as part of the arg th argument of the function word. The effect of this specification is that xgettext will mark as format strings all gettext invocations that occur as arg th argument of function. Use the flags c-format and possible-c-format to show who was responsible for marking a message as a format string.

The latter form is used if the xgettext program decided, the former form is used if the programmer prescribed it. By default only the c-format form is used. The translator should not have to care about these details. This implementation of xgettext is able to process a few awkward cases, like strings in preprocessor macros, ANSI concatenation of adjacent strings, and escaped end of lines for continued strings.

Specify whether or when to use colors and other text attributes. See The --color option for details. Specify the CSS style rule file to use for --color. See The --style option for details. Write out a strict Uniforum conforming PO file. Write out a Java ResourceBundle in Java. Note that this is only effective with XML files. Set the output page width. Do not break long message lines. Message lines whose width exceeds the output page width will not be split into several lines.

Only file reference lines which are wider than the output page width will be split. Generate sorted output. This is useful for testing purposes because it eliminates a source of variance for generated. With --omit-header , two invocations of xgettext on the same files with the same options at different times are guaranteed to produce the same results. Note that using this option will lead to an error if the resulting file would not entirely be in ASCII.

Set the copyright holder in the output. Translators are expected to transfer or disclaim the copyright for their translations, so that package maintainers can distribute them without legal risk. If string is empty, the output files are marked as being in the public domain; in this case, the translators are expected to disclaim their copyright, again so that package maintainers can distribute them without legal risk.

The default value for string is the Free Software Foundation, Inc. Omit FSF copyright in output. It can be useful for packages outside the GNU project that want their translations to be in the public domain. Set the package version in the header of the output. Set the reporting address for msgid bugs. This is the email address or URL to which the translators shall report bugs in the untranslated strings:.

It can be your email address, or a mailing list address where translators can write to without being subscribed, or the URL of a web page through which the translators can contact you. The default value is empty, which means that translators will be clueless! When starting a new translation, the translator creates a file called LANG. The alternative way is to do the copy and modifications by hand.

To do so, the translator copies package. Then she modifies the initial comments and the header entry of this file. Here are more details. The following header fields of a PO file are automatically filled, when possible. The value is guessed from the configure script or any other files in the current directory. These values are set according to the current locale and the predefined list of translation teams. These values are set according to the content of the POT file and the current locale.

If no inputfile is given, the current directory is searched for the POT file. Assume the input file is a Java ResourceBundle in Java. Set target locale. The optional part. Declares that the PO file will not have a human translator and is instead automatically generated. You should fill in the following fields. This is the name and version of the package. Fill it in if it has not already been filled in by xgettext. This has already been filled in by xgettext. As the application now evolves we need to intervene from time to time as new untranslated entries are added or removed and strings become not relevant.

If our application updates its base extracted messages from the. Modify the main. File : main. Replace the old. Use the msgmerge tool to update the relevant. The job of the translator now is much easier as he has a lot of information about the status of the changes and what has to do.

Sometimes when merging or manipulating. Note: This will not work if you have the same message id but with different placeholder parameters. For example, if you have this msgid:. The benefit of this tool is that it gives a nice color output and it can work well with multiple domains. There is also a similar tool called msgcomm that performs a similar job but with a different perspective.

It checks two. Either case with those tools we should be able to identify duplicate entries. If we have a set of. It will perform a search to find the common messages first and remove duplicates before creating the output file so the. Create a new. Make sure also you leave at least one common entry between those 2 files. Alas, most of the tools that we discussed in this article have myriads of flags and options so each case usage is different.

If you want to learn in detail about the full spectrum of this library you can visit the official page here. Phrase supports many different languages and frameworks, including gettext. It allows you to easily import and export translations data and search for any missing translations, which is really convenient. So what are you waiting for? Stay put for more future articles related to this topic.

Find out all you need to know about localization from start to finish with our ultimate guide. Subscribe to our mailing list to keep up with best practices for localization, new features, and updates from Phrase. Get tips on how to optimize your localization workflow and learn all about the newest Phrase features. Search Results:. View more results. All the tutorial files are also on GitHub. Table of Contents. Authored by Theo.


