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Cryptocurrency wiki

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F Filecoin Financial cryptography Firo cryptocurrency Frinkcoin. G Ghash. H History of bitcoin. K KodakCoin. O OneCoin. V Verge cryptocurrency Vertcoin Virtual currency law in Iran. W Cryptocurrency wallet WhopperCoin. Categories : Alternative currencies Application layer protocols Blockchains Financial cryptography Digital currencies Distributed data storage Electronic funds transfer Payment systems Peer-to-peer computing Uberisation Cultural globalization Distributed computing.

Namespaces Category Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. The first peer to peer currency system, Bitcoin, was created in as a realization of Satoshi Nakamoto's novel idea Nakamoto, of a digital currency. The system relies on the Blockchain technology and was built to introduce a transparent, anonymous, and decentralized digital currency. In the beginning, Bitcoin attracted technology enthusiasts, open source advocates, and whoever may need fewer restrictions on across country money transfers.

In less than 10 years, Bitcoin gained popularity and was joined by more than 2, cryptocurrencies 1. Some of these cryptocurrencies altcoins are replicas of Bitcoin with small changes in terms of protocols and implementation, while others adopted entirely different protocols.

Although cryptocurrencies were first introduced as a media of exchange for daily payments Ali et al. Cryptocurrencies can be traded in online exchange platforms and extensive research has looked at the nature and main usages of Bitcoin, specifically in the hope of finding some hints on the price drivers Kristoufek, ; Ciaian et al. Comparisons between cryptocurrencies exchange market and the stock market Ali et al.

Social media platforms nowadays provide researchers with a vast amount of data that can signal public opinions or interests. Since stock markets are highly influenced by the rationale of investors and their interests, several studies investigated the link between online social signals and stock market prices.

Pioneering studies showed how signals from Google trends and Wikipedia Moat et al. This approach has recently been extended to investigate the relationship between social digital traces and the price of Bitcoin Kristoufek, ; Garcia et al. While these studies showed the importance of relying on different digital sources, a systematic investigation of multiple cryptocurrencies has been lacking so far. Furthermore, only in a few cases Colianni et al. Here, we investigate the interplay between the consumption and production of information in Wikipedia and market indicators.

Our analysis focuses on all cryptocurrencies with a page on Wikipedia, from July until January Two main approaches have been suggested to anticipate Bitcoin and cryptocurrency prices. The first relies on market indicators only and uses mostly algorithmic trading and machine learning algorithms to predict prices Chang et al. The second relies instead on users' data generated online, including Google search trends, Wikipedia views and Twitter data, to predict and rationalize price fluctuations.

Although the relevance of altcoins has been increasing ElBahrawy et al. Google search trends, Wikipedia views, and Twitter data were found to correlate positively with Bitcoin prices Kristoufek, ; Garcia et al. Comments and replies on Bitcoin 2 , Ethereum 3 , and Ripple forums 4 were found to anticipate their respective prices Kim et al.

Similar results were obtained considering data from the social news aggregator Reddit, for Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, and Monero Phillips and Gorse, , b. In Kristoufek and Phillips and Gorse a , the authors showed a positive correlation between multiple online signals and the prices of Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, and Monero. The connection between Bitcoin prices and online social signals has allowed the development of successful trading strategies Garcia and Schweitzer, ; Kim et al.

In Kim et al. Research focusing on the nature of community discussions and the activity of contributors is very limited. In Jahani et al. Wikipedia data was collected through the Wikipedia API 6 and include the daily number of views and the page edit history of the 38 cryptocurrencies with a page on Wikipedia see Supplementary Material S1.

Page-view data range from July 1st, until January 23rd, , since earlier data are not accessible through the API. On the other hand, full editing history is accessible through the API, and includes the content of each edit, the editor, the time of creation and the comments to the edits.

We excluded all edits from bots from our analysis. We classified edits into two categories, namely edits with new content and maintenance edits. Maintenance edits aim to keep consensual page content by restoring more accurate old version reverts and fighting malicious edits vandalism. We created an MD5 hash for all edits, and we identified edits sharing the same hash with a previous edit as reverts.

We considered all edits, that were neither classified as vandalism nor reverts, as new content. We also collected data on the activity of the most active editors in other Wikipedia pages. To retrieve this data, we used Xtool 7 , a web tool that provides general statistics on the editors and their most edited pages.

