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He has also impressed in Scotland this season with Motherwell currently third in the Premiership. Healy's stock continues to rise following Linfield's impressive run in Europe this summer when they narrowly missed out on reaching the group stages of the Europa League. Here's our main Belfast Live Facebook page. On Twitter, you can follow our account by clicking here. If you're a lover of photos, then check out our Instagram.

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Another just plain fun idea is the Migration Pedigree Chart. This will also help you figure out the estimated percentages of ethnicity you might reasonably expect. Another idea for helping kids learn at home and they might accidentally learn about figuring percentages in the process. ThruLines is the Ancestry tool that assists DNA testers with trees connect the dots to common ancestors with their matches. There are ways to optimize your tree to improve your connections, both in terms of accuracy and the number of Thrulines that form.

I keep meaning to…. Of course, as expected, just like any other organism, mutations have occurred since then. Goodness knows, we are all tired of Covid and the resulting safety protocols. Keep on keeping on. We need you on the other side. Stay home, mask up when you must leave, stay away from other people outside your family that you live with, wash your hands, and get vaccinated as soon as you can.

And until we can all see each other in person again, hopefully, sooner than later, keep on doing genealogy. Free articles like these are your guide. Before sharing photos and details about the last three days at RootsTech, I want to provide some general observations. I expected the attendance to be down this year because of the concern about the Novel Corona Virus. There was a lot of hand-washing and sanitizer, but no hand-wringing. In fact, this show was larger, based on how my feet feel and general crowd observation than ever before.

People appeared to be more engaged too. Family Search has really stepped up their game to modernize, capture stories, scan books and otherwise make genealogy interesting and attractive to everyone. We got spoiled last year with the big DNA announcements at RootsTech, but nothing of that magnitude was announced this year. You can see the painted chromosome view on the screen behind Dr. I was honored to make The Million Mito Project announcement Saturday morning, but it was hard for me to contain my enthusiasm until Saturday.

All I can say is WOW!!! The Y tree has shot up from a twig to an evergreen. FamilyTreeDNA stepped up their game with a way-cool new booth that incorporated a lovely presentation area, greatly improved, which featured several guest presenters throughout the conference, including Judy Russell, below. I wrote about it, here. At RootsTech MyHeritage had more announcements, including:. Conference attendees emailed the photo to a special email address and came by the booth a few minutes later to retrieve their photo magnet.

The photos on the board in front, above, are the colorized photos waiting for their family to pick them up. How fun!!! One of the views is a colorful fan. You can read about the new tree features on their blog, here. The MyHeritage booth incorporated a very cool feature this year about the Mayflower. Truthfully, I was quite surprised, because the Mayflower is a US thing. MyHeritage is working with folks in Leiden, Netherlands, where some Mayflower family members remained while others continued to what would become Plymouth Colony to prove the connection.

MyHeritage constructed a 3D area where you can sail with the Pilgrims. The voyage in was utterly miserable — very rough with a great deal of illness. What you do feel is the utter smallness of the ship in the immense angry ocean. Do you have Mayflower ancestors? We might run into some people you know! I sandwiched my walking around in-between my sessions. Plus, all the planned and chance meetings which were absolutely wonderful.

Oh yes, and I attended a couple of sessions myself as an attendee and a few in the vendors booths too. The great thing, or at least I think its great, is that most of the major vendors also have booth educational learning opportunities with presentation areas at their booths. Unfortunately, there is no centralized area where you can find out which booths have sessions, on what topics, when.

Ditto for the Demo Theater. But then you see someone you know and the pain in your feet is momentarily forgotten. So apologies to all of those people. I gave a presentation in the WikiTree booth about how to incorporate WikiTree into your 52 Ancestor stories, both as a research tool and as a way to bait the hook for cousins.

Not to mention seeing if someone has already tested for Y or mtDNA, or candidates to do so. I suspect her ears were burning. All in a good way of course. Daniel Horowitz with MyHeritage at the blogger dinner. How about that advertising on his laptop lid. I need to do that with DNAexplain. Wonder where I can get one of those decals custom made.

I love to see younger people getting involved and to meet people in person. Love your dreads, Hasani. Believe it or not, he has published more than 13, articles, according to the Lifetime Achievement Award presented by Dear Myrtle at RootsTech. What an incredible legacy. By the way, I discovered Randy was my cousin when I read one of his 52 Ancestors articles, recognizing that his ancestor and my ancestor had the same surname in the same place.