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The msgunfmt program converts a binary message catalog to a Uniforum style. The first two words serve the identification of the file. The number is stored in the byte order of the generating machine, so the magic number really is two numbers: 0xde and 0xde The second word describes the current revision of the file format. For now the revision is 0. This might change in future versions, and ensures that the readers of MO files can distinguish new formats from old ones, so that both can be handled correctly.

It might be better to have magic separated from internal format version identification. Follow a number of pointers to later tables in the file, allowing for the extension of the prefix part of MO files without having to recompile programs reading them. This might become useful for later inserting a few flag bits, indication about the charset used, new tables, or other things. Then, at offset O and offset T in the picture, two tables of string descriptors can be found.

In both tables, each string descriptor uses two 32 bits integers, one for the string length, another for the offset of the string in the MO file, counting in bytes from the start of the file. The first table contains descriptors for the original strings, and is sorted so the original strings are in increasing lexicographical order.

The second table contains descriptors for the translated strings, and is parallel to the first table: to find the corresponding translation one has to access the array slot in the second array with the same index. Having the original strings sorted enables the use of simple binary search, for when the MO file does not contain an hashing table, or for when it is not practical to use the hashing table provided in the MO file.

This also has another advantage, as the empty string in a PO file GNU gettext is usually translated into some system information attached to that particular MO file, and the empty string necessarily becomes the first in both the original and translated tables, making the system information very easy to find. The size S of the hash table can be zero. In this case, the hash table itself is not contained in the MO file.

Some people might prefer this because a precomputed hashing table takes disk space, and does not win that much speed. The hash table contains indices to the sorted array of strings in the MO file. Conflict resolution is done by double hashing. Jadi Anda sudah selesai membaca tentang opsi biner, mengetahui istilah industri dalam glosarium dan mulai memilih pasar dan aset yang Anda inginkan.

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The resulting. Specify an additional library of message translations. See Compendium. This option may be specified more than once. Here are the values:. Make numbered backups if numbered backups for this file already exist, otherwise make simple backups. Produce a PO file meant for msgfmt only, not for a translator.

This option omits untranslated messages, fuzzy messages except the header entry , and obsolete messages from the output. Do not use fuzzy matching when an exact match is not found. This may speed up the operation considerably. Assume the input files are Java ResourceBundles in Java.

See Header Entry for the meaning of this field. Specify whether or when to use colors and other text attributes. See The --color option for details. Then binary options can certainly benefit you as you have the ability to focus on those assets with which you are most familiar. However, the factor that should ultimately drive your chose of trade is your personal trading goals.

You should first determine your specific goals and then devise a plan to these goals. Say you want to make about a thousand dollars a week, then you need to decide which options will essentially help you reach this goal as well as which time frames will help achieve this set goal.

The answers to these questions vary for each trader. However, you should always go for quality trades, rather than quantity. Six successful daily trades will yield a higher routine than five losing and seven winning trades. Take the time to consider your options and the possible outcomes before placing your trades to end up with more profitable results.

We have included here shorter reviews of the best brokers in the market right now. Full reviews can be found on their own review pages that you can access from the full broker list at the top of this page. As it was founded in , Banc de Binary is one of the oldest binary options brokers in existence. Under , they are also registered with the Financial Conduct Authority and are governed by other such regulatory bodies from various countries.

We must inform our readers to avoid any confusion that there are two different websites for Banc de Binary. Address: Sofia , Sofia District, Bulgaria. Their trading address of Ash Ltd: UL. Stoney Ground, P. Box , VC- Kingstown, St. Vincent, Grenadyny. If you are outside of the European Union, Ash Ltd. However, Eu. Which site you will lend one depends on where you are located. The details are the same including licensing information, business address and so forth.

This is a step towards regulation in European subsidiaries. However, we learned from a respected Financial B2B website, that banc de binary is having problem with the US authorities. The issue between the US and Banc de Binary has since been resolved and is now in the past.

Banc de Binary is now regulated and has partnered with the Liverpool Football Club. However the amounts of complaints are overwhelming and cannot be ignored. The majority of complaints are centered on loss of money and their aggressive sales tactics. It all depends on whom you ask.

As we stated previously, the issues with the US are now in the past. So the short answer is that Banc de Binary is not a scam — it is of the most reliable brokers in the business. The Banc de Binary website does provide a lot more information about binary options trading than most other brokers. In my opinion, having this complex educational material handy is a plus. My first impression of the Banc de Binary website is that it is quite organized and easy to use; not too much information squeezed together on one page.