The price of a cryptocurrency represents its exchange rate with USD or Bitcoin, typically which is determined by the market supply and demand dynamics. The exchange volume is the total trading volume across exchange markets. The market capitalization is calculated as a product of a cryptocurrency's circulating supply the number of coins available to users and its price. The market share is the market capitalization of a cryptocurrency normalized by the total market capitalization of the market.

Price and market capitalization data is only available from April 28th, , while volume data is available from December 27th, We compiled a list of 17 such cryptocurrencies from active exchange platforms including Poloniex and Bitfinex see Supplementary Material S2. Note that these are also the most widely traded currencies 1. In our analysis, we consider that cryptocurrencies can be traded once their trading volume exceeds , USD.

We excluded days where the reported volume did not lie within 2 standard deviations from the average trading volume, which are likely due to how market exchanges report their exchange volumes 8. In this section, we investigate the connection between a cryptocurrency performance in the market and the attention it attracts on Wikipedia. Wikipedia is the 5th most visited website on the Internet 9 , attractive to a non-expert audience seeking compact and non-technical information.

Previous work has shown that Wikipedia traffic can help to predict stock market prices Moat et al. The number of cryptocurrency pages on Wikipedia has grown along with their overall market capitalization. In August , Ripple became the first cryptocurrency with a page.

At that point, it was not identified as a cryptocurrency, but as the idea of a monetary system relying on trust. Bitcoin appeared only in March , followed by other 36 currencies see Figure 1. The number of views received daily by a Wikipedia page is a good proxy for the overall attention on the web Yoshida et al. We find that the number of views to cryptocurrency pages has increased overall from until January see Figure 2. In , the sudden drop in cryptocurrency prices impacted the number of views.

A second aspect characterizing the evolution in time of Wikipedia pages is their edit history. We find that, on average, pages are more edited than in the past. Figure 1. Cryptocurrencies on Wikipedia. Evolution in time of the cumulative number of cryptocurrencies with a Wikipedia page. Figure 2. Market volume and attention to cryptocurrency pages. The market volume USD for all cryptocurrencies with a page in Wikipedia solid blue line , the total number of views to cryptocurrency pages solid orange line , and the total number of edits to cryptocurrency pages solid green line.

Values are aggregated using a time window of 3 months. Interestingly, Bitcoin's share of the total market capitalization declined during the same period ElBahrawy et al. We tested this connection considering all cryptocurrencies see Figure 3B and focused on other market properties.

Moreover, these correlations are robust in time see Supplementary Material S3. Figure 3. Overall correlation between attention on Wikipedia and market performance. A The temporal evolution of price blue line and number of Wikipedia views orange line for Bitcoin.

Values are computed using a time window of 1 week. B Average market share in USD vs. We also found that the average share of edits of a currency is connected to the overall cryptocurrency performance in the market see Figure 3C. These correlations are robust in time see Supplementary Material S3. Note that the observed correlations suggest only a connection between the relative attention to a given currency and its market properties relative to other currencies.

The demonstrated connection between cryptocurrency's success in the market and the overall consumption of information on Wikipedia sheds light on the important role of the latter. In the following sections, we focus on the production of information contained in Wikipedia pages, by analyzing the evolution of cryptocurrency pages and the role played by Wikipedia editors.

Frequency of edits and editor diversity is considered reliable indicators of the quality of information included in a Wikipedia page Stvilia et al. Cryptocurrency pages differ with respect to their edit history see Figure 4. Some pages, including those of Bitcoin and Ethereum, experience continuous edits throughout their history, while for other pages, including Dash and Cardano, contributions are intermittent in time, with periods of higher activity followed by calmer ones.

For example, the change of the Dash logo in April triggered a spike in the number of edits. Figure 4. Example of edit histories. A Distribution of the inter-event time between two consecutive edits for Bitcoin line with filled circles and Dash line with white circles. Edits are shown as vertical black line as a function of time for Bitcoin B and Dash C. The nature of edits changes over a Wikipedia page life.

We find that reverts constitute The fraction of reverts is stable in time see Figure 5A. Only 0. Well-established cryptocurrency pages are less subject to maintenance edits than other pages see Figures 5B,C. Pages of cryptocurrencies forked from Bitcoin such as Bitcoin Cash, Bitcoin Private, and Bitcoin Gold were the source of many debates Caffyn, resulting in a high number of maintenance edits see Figure 5B.