He knew the connection. Those articles really work. Thanks Randy — it was so good to see you again. The end of the feather quill pen is uneven and scratchy. Pieces separate and splatter ink. I now have a lot more empathy for those scribes. Gilad Japhet at the MyHeritage luncheon.

I have attended other vendor sponsored but paid by the attendee lunches at RootsTech in the past and found them disappointing, especially for the cost. Now MyHeritage is the only sponsored lunch that I attend and I always enjoy it immensely. Yes, I arrived early and sat dead center in front.

You can read this amazing story, here. Gilad always shares part of his own personal family story, and this time was no different. He shared that his mother is turning 85 soon and that the family, meaning her children and grandchildren all teamed up to make her a lovely video. Trust me, it was and made us all smile.

That beginning also included a story about how the MyHeritage name came to be, and how Gilad managed to purchase the domain for an unwilling seller. Once again, by proxy, his mother entered into the picture. Thanks to Michelle Patient for the photo. The meetup was well received and afforded people an opportunity to meet and greet, ask questions and provide input.

What a lovely family. Of course, when I noticed the family name is Campbell, we had a discussion of a different nature, especially since my cousin, Kevin Campbell and I were getting ready to have lunch. It was so much fun to sit and develop a research plan with Kevin Campbell. I thought he was kidding at first, but he was deadly seriously. The next day, I saw him again a couple of times and we shares stories.

Our lives are very different, yet they still intersected in amazing ways. Then on the last day, he attended my Million Mito presentation and afterwards came up and told me a new story. How he had changed his mind, and what prompted the change of heart. Now we have a wonderful, lovely photo together which I will cherish all the more because I know how special it is — and how wonderful that makes me feel. Some were busy, some I simply forgot to take photos. How many of which color you receive in your cup is random, although you get exactly the same number from the maternal and paternal side.

WikiTree booth and volunteers. I was just so struck by her work, painting her ancestor from the picture on her phone. Jeanette at GeneaCreations makes double helix zipper pulls, along with lots of other DNA bling, and things not so blingy for men.

These are just SOOO cool. Yes, she does custom work. You can see those goodies here. You can see their other goodies, here. Along with the list of passengers perched on a barrel of the type that likely held food or water for the Pilgrims. So, who is going to stay up for this? You can also subscribe for more webinars, here.

Food at RootsTech falls into two categories. Anything purchased in the convention center meaning something to stave off starvation, and some restaurant with friends — the emphasis being on friends. A small group went for pizza one evening when we were too exhausted to do anything else. It was that good. Millions more records are online now than ever before, both through the Big 3, being FamilySearch, MyHeritage and Ancestry , but also through multitudes of other sites preserving our history.

Everyplace from National Archives to individual blogs celebrating history and ancestors. I wrote this article just for you to see what to expect when your DNA results are returned. A decade ago, we had Y and mitochondrial DNA, but just the beginning of the autosomal revolution in the genetic genealogy space.

Ancestry offered a similar Y and mtDNA product, but not entirely the same markers, nor full sequence mitochondrial. Ancestry subsequently discontinued that testing and destroyed the matching database. Ancestry bought the Sorenson database that included Y, mitochondrial and autosomal, then destroyed that data base too.

Genealogists piled on that bandwagon. You can read more here. Anyone who ignores Y DNA testing does so at their own peril. Information produced by Y DNA testing and for that matter, mitochondrial too cannot be obtained any other way. Family Tree DNA remains the premier commercial testing company to offer high resolution and full sequence testing and matching, which of course is the key to finding genealogy solutions.

In the autosomal space, Family Tree DNA is the only testing company to provide Phased Family Matching which uses your matches on both sides of your tree, assuming you link 3 rd cousins or closer, to assign other testers to specific parental sides of your tree. You can read about that here and here. MyHeritage , the DNA testing dark horse, has come from behind from their late entry into the field in with focused Europeans ads and the purchase of Promethease in Their database stands at 3.

Not only is MyHeritage a genealogy company, piloted by Gilad Japhet, a passionate genealogist, but they have introduced easy-to-use advanced tools for consumers during to take the functionality lead in autosomal DNA. You can read more about MyHeritage and their accomplishments, here. One of their best features, Theories of Family Relativity connects the dots between people you DNA match with disparate trees and other documents, such as census.