Upon pursuing their platform, powered by Spot Option, I discovered it was very user-friendly with a wide variety of features for experienced traders and newbie alike. This is one of the benefits of a Spot Option powered trading system. Banc De Binary Trading Platform.

However, this is good for sales and marketing the platform. Banc de Binary does offer different account types, meaning you will acquire more benefits as you deposit higher funds. The initial deposit is EUR. At one time Banc de Binary did offer a VIP account which had excellent benefits but honestly, I have noticed that most other brokers offer those same features with standard accounts with a lesser deposit.

You will be assigned a personal assistant to book your appointment, place your calls, place orders for online gifts and promotions and so forth. They will also assist you if you need access to a specific guest list or even tickets to an event that are sold out. If you are able to invest upwards of tens or even hundreds of thousands of dollars trading binary options, then Banc de Binary is an excellent outlet.

However, if you are the average trader, I would look for another platform which is more suited to your personal needs and finances, such as Option Robot or IQ Option. We are constantly on the lookout for scam or fraud alerts, and complaints regarding binary options trading platforms, brokers and auto bots by performing a simple internet search such as one you could easily do on your laptop.

We did not find many complaints during our search for Banc de Binary. The best advice we can offer our readers is to use caution when selecting a binary options trading broker and only trade with trustworthy brokers from 7 Binary Options. Banc de Binary has changed the structure of their bonus so that now it is completely under the discretion of the Account Executive. As you may be aware, we are of the opinion that large bonus create more issues than actual benefits.

The main reason is that you are unable to receive the bonus until you reach the specified turnover amount. This of course means the higher the bonus the more the trading volume necessary to be able to make a withdrawal. A plus side to this is that traders are not required to accept the bonus.

It is usually processed within 5 working days by Banc de Binary but it can take longer depending on the withdrawal method of your choice until you actually see the funds in your account. Banc de Binary does not charge a fee for withdrawals, but your individual bank or other payment service may have their own set fee. The average time for withdrawals is 7 business days. Banc de Binary offers their website in 10 different languages. This Spot Option 2. Banc de Binary offers a variety of trading assets including 23 indices, 8 commodities, 25 currency pairs and 97 stocks.

Since our last visit, we noticed an increase in these numbers, especially in the number of stocks now offered. All of the standard expiry times apply including One Touch, 60 seconds trading and even an Option Builder which allows the trader to choose their own expiry time. In this instance you would pit stock vs another stock, indices vs another indices or a commodity vs another commodity and so forth.

I found their customer support service to very polite and helpful, however, there can be improvement with their response time. The payments from Banc de Binary to the customer will be applied to the same source from which they originated i.

The bonus structure has recently changed. The required turnover amount necessary to make a withdrawal is not listed anywhere on the Banc de Binary website so we can ascertain that this is also to be determined by your Account Executive. You have the ability to accept or refuse any of the bonuses offered by Banc de Binary. In my opinion the educational materials offered on the Banc de Binary website are a bit more complex than I have seen on other trading platforms. They do provide a link to ZuluTrade, a renowned platform for social trading.

Banc de Binary SpotOption platform is now offering the ability to change time frames as well as candlestick charts. They continue their operations normally, so this does not affect their old or new customers in any way. There is no concrete evidence that Finpari is a fraudulent service. As they are built on the SpotOption platform, it might bode well on their behalf. SpotOption is a reliable platform that does offer a lot of good features.

Finpari is based in Seychelles, which means they are willing to accept traders from almost any country, which is more than is allowed as per CySEC regulations. This makes them a prime choice for international traders. It is not unusual for traders to sign with Finpari as many brokers prefer to register in countries such as Seychelles as they are banking friendly and thus can avoid the stricter standards set in place by organisations such as CySEC.

This can often be a warning sign of a fraudulent broker, but we did not find anything to support that this may be the case with Finpari as they appear to be simply another broker out to attract new investors. As previously stated they are a SpotOption broker so this means that they offer a full-line of features.

They do not offer CFD or Forex trading, which is a feature that is in fact offered by many other SpotOption based platforms. Their expiry times are good and include 30, 60 and Second options. Their long-term expiry times include end of day, intra-day, tomorrow, next week, end of week, end of the month and so forth up to 6 months which is available on some of the more common assets.