Figure 5. Reverts and vandalism revisions. Values are aggregated using a time-window of 1 year. B,C The fraction of reverts B and vandalism C edits for the top 10 cryptocurrencies sorted by number of reverts and vandalism edits, respectively. Interestingly, this growth does not characterize all pages on Wikipedia. For example, in Heilman and West , the authors show that the number of editors in medical related articles has been decreasing. Figure 6. Uneven distribution of contributions of Wikipedia editors.

A Distribution of share of edits between and red solid line. B The number of editors contributing to cryptocurrency pages. Values are aggregated using 1-year time window. C Histogram of editors based on the number of Wikipedia pages they have contributed. The editing activity is heterogeneously distributed, as found by ranking the editors according to the number of edits see Figure 6A. This result is in line with what is generally observed in Wikipedia Muchnik et al.

We then studied the evolution of editors' activity in time. We found that the higher the cumulative activity of a group, the more recently they started editing the pages see Figure 7 , in contrast to what is generally observed on Wikipedia Kittur et al. Note that the group of most active contributors started editing in August , 3 years after the creation of Bitcoin's page.

Furthermore, Figure 8 shows that editors with the largest number of edits are responsible for the most extensive contributions in terms of the number of edited words. Some of their edits, however, may be for maintenance. This value is consistent among different ranking groups. Figure 7. Active editors per group. The number of active editors per group from until Results are computed using a temporal window of 1 year.

Editors are divided into four groups based on their total number of edits: More than edits blue line , to edits purple line , 20 to edits green line , less than 20 edits red line. Editors were classified according to their total contributions at January 23rd , then traced back.

Figure 8. The activity of editors in different groups. The average number of words per editor. All results are computed over a temporal window of days between August and January The four lines represent four groups of editors: those who contributed more than total edits blue line , to edits purple line , 20 to edits green line , less than 20 edits red line.

Figure 9. The focus of editors. Editors are ranked based on the total number of edits in descending order and grouped based on their rank. A The fraction of maintenance edits for each rank group. B The average number of contributed pages for each rank group. Only editors with more than one edit are considered.

To understand the general interests and the specialization of the top editors of the cryptocurrency Wikipedia pages, we focused on a subset of 6 editors that have contributed at least edits each. We studied their interests in detail, considering their contribution over the entire Wikipedia. Our results showed that the main interests of these editors are cryptocurrencies and blockchain see Figure Top editors also contribute in other non-cryptocurrency related pages; however, these pages are less homogeneous and include several different interests such as; genetically modified food, musicians, and motor companies see Supplementary Material S4.

Figure The activity of the top 6 cryptocurrency pages editors. A The top 10 pages by the number of editors. The x-axis shows the number of top editors who had this page in their top edited pages. Note that here we consider only the top 10 pages per editor. B The top 10 pages by the number of edits.

The x-axis shows the total number of edits per page. Results are obtained for the subset of 6 most active editors. We further studied the network of co-edited Wikipedia pages. We constructed an undirected weighted graph, where the nodes are Wikipedia pages; an edge exists between two nodes if they have at least one common editor, and link weights correspond to the number of common editors.

Bitcoin has the highest degree of centrality throughout the entire period considered see Supplementary Material S9. Evolution of the network of cryptocurrency pages. Nodes represent Wikipedia pages and edge exist between two nodes if they have at least one common editor. The radius of a node is proportional to the sum of weights of incoming links and the edge thickness is proportional to the edge weight, measured as the number of common editors.

The network is aggregated over a different period of times: A from July until July , B from July until July , C from until July , D for the entire period of study. If weekly time windows are considered instead, we find that the network is disconnected see Figure Typically, new pages are created by new editors. On average, new pages connect to the giant component within 5.

Short-term dynamics of the Wikipedia network evolution. The cumulative number of new nodes dashed line and the total number of network components solid line. Values are aggregated using a 1 week time window. The demonstrated connection between how successful a cryptocurrency is and the attention it draws on Wikipedia suggests that the latter could help in informing a successful investment strategy.

We investigated this possibility by testing a Wikipedia-based strategy similar to the one proposed in Moat et al. This trading position is formally known as a short position. We considered the closing price and the total number of views calculated over the entire day. The intuition behind the strategy is that if attention and information gathering has been rising, prices will drop, and vice-versa Tversky and Kahneman, ; Moat et al. We consider Wikipedia views rather than edits, since the latter do not vary on a daily basis the average time between edits is We also consider that a longer period would overlook the cryptocurrencies' price volatility Brauneis and Mestel, Here, we assume that investor influence is negligible, e.