This helps you and others break down long-standing brick walls. You can read more, here. MyHeritage encourages uploads from other testing companies with basic functions such as matching for free. You can develop a testing and upload strategy along with finding instructions for how to upload here and here.

Today, 23andMe is best known for health, having recovered after having had their wings clipped a few years back by the FDA. They were the first to offer Health results, leveraging the genealogy marketspace to attract testers, but have recently been eclipsed by both Family Tree DNA with their high end full Exome Tovana test and MyHeritage with their Health upgrade which provides more information than 23andMe along with free genetic counseling if appropriate. In , they introduced a beta function to attempt to create a genetic tree on your behalf based on how your matches match you and each other.

You can read about how to do this for yourself, here. Very rarely, once that I know of in , they do allow uploads — but in the past, uploaders do not receive all of the genealogy features and benefits of testing.

You can however, download your DNA file from 23andMe and upload elsewhere, with instructions here. Ancestry is widely known for their ethnicity ads which are extremely effective in recruiting new testers. ThruLines will also link partial trees — showing you ancestral descendants from the perspective of the ancestor in question, shown above.

You can read about ThruLines, here. Of course, without a chromosome browser, this match is only as good as the associated trees, and there is no way to prove the genealogical connection. Third party tools like Genetic Affairs and cluster technology help resolve these types of issues. You can download your file from Ancestry and upload to other locations, with instructions here. Both Ancestry and 23andMe sell consumers DNA to both known and unknown partners if customers opt-in to additional research.

Although anonymized pseudonymized before sale , autosomal results can easily be identified to the originating tester if someone were inclined to do so as demonstrated by adoptees identifying parents and law enforcement identifying both long deceased remains and criminal perpetrators of violent crimes.

People are widely split on this issue. Whatever you decide, to opt-in or not, just be sure to do your homework first. The bottom line to genetic genealogy is the genealogy aspect. Genealogists want to confirm ancestors and discover more about those ancestors.

Some information can only be discovered via DNA testing today, distant Native heritage, for example, breaking through brick walls. This technology, as it has advanced and more people have tested, has been a godsend for genealogists. The same techniques have allowed other people to locate unknown parents, grandparents and close relatives. Not only are genealogists identifying people long in the past that are their ancestors, but adoptees and those seeking unknown parents are making discoveries much closer to home.

MyHeritage has twice provided thousands of free DNA tests via their DNAQuest program to adoptees seeking their biological family with some amazing results. The difference between genealogy, which looks back in time several generations, and parent or grand-parent searches is that unknown-parent searches use matches to come forward in time to identify parents, not backwards in time to identify distant ancestors in common.

Adoptee matching is about identifying descendants in common. You can read more about the adoption search technique and how it is used, here. Adoptee searches have spawned their own subculture of sorts, with researchers and search angels that specialize in making these connections.

Do be aware that while many reunions are joyful, not all discoveries are positively received and the revelations can be traumatic for all parties involved. The use of genetic genealogy and adoptee search techniques for identifying skeletal remains of crime victims, as well as identifying criminals in order that they can be arrested and removed from the population has resulted in a huge chasm and division in the genetic genealogy community.

Some testers are adamantly pro-usage of their DNA in order to identify victims and apprehend violent criminals. Other testers, not so much and some, on the other end of the spectrum are vehemently opposed. This is a highly personal topic with extremely strong emotions on both sides.

Regardless of whether or not people want their own DNA to be utilized to identify these criminals and victims, providing closure for families, I suspect the one thing we can all agree on is that we are grateful that these violent criminals no longer live among us and are no longer preying on innocent victims. I wrote about the Golden State Killer, here , as well as other articles here , here , here and here. In the genealogy community, various vendors have adopted quite different strategies relating to these kinds of searches, as follows:.

Concerns in late have focused on the potential misuse of genetic matching to potentially target subsets of individuals by despotic regimes such as has been done by China to the Uighurs. You can read about potential risks here , here and here , along with a recent DoD memo here. Some issues spelled out in the papers can be resolved by vendors agreeing to cryptographically sign their files when customers download.

Of course, this would require that everyone, meaning all vendors, play nice in the sandbox. That pretty much leaves Ancestry and 23andMe. I hope they will step up to the plate for the good of the industry as a whole. Relative to the concerns voiced in the papers and by the DoD, I do not wish to understate any risks.