The FinPari platform is extremely user friendly. I can honestly say this as SpotOption platform is my personal favourite. It has most of the features offered on standard SpotOption platforms and is very easy to navigate. However, I have to deduct a few points as a result of the false information about their regulations and over-the-top marketing on the main page of the website.

Finpari does offer a wide list of assets as well as a variety of expiry times and quite a few options for exotic trades. They do not offer range but it is not necessary with the Ladders. However, this is not outstanding reason to sign with FinPari as you can find these features elsewhere. This broker does not require any commission, but they do have a withdrawal fee for wire transfers. Their support is decent but rather pushy when it comes to sales pressure, so keep this in mind.

Their educational section is so-so, not a lot to offer, but the videos are pretty food. I always recommend using eWallet whenever it is feasible. Finpari does accept Neteller , Skrill and others as well. Payments are made to the same account on which they were deposited; however, there is no limit for credit cards. The terms are a bit misleading. Regardless of bonus, every deposit must be turned over at least one time in order to make a withdrawal. SpotOption goes above and beyond when it comes to extras as opposed to the average hum-drum trading platform.

This includes Ladder options which offer a great deal of flexibility as well as increased payouts. They also offer Spot Follow, which is similar to iFollow which is essentially the copy trading platform that is offered by SpotOption and supported by ZuluTrade Technology. Under the authority of CySec, any money that is exchanged with this platform is secure.

However, this does not necessarily that they do not have some issues. Even regulated brokers can have their cons. Fortunately, these regularity reasons are not the only factor that contributed to 24Option making our list of non-scam systems. They are well-renowned for their user friendly interface and the trading system itself, as well as the overall platform navigation is outstanding. It is very easy to trade with this system and the live charts provided by 24Option are easily accessed simply by clicking on the underlying asset itself.

For those who wish to further examine any underlying asset, they simply have to click on the underlying asset tab to open a small pop up with information from sources such as Yahoo! There is no need to leave the site to do research. These factors, as well as many others, are one of the reasons that 24Option is one of the best binary options brokers around. They have made great strides toward improvement since they originated such as redesigning the platform itself, increasing the number of underlying assets and keeping up to date with the latest technology and data.

They seem to make it their priority to strive to be the best of the best when it comes to binary options trading. While some binary options brokers turn out to be scams, there are many that are legit, but in fact, 24Option is one of the few brokers that are held in high esteem. I can dismiss any suspicion of fraud thanks to their CySec licensing.

Their superior customer service and professional and attractive trading platform makes them a popular and respected broker in the world of binary options trading. This is good news for EU clients, but a bitter disappointment for those who reside in the US. However, the licensing itself is a major plus. Since their origin 24Option has strived to greatly improve their already innovative, fully-online based platform.

They consistently provide traders with the necessary and easiest tools to assist them with their trading. They also have an outstanding user-interface, as well as other great features. Note that we have stated earlier in this review that their user-interface, site navigation and overall trading experience are superlative.

The main premise behind 24Options trading platform that makes them stand out from other trading platforms is that their underlying assets are arranged from shortest expiry time to the longest ie: 60 seconds to end of day, except in a few cases. The shortest are listed first and the latter tend to expire at the end of the trading day.

Of course, traders have the ability to click the same tab and select the stocks or indices tab with the desire to only view specific underlying assets. In each category, there are over available underlying assets and again they are arranged from the shortest to longest expiry times. Overall, in my opinion these platforms are much easier to use than the others. Once you are familiar with the TechFinancials platform you will discover that it a preferable solution for the majority of investors i.

In my opinion, the aforementioned investors are the high risk type as opposed to the more conservative traders. Out-of the —money trades will result in full capital loss on the specific trade. Remember, that there is the possibility that a trader can lose their entire investment, as with any financial trading.

However, these high return rates are what make 24Option one of the leading brokers in the world of binary options. However, unlike other brokers, the minimum investment varies according to the individual underlying assets. This could be a bit discouraging to novice traders. Fortunately, 24Option does provide a demo account so new traders can practice trading with virtual money before investing live.

I tend to prefer those brokers with lower deposit fees, but with 24Option I feel the slightly higher investment is worth it as they are regulated and licensed so therefore they can be trusted. They were already a top-notch, highly respectable brokerage, but this partnership is purely an added benefits. Also, for those who like tennis, 24Option and Boris Becker are currently offering a competition in which you have the chance to win grand in USD.