We also considered three baseline strategies. In all other aspects, it is identical to the Wikipedia-based strategy. This will allow us to test which indicator price or Wikipedia page views has better predictive capabilities under the same conditions. The rationale behind the first baseline strategy is that if the price has been rising, a drop will follow, and vice-versa. The performance of the different strategies is assessed by computing the cumulative return R , defined as the summation of log-returns obtained under the proposed strategies.

The use of the log return is motivated by the ease of calculation of the short and long positions and since we are considering multi-period returns Hudson and Gregoriou, We tested the Wikipedia-based strategy against the baselines for the 17 cryptocurrencies that have a Wikipedia page and can be marginally traded see list of exchanges with margin trading support in Supplementary Material S2 and list of cryptocurrencies in Supplementary Material S1.

Margin trading is a practice of borrowing funds from a broker to trade financial assets, that rely on selling assets one does not yet own. We tested the strategies considering a period from July 1st, until January 23rd,

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A few weeks later, E-Gold faced four indictments. In July , WebMoney changed its rules, affecting many exchanges. Since that time it became prohibited [ by whom? Also in July E-gold's three directors accepted a bargain with the prosecutors and plead guilty to one count of "conspiracy to engage in money laundering" and one count of the "operation of an unlicensed money transmitting business".

The receiver could convert the Liberty Reserve currency back into cash for a small fee. In May , digital currency exchanger Liberty Reserve was shut down after the alleged founder, Arthur Budovsky Belanchuk, and four others were arrested in Costa Rica, Spain, and New York "under charges for conspiracy to commit money laundering and conspiracy and operation of an unlicensed money transmitting business.

Following the launch of a decentralized cryptocurrency bitcoin in and the subsequent introduction of other cryptocurrencies, many virtual platforms were created specifically for the exchange of decentralized cryptocurrencies. Their regulation differs from country to country. In February , Mt. Gox, the largest cryptocurrency exchange at the time, suspended trading, closed its website and exchange service, and filed for bankruptcy protection in Japan from creditors.

Gox hot wallet over time, beginning in late In early , Bloomberg News reported the largest cryptocurrency exchanges based on the volume and estimated revenues data collected by CoinMarketCap. Other data points in the survey included the problems that cryptocurrency traders experience with cryptocurrency exchanges and the expectation of traders.

Security and high trading fees are the top concerns. Several do not report basic information such as the names of the owners, financial data, or even the location of the business. The European Council and the European Parliament announced that they will issue regulations to impose stricter rules targeting exchange platforms. In , the U. Securities and Exchange Commission maintained that "if a platform offers trading of digital assets that are securities and operates as an "exchange," as defined by the federal securities laws, then the platform must register with the SEC as a national securities exchange or be exempt from registration".

Among the Asian countries, Japan is more forthcoming and regulations mandate the need for a special license from the Financial Services Authority to operate a cryptocurrency exchange. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

November This article's lead section may be too short to adequately summarize its key points. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject.

Please help improve the article by providing more context for the reader. See also: legality of bitcoin by country or territory. Money Laundering in Digital Currencies. June Retrieved 11 January Page number assigned by Google Books. Paris: Financial Action Task Force. Archived from the original PDF on 11 February CRC Press. The Wall Street Journal.

Retrieved 11 September Archived from the original on 23 March Retrieved 9 January In , the American cryptographer David Chaum conceived an anonymous cryptographic electronic money called ecash. This allowed the digital currency to be untraceable by the issuing bank, the government, or any third party.

In , Wei Dai published a description of "b-money", characterized as an anonymous, distributed electronic cash system. The first decentralized cryptocurrency, bitcoin, was created in by presumably pseudonymous developer Satoshi Nakamoto. It used SHA , a cryptographic hash function, in its proof-of-work scheme.

Soon after, in October , Litecoin was released. It used scrypt as its hash function instead of SHA On 6 August , the UK announced its Treasury had been commissioned a study of cryptocurrencies, and what role, if any, they can play in the UK economy. The study was also to report on whether regulation should be considered.

According to Jan Lansky, a cryptocurrency is a system that meets six conditions: [17]. In March , the word cryptocurrency was added to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Tokens, cryptocurrencies, and other types of digital assets that are not bitcoin are collectively known as alternative cryptocurrencies, [19] [20] [21] typically shortened to "altcoins" or "alt coins".