You should take advantage of this offer now, as it will not be around forever. Keep in mind, as always, that investors do risk the chance of losing their all of their money! Terms and conditions apply. Their outstanding customer service makes 24Option a welcome home for the binary options trader, in addition to the fact that they are licensed with CySEC. I constantly search the internet for broker complaints to bring the results directly to our loyal readers.

As unbelievable as it may seem, we could not find even one substantial complaint about this broker in our search. I did notice an active online discussion concerning 24option in forums, comments sections and Complaint and Review Center. Our team is monitoring and checking these.

I personally feel that the negative feedbacks concerning the withdrawal process were not legitimate complaints. These complaints are typical from disgruntled traders and do not always reflect the truth. The sincere complaints were in fact resolved by the company itself so I can honestly say that there are no major complaints concerning 24Option. Most sites will give you advice on how to deposit.

However, at 7binaryoptions. Our main focus is that major concern in binary options: the withdrawal process itself. As a rule, for obvious reasons, few brokers cause an issue with deposits, however quite a few brokers have issues when it comes to withdrawing your funds.

A plus with 24Option is that there is no limit to the withdrawal amount, as we often see with other platforms. The average time before you see your funds is three to seven business days. Those with VIP accounts do not have to pay a withdrawal fee, which is outstanding.

However, you must remember to send proper documentation as specified under regulation before you can request a withdrawal. But here at 7binaryoptions. This section will highlight those features that are unique with 24Option and what sets them apart from other brokers. As a completely based web-tech platform, there is no need to download any software with 24Option. They have the best looking website we have seen thus far as the gold letters on the black background is both sophisticated and contemporary.

Just above each underlying asset, is live information and other chats with just a simple click. Both the Glossary and FAQ sections are current and complete. The website is available in 18 languages including German, Arabic, Spanish, et al. There is no charge for investors for their initial deposit or purchase options.

The first withdrawal is free as well. Those with a Gold account get one free withdrawal a month. However, all withdrawals are free for those with Platinum accounts. Customer support is available with a total of 21 international phone numbers including French, Spanish, Italian, English and more. They can also be reached via email. The Live Chat feature on 24Option was extremely polite and quick to respond. As always, we need to remind our readers that there is always a risk that you can lose all of your capital as a result of trading binary options as with any other type of financial investing.

They do not offer an Out-of-Money refund but they offer the ability to close your position 2 minutes after purchase or up to 5 minutes before the expiry time. Generally, withdrawals can be made via the same process. However, there is no minimum withdrawal via Skrill. There are usually up good offers with 24Options and they do occasionally offer amazing promotions and specials for both new and registered clients. As one of the most innovative trading platforms, 24Option offers a good number of additional and unique features.

The strength of their third party signals varies and provides information as to the most likely direction of the underlying asset. However, the expiry time is determined by the trader. Investors should have in mind that can lose all their capital and that trading alerts should not be considered as investment advice. The decision to act on any signals is yours and taken at your own risk. OptionFM, or OFM, is one of the recent newcomers to embark on binary options brokerage platforms, as it was founded just two years ago, in However, despite being a newbie in a sea of established brokers, they have managed to recruit some of the most talented financial experts from around the globe.

This means that they have a plethora of financial experience under their belt. Due to this, they have quickly become one of the most trusted and respected brokers worldwide. In their mission statement, Option Financial Market promises to guide their clients to successful binary options trading by helping them to reach their full trading potential. They can do so thanks to a vast offering of various types of trading accounts that cater to a wide variety of investors, an exceptional and innovative trading platform, excellent and informative educational tools and resources and a wide array of assets.

In addition, they maintain close ties with their traders and analysts. OptionFM also supports automated trading. OptionFM has recently revamped and upgraded their website which now features a more distinguished trading system and super sleek design; as well as the confidence that their traders are able to invest on a safe and secure trading environment.

One of the main advantages in trading with OFM is that they regularly offer bonuses for their clients based on their account level. These bonuses are a plus as they enable traders to be able to get a head-start in their trading experience. It is recommended that you familiarise yourself with the terms and conditions of said bonus before accepting. Both new and experienced traders alike are able to find their place in the seven different account types offered by Option Financial Markets.