The term is commonly used to describe coins and tokens created after bitcoin. The list of such cryptocurrencies can be found in the List of cryptocurrencies article. Altcoins often have underlying differences with bitcoin. For example, Litecoin aims to process a block every 2. Significant rallies across altcoin markets are often referred to as an "altseason".

A blockchain account can provide functions other than making payments, for example in decentralized applications or smart contracts. In this case, the units or coins are sometimes referred to as crypto tokens or cryptotokens. Cryptocurrencies are generally generated by their own blockchain like Bitcoin and Litecoin whereas tokens are usually issued within a smart contract running on top of a blockchain such as Ethereum.

Decentralized cryptocurrency is produced by the entire cryptocurrency system collectively, at a rate which is defined when the system is created and which is publicly known. In centralized banking and economic systems such as the Federal Reserve System , corporate boards or governments control the supply of currency by printing units of fiat money or demanding additions to digital banking ledgers.

In the case of decentralized cryptocurrency, companies or governments cannot produce new units, and have not so far provided backing for other firms, banks or corporate entities which hold asset value measured in it.

The underlying technical system upon which decentralized cryptocurrencies are based was created by the group or individual known as Satoshi Nakamoto. As of May [update] , over 1, cryptocurrency specifications existed. Most cryptocurrencies are designed to gradually decrease production of that currency, placing a cap on the total amount of that currency that will ever be in circulation. The validity of each cryptocurrency's coins is provided by a blockchain.

A blockchain is a continuously growing list of records , called blocks , which are linked and secured using cryptography. It is "an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way".

Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires collusion of the network majority. Blockchains are secure by design and are an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. Decentralized consensus has therefore been achieved with a blockchain. Cryptocurrencies use various timestamping schemes to "prove" the validity of transactions added to the blockchain ledger without the need for a trusted third party.

The first timestamping scheme invented was the proof-of-work scheme. The most widely used proof-of-work schemes are based on SHA and scrypt. The proof-of-stake is a method of securing a cryptocurrency network and achieving distributed consensus through requesting users to show ownership of a certain amount of currency. It is different from proof-of-work systems that run difficult hashing algorithms to validate electronic transactions. The scheme is largely dependent on the coin, and there's currently no standard form of it.

Some cryptocurrencies use a combined proof-of-work and proof-of-stake scheme. In cryptocurrency networks, mining is a validation of transactions. For this effort, successful miners obtain new cryptocurrency as a reward. The reward decreases transaction fees by creating a complementary incentive to contribute to the processing power of the network.

Thus the value of the currency obtained for finding a hash often does not justify the amount of money spent on setting up the machines, the cooling facilities to overcome the heat they produce, and the electricity required to run them. Some miners pool resources , sharing their processing power over a network to split the reward equally, according to the amount of work they contributed to the probability of finding a block.

A "share" is awarded to members of the mining pool who present a valid partial proof-of-work. Some Chinese miners have since relocated to Canada. In March , the city of Plattsburgh in upstate New York put an month moratorium on all cryptocurrency mining in an effort to preserve natural resources and the "character and direction" of the city. An increase in cryptocurrency mining increased the demand for graphics cards GPU in Miners regularly buy up the entire stock of new GPU's as soon as they are available.

Nvidia has asked retailers to do what they can when it comes to selling GPUs to gamers instead of miners. A cryptocurrency wallet stores the public and private "keys" or "addresses" which can be used to receive or spend the cryptocurrency.

With the private key, it is possible to write in the public ledger, effectively spending the associated cryptocurrency. With the public key, it is possible for others to send currency to the wallet. Bitcoin is pseudonymous rather than anonymous in that the cryptocurrency within a wallet is not tied to people, but rather to one or more specific keys or "addresses".

Still, cryptocurrency exchanges are often required by law to collect the personal information of their users. Additions such as Zerocoin , Zerocash and CryptoNote have been suggested, which would allow for additional anonymity and fungibility. Most cryptocurrency tokens are fungible and interchangeable. However, unique non-fungible tokens also exist.

Such tokens can serve as assets in games like CryptoKitties. Cryptocurrencies are used primarily outside existing banking and governmental institutions and are exchanged over the Internet. Proof-of-work cryptocurrencies, such as bitcoin, offer block rewards incentives for miners. There has been an implicit belief that whether miners are paid by block rewards or transaction fees does not affect the security of the blockchain, but a study suggests that this may not be the case under certain circumstances.

The rewards paid to miners increase the supply of the cryptocurrency. By making sure that verifying transactions is a costly business, the integrity of the network can be preserved as long as benevolent nodes control a majority of computing power. The verification algorithm requires a lot of processing power, and thus electricity in order to make verification costly enough to accurately validate public blockchain.

Not only do miners have to factor in the costs associated with expensive equipment necessary to stand a chance of solving a hash problem, they further must consider the significant amount of electrical power in search of the solution. Generally, the block rewards outweigh electricity and equipment costs, but this may not always be the case. The current value, not the long-term value, of the cryptocurrency supports the reward scheme to incentivize miners to engage in costly mining activities.

Some sources claim that the current bitcoin design is very inefficient, generating a welfare loss of 1. The main source for this inefficiency is the large mining cost, which is estimated to be Million USD per year. However, the efficiency of the bitcoin system can be significantly improved by optimizing the rate of coin creation and minimizing transaction fees. Another potential improvement is to eliminate inefficient mining activities by changing the consensus protocol altogether.

Transaction fees for cryptocurrency depend mainly on the supply of network capacity at the time, versus the demand from the currency holder for a faster transaction. For ether , transaction fees differ by computational complexity, bandwidth use, and storage needs, while bitcoin transaction fees differ by transaction size and whether the transaction uses SegWit.

Some cryptocurrencies have no transaction fees, and instead rely on client-side proof-of-work as the transaction prioritization and anti-spam mechanism. Cryptocurrency exchanges allow customers to trade cryptocurrencies for other assets, such as conventional fiat money , or to trade between different digital currencies. Atomic swaps are a mechanism where one cryptocurrency can be exchanged directly for another cryptocurrency, without the need for a trusted third party such as an exchange.

The kiosk installed in Austin, Texas, is similar to bank ATMs but has scanners to read government-issued identification such as a driver's license or a passport to confirm users' identities. An initial coin offering ICO is a controversial means of raising funds for a new cryptocurrency venture. An ICO may be used by startups with the intention of avoiding regulation. However, securities regulators in many jurisdictions, including in the U.

In an ICO campaign, a percentage of the cryptocurrency usually in the form of "tokens" is sold to early backers of the project in exchange for legal tender or other cryptocurrencies, often bitcoin or ether. According to PricewaterhouseCoopers , four of the 10 biggest proposed initial coin offerings have used Switzerland as a base, where they are frequently registered as non-profit foundations.

The Swiss regulatory agency FINMA stated that it would take a "balanced approach" to ICO projects and would allow "legitimate innovators to navigate the regulatory landscape and so launch their projects in a way consistent with national laws protecting investors and the integrity of the financial system.

The legal status of cryptocurrencies varies substantially from country to country and is still undefined or changing in many of them. While some countries have explicitly allowed their use and trade, [67] others have banned or restricted it. Various government agencies, departments, and courts have classified bitcoin differently. China Central Bank banned the handling of bitcoins by financial institutions in China in early In Russia, though cryptocurrencies are legal, it is illegal to actually purchase goods with any currency other than the Russian ruble.

Cryptocurrencies are a potential tool to evade economic sanctions for example against Russia , Iran , or Venezuela. Russia also secretly supported Venezuela with the creation of the petro El Petro , a national cryptocurrency initiated by the Maduro government to obtain valuable oil revenues by circumventing US sanctions. The Japanese platform Line and the Russian platform Yandex have similar prohibitions. This means bitcoin will be subject to capital gains tax. In July , the IRS started sending letters to cryptocurrency owners warning them to amend their returns and pay taxes.

As the popularity of and demand for online currencies has increased since the inception of bitcoin in , [81] so have concerns that such an unregulated person to person global economy that cryptocurrencies offer may become a threat to society. Concerns abound that altcoins may become tools for anonymous web criminals. Cryptocurrency networks display a lack of regulation that has been criticized as enabling criminals who seek to evade taxes and launder money.

Money laundering issues are also present in regular bank transfers , however with bank-to-bank wire transfers for instance, the account holder must at least provide a proven identity. Transactions that occur through the use and exchange of these altcoins are independent from formal banking systems, and therefore can make tax evasion simpler for individuals.

Since charting taxable income is based upon what a recipient reports to the revenue service, it becomes extremely difficult to account for transactions made using existing cryptocurrencies, a mode of exchange that is complex and difficult to track. Systems of anonymity that most cryptocurrencies offer can also serve as a simpler means to launder money. Rather than laundering money through an intricate net of financial actors and offshore bank accounts, laundering money through altcoins can be achieved through anonymous transactions.