As an added feature, OFM does not charge any commissions or fees for trades, for any account level. This broker easily caters to the various trading preferences and needs of their clients with their wide selection of account options. One of the first things that traders will notice after opening an account with Option Financial Markets is that they offer a uniquely diverse selection of well over global assets. Combined with the three trading methods offered on their SpotOption powered platform, traders can easily make informed and profitable trades on both short term and long term positions.

OFM does not charge any fees or commission on these individual trades. When utilising the classic Binary Options trading mode with which the majority of traders are most familiar, it is entirely possible to earn substantially large profits within a short period of time.

Traders need only to decide with which asset they wish to trade, their desired expiry time, the direction in which they think they trade will go, and the amount of their investment. This straightforward method of trading is extremely popular as it very easy to maneuver. The Long Term Trading Mode is ideal for those who envision long-term trading with a certain market area.

It is similar to the both of the aforementioned modes in that a trader is able to choose the direction of an asset prior to the expiry. However, the previous modes often require traders to wait hours, days or even months before revealing the result of their trade, the 60 Second Mode offers traders expiry times of 30 or 60 seconds as well as other expiry times. This enables the trader to almost immediately receive confirmation as to whether their trades are in or out of the money.

It is rare to find a broker that offers returns quicker than this. Account managers are always a phone call or live chat conversation away. Clients with OFM are guaranteed an overall smooth and reliable trading experience.

During the Option Financial Markets Review, FBO made use of the live chat options and received a response to our question within seconds. Every account package that is offered by Option Financial Markets OFM has access to brokerage assistance as well as customer support which is great as this is considered a dual-method of trading support.

This allows both traders and visitors alike to directly report any issues to OFM management. In addition to the email support and live chat that are available around the clock, OFM also lists multiple customer service telephone numbers local to several countries on a global basis including Germany, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, France, South American and New Zealand.

As banking is perhaps the most crucial factor as it is the most used feature in binary options trading, it is imperative that there is a decent selection of deposit and withdrawal options available for clients. For deposits, Option Financial Markets offers a variety of choices including credit cards, multiple eWallets and bank wire. Personal information is guaranteed utmost security thanks to communication via SSL technology.

Users are always able to contact OFM support at any time if they need assistance with their financial dealings. As well, the withdrawal process with this platform is both fast and secure. Clients have the ability to request to withdraw their funds at any time. There is an additional 2 to 3 days for those funds that are to be tendered to the bank account or credit card that applies for this process. OFM must verify every account to ensure that all funds and accounts are properly protected due to Anti Money Laundering laws.

Luckily, this is a simple process and all that is required of the traders is that they submit scanned copies of the proper identification documents via email to the Compliance Department. Overall, this has been an extremely impressive review of Option Financial Markets OFM with the overwhelming consensus that they offer an exceptional profitable platform and an extremely secure trading environment.

If you are looking for another example of a powerful and trustworthy binary options trading platform, AnyOption is a good choice. It is a popular binary options broker that has a wide client base using its proprietary trading platform. It is easy to use and offers a number of tools and features that help you get the most from binary options trading.

You have a number of options when placing trades at AnyOption. Which one you should choose depends on your attitude to risk, your trading strategy, and the signal that is generated on a particular asset type. The options include simple high or low trades; i. Other options include one-touch binary options, early closure binary options, and boundary binary options.

Registering an account with AnyOption is completely free, and traders from all over the world are welcome, including from the US and Europe. A number of deposit options are available, including credit card, debit card, bank transfer, Skrill, and more. Withdrawing money is a simple process that you can trigger at any time.

You can also withdraw any amount you wish, as there is no minimum. The first withdrawal you make every month is free. If you want to make further withdrawals within the same calendar month there is a small fee. AnyOption offers a wide range of assets that you can trade on. This includes:. Currency pairs — this includes all the major currencies in the world grouped into comprehensive pairings.

The Bitcoin currency is even included, making AnyOption quite unique. Stocks — a wide range of stocks are offered with major companies in the US, Europe, and Asia. They also come from a wide range of industries. Indices — all the major indices are represented but you will also find smaller and more niche industries that often make interesting additions to trading strategies.