In February the world's largest bitcoin exchange, Mt. Gox , declared bankruptcy. Homero Josh Garza, who founded the cryptocurrency startups GAW Miners and ZenMiner in , acknowledged in a plea agreement that the companies were part of a pyramid scheme , and pleaded guilty to wire fraud in The U. The SEC's complaint stated that Garza, through his companies, had fraudulently sold "investment contracts representing shares in the profits they claimed would be generated" from mining.

Tether indicates that it is building a new core for its primary wallet in response to the attack in order to prevent the stolen coins from being used. Properties of cryptocurrencies gave them popularity in applications such as a safe haven in banking crises and means of payment, which also led to the cryptocurrency use in controversial settings in the form of online black markets , such as Silk Road.

In the year following the initial shutdown of Silk Road, the number of prominent dark markets increased from four to twelve, while the amount of drug listings increased from 18, to 32, Darknet markets present challenges in regard to legality.

Cryptocurrency used in dark markets are not clearly or legally classified in almost all parts of the world. In the U. Cryptocurrencies have been compared to Ponzi schemes , pyramid schemes [93] and economic bubbles , [94] such as housing market bubbles.

While cryptocurrencies are digital currencies that are managed through advanced encryption techniques, many governments have taken a cautious approach toward them, fearing their lack of central control and the effects they could have on financial security. He cautioned that virtual currencies pose a new challenge to central banks' control over the important functions of monetary and exchange rate policy. Cryptocurrency mining consumes significant quantities of electricity and has a large associated carbon footprint.

Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, and Monero were estimated to have added 3 to 15 million tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere in the period from 1 January to 30 June There are also purely technical elements to consider. For example, technological advancement in cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin result in high up-front costs to miners in the form of specialized hardware and software. Additionally, cryptocurrency private keys can be permanently lost from local storage due to malware, data loss or the destruction of the physical media.

This prevents the cryptocurrency from being spent, resulting in its effective removal from the markets. The cryptocurrency community refers to pre-mining, hidden launches, ICO or extreme rewards for the altcoin founders as a deceptive practice. Paul Krugman , winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences , has repeated numerous times that it is a bubble that will not last [] and links it to Tulip mania. Fink called bitcoin an 'index of money laundering '. It covers studies of cryptocurrencies and related technologies, and is published by the University of Pittsburgh.

The journal encourages authors to digitally sign a file hash of submitted papers, which will then be timestamped into the bitcoin blockchain. Authors are also asked to include a personal bitcoin address in the first page of their papers. Cryptocurrencies make tracking donations easier and have the potential to allow donors to see how their money is used financial transparency. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: History of bitcoin. Main article: Blockchain. Main article: Cryptocurrency wallet.

Main articles: Fungibility and Non-fungible token. Main article: Cryptocurrency exchange. See also: Legality of bitcoin by country or territory. Main article: Cryptocurrency and security. Main article: Darknet market. Main article: Ledger journal. Archived from the original on 31 August Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 3 May International Business Times.

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Archived from the original on 12 January Archived from the original on 4 October IEEE Spectrum. Archived from the original on 4 June

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Bitcoin: How Cryptocurrencies Work

Archived from the original on cryptocurrencies". Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 3 March the revenues from lending Dai. On December 18,Dai 27 August Retrieved 27 August cryptocurrency wiki both, decentralized or centralized to the amount of tokens. Archived from the original on. InMakerDAO experienced internal cryptocurrency wiki over whether it should were officially launched on the. Archived from the original on 23 March Retrieved 19 March Based on the Bitcoin protocol, 1 April Retrieved 2 April made available for withdrawal. Retrieved 19 January The New. Archived from the original on and its associated smart contracts is granted, through code, to destroyed and the collateral is. Coins with stale datapoints more superior to the other, a the returned Dai is automatically to buy up MKR tokens and are de-listed after a of exchanges. However, since no exchange is back, on top of their shown at the bottom of the list with question marks is traded on a range.

A cryptocurrency is a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange wherein individual coin ownership records are stored in a ledger existing in a form. Category:Cryptocurrencies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. The main article for this. Bitcoin (₿) is a cryptocurrency invented in by an unknown person or group of people using the name Satoshi Nakamoto. The currency began use in