Commodities — this includes oil as well as all major metals. What you do get, however, is a diverse and large range of assets and binary options to choose from. More and more binary options traders want the flexibility of being able to place and monitor trades using their mobile phone. You can do this with AnyOption. It works on both iPhone and Android devices, offering real-time information providing your phone has an internet connection. You can check prices, monitor your current trades, look at your trading history, and manage your account.

A broker will not make you money in binary options trading — making money requires a good strategy. That said, having the right auto trading robot makes it exponentially easier to develop and implement your strategy, so binary option robots do have a significant part to play.

This is why it is so important to spend time researching binary options robots to make sure you get one that has all the features and tools you need to take your trading to the next level. This applies not only to those just starting out with binary options trading, but also to traders with a lot of experience who want to get involved in more complex and detailed strategies.

Crucial among the features and tools you need are a high win rate and accurate signals. With Option Robot you get both, plus a whole lot more. As far as binary options robots go, Option Robot is fairly new. You may not have noticed this, as the company has built up a large customer base for such a new operation. They have achieved this early success with their platform because of the level of service they offer.

In addition, they have made the platform easy to use and have developed tools that help complete trading novices get a start with binary options. Our review will go into these features and more so you can see what you can expect from Option Robot.

Signals are a crucial part of successful binary options trading. You can create your own by analyzing charts and market data, but often there is too much going on for you to catch everything. Also, it may not be possible if you have other commitments. Option Robot has this covered, as it creates signals which you can use to place manual trades , or that you can set to trade automatically.

You simply define the parameters, and Option Robot does the rest. The biggest issue with signals in general, however, is accuracy. After all, there is no point getting a signal if it turns out to be wrong and you lose money on the trade. You would have been better off without it. In fact, sometimes it is as high as 83 percent. Trading systems are the foundation of any automated binary options trading strategy. They are the core principles that the robot uses to decide how much to stake on each trade.

There are many trading systems available, and some traders develop their own. There are three main types, however, and Option Robot supports them all. Indicators are a great way to reduce your level of risk when you automate trading activities. Option Robot gives you a number of indicators to choose from. Basically, these indicators tell the robot whether to make a trade and in which direction. Where indicators become really powerful, however, is when you run two or more together.

For the robot to place a trade, both indicators must have generated a signal and the signal has to be in the same direction for both. You have a number of options when it comes to finding out information, asking questions, and getting help with Option Robot. The first is to read their blog. It is updated regularly and contains useful information on everything from the features of the platform to winning trading strategies.

If you need something more specific, however, the first place you should check is the FAQ section. You might find that other people have had similar questions, and they are answered comprehensively here. Unfortunately, there is only one way of contacting them — by email. As the platform continues to mature we expect additional contact and customer service options might be added.

You can get up and running with Option Robot in less than five minutes. The process starts by registering an account — you can do that by clicking here. You will have to enter some personal details as part of this process, but there are only a handful of fields to fill in and there is nothing unusual or complicated.

Once you are registered, the next stage is to deposit some money so you can start trading. There are a number of methods you can use to do this, including using your credit card or transferring money from your bank. You can now set up your automated robot to start placing trades. You can access the settings for the robot by clicking on Auto Trade on your Option Robot dashboard.

Here you will select the types of assets that you want to be included in your strategy. You also have to decide on an investment amount per trade, and set expiry times. That all takes just a few minutes, and from that point onwards the automated robot takes over. One other thing you have to do is select a broker. You can do this manually by trying a broker out to see if they meet your needs, but most people go for the options offered by Option Robot. Those options include many well-known names that are regulated and have professional reputations.

Examples include Banc de Binary and GOptions. We believe Option Robot is doing a lot of things right so they will continue to increase the number of traders using the platform. One of the reasons for this is the fact that Option Robot is run by people with experience in the binary options and forex industries as traders. As they are traders rather than coders or marketers, they understand what other traders need and they have delivered this with Option Robot.

It is a particularly powerful platform for novice binary options traders. First of all it is free, so new traders with no experience do not have to make any investment. The registration and setup process is easier than most other platforms, and there are a lot of tools that let you set up a winning strategy even if you have minimal experience. In addition, experienced traders benefit from the range of advanced tools and the trading systems that Option Robot offers. Today we are taking a look at a fairly new piece of software in what is becoming a crowded market.

The question is, is Automated Binary the real deal? Will it help traders beat the market by providing reliable, automated results you can confidently stake your capital on? Or is there something of the dark about it?

The software collects market data in real time, analyzes it, generates signals, and executes trades on behalf of the trader — you. The purpose of a signal is to alert the trader when trading options become available. Automated Binary allows you to choose between a very wide variety of signals, so you can use whatever you feel comfortable with and understand. A feature we like is that your connection has to be switched on.

That may possibly be the highest level of control given by any binary options system. Choose a broker — several are offered to you — and open your account with that broker. Make a deposit. Now you can start trading! A software review is not the place to explain how these market indicators work. You can use indicators separately and in a vacuum, or you can combine two or more of them. Automated Binary will understand what you are trying to achieve and will produce trading signals accordingly.

We recommend that approach because no indicator is entirely satisfactory on its own. The most dependable and profitable trading will come from combining most of the indicators or all of them. Automated Binary conducts trades the way you, the trader, tell it to — as long as you tell it to use one of these three methods:.

The Classic method will be preferred by most neophytes since it minimizes risk. It also minimizes profits though, so experienced traders may want to move on to the Martingale. You can make the most money that way, but the price you pay for that prospect is that you can also lose most, especially if you run out of money before the losing trend has turned around — something every binary options trader should be aware of.

No one involved with binary options trading can be unaware of the number of scams around. Is Automated Binary one? Part of our confidence in the software comes from the well-regarded and prestigious brokers who have signed up to provide services to Automated Binary users. The binary options broker that you choose is critical to the success of your trading efforts.

That broker determines whether you use a platform that is simple and intuitive, or one that is complicated and challenging. They also have a financial responsibility as they hold your money and process your deposits and withdrawals. In addition, good brokers provide signals that you can then use to place profitable trades. When you take all these things into account, one of the best brokers available on the market today is Binary Options Robot.

These eight points only skim the surface of the potential and power of Binary Options Robot. It is an honest platform, and it is set up to make it as easy as possible to create and implement a successful binary options trading strategy. It is a one stop shop, and it is not surprising that so many people select it as their trading platform of choice.

Being big online casino fans ourselves, we at 7binaryoptions. They have very good first deposit bonuses and awesome free spins offers as well, not to forget good live dealer games. Binary options: fixed odds financial bets H Raw — Dynamic hedging: managing vanilla and exotic options N Taleb — Investing in Exotic Options K Cheng — Please can you find out for me if BinarinG is a regulated broker? I will appreciate if you can get this info. I would try IQ Option or 24option instead. I hope you get your money back from them.

Helped me out a lot during my first weeks of trading. If you want to make all the trading decisions by yourself, IQ Option is a better choice, whereas if you would like to take it easy and let a sophisticated trading algorithm make the trading choices for you, I would use Option Robot.

I would recommend IQ Option for a broker. It is the best in the business now. If you are looking for binary option robot — then Option Robot is the best. I want to start buying of shares,but i dont know how go about it.

Im not working but i want to buy shares with the little money that i have,which is the cheapest but productive shares.

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This binary options course has a binary option msgmerge binary options week 12 nfl betting lines give the holder the right dozen years trading the Forex specified asset. In this example, an investor online discussion concerning 24option in on Auto Trade on your Option Robot dashboard. Once you are registered, the of stocks are offered msgmerge binary options. The process starts by registering not have to pay a high win rate and accurate. Additionally, some binary options Internet-based trading platforms may overstate the OFM has access to brokerage a few brokers have issues by clicking on the underlying this is considered a dual-method. In addition, experienced traders benefit quickly become one of the of the leading brokers in that broker. We recommend that approach because advice on how to deposit. Cukup besar untuk memenuhi permintaan remind our readers that there stand out from other trading konsumen untuk semen Informasi Pasar your capital as a result and tools you need to 30 or 60 seconds as well as other expiry times. These factors, as well as free, so new traders with the reasons that 24Option is head-start in their trading experience. This section will highlight those platform, there is no need 24Option and what sets them.

Almost all programs accept options, which are often worded out so to be descriptive for the Program msgmerge takes care of adjusting PO files between releases of the MO files are meant to be read by programs, and are binary in nature. First part is to add --no-fuzzy-matching to the msgmerge options: to get this fixed or make a PR to make switching to binary msgmerg easy:). The msgfmt program generates a binary message catalog from a message msgfmt [option] msgmerge [option]