There ARE certainly risks of family members being identified via DNA testing, which is, after all, the initial purpose even though the current and future uses were not foreseen initially. In most cases, the cow has already left that barn. Every person needs to carefully make their own decisions about DNA testing and participating in sharing through third party sites. Not surprisingly, the DNA testing market space has cooled a bit this past year. This slowdown is likely due to a number of factors such as negative press and the fact that perhaps the genealogical market is becoming somewhat saturated.

Although, I suspect that when vendors announce major new tools, their DNA kit sales spike accordingly. All of the testing companies mentioned above except GEDmatch who is not a testing company now have a Health offering, designed to offer existing and new customers additional value for their DNA testing dollar.

Ancestry and MyHeritage now offer a Health upgrade. The flip side is, of course, that most of the time, a genetic predisposition is nothing more and not a death sentence. From my own perspective, I found the health tests to be informative, actionable and in some cases, they have been lifesaving for friends.

In the genetic genealogy space, over the years, tools have burst on the scene to disappear a few months later. However, the last few years have been won by third party tools developed by well-known and respected community members who have created tools to assist other genealogists. And yes, before you ask, some of these have a bit of a learning curve, but if you are serious about genealogy, these are all well worthwhile:. In fact, just think about the massive businesses built upon the fact that we, as genealogists, have to SEARCH incessantly for these elusive answers.

Would it be in the best interest of these companies to just GIVE you those answers when you test? If not, then these types of answers will rest with third parties. I get to know them by fleshing out their bones by utilizing those research records. Please, please, oh pretty-please put me to the test! Looking in the rear view mirror, what a year!

Applause, everyone, applause! And congratulations to Jonny Perl, pictured below at Rootstech! Jonny Perl created this wonderful, visual tool that allows you to paint your matches with people on your chromosomes, assigning the match to specific ancestors. I look for and on into the future to hold many more revelations thanks to ancient DNA sequencing as well as using those sequences to assist in understanding the migration patterns of ancient people that eventually became us.

Using techniques that adoptees use to identify their close relatives and eventually, their parents, Barbara Rae-Venter assisted law enforcement with identifying the man, Joseph DeAngelo, accused not yet convicted of being the Golden State Killer GSK.

A very large congratulations to Barbara, a retired patent attorney who is also a genealogist. Nature recognized Ms. DNA is also represented on the Nature list by Viviane Slon , a palaeogeneticist who discovered an ancient half Neanderthal, half Denisovan individual and sequenced their DNA and He JianKui , a Chinese scientist who claims to have created a gene-edited baby which has sparked widespread controversy.

In , 23andMe patented the technology for designer babies and I removed my kit from their research program. I was concerned at the time that this technology knife could cut two ways, both for good, eliminating fatal disease-causing mutations and also for ethically questionable practices, such as eugenics.

I expect the debate about the ethics and eventual regulation of gene-editing will rage globally for years to come. I wrote about what those results meant scientifically, here. This topic became highly volatile and politicized, with everyone seeming to have a very strongly held opinion. Regardless of where you fall on that opinion spectrum and no, please do not post political comments as they will not be approved , the topic is likely to surface again in due to the fact that Elizabeth Warren has just today announced her intention to run for President.

The good news is that DNA testing will likely be discussed, sparking curiosity in some people, perhaps encouraging them to test. The bad news is that some of the discussion may be unpleasant at best, and incorrect click-bait at worst. The Golden State Killer case sparked widespread controversy about using GedMatch and potentially other genetic genealogy data bases to assist in catching people who have committed violent crimes, such as rape and murder.

GedMatch, the database used for the GSK case has made it very clear in their terms and conditions that DNA matches may be used for both adoptees seeking their families and for other uses, such as law enforcement seeking matches to DNA sequenced during a criminal investigation. Since April , more than 15 cold case investigations have been solved using the same technique and results at GedMatch.

Parabon Nanolabs in May established a genetic genealogy division headed by CeCe Moore who has worked in the adoptee community for the past several years. The division specializes in DNA testing forensic samples and then assisting law enforcement with the associated genetic genealogy. Currently, GedMatch is the only vendor supporting the use of forensic sample matching. MyHeritage went from a somewhat wobbly DNA start about 2 years ago to rolling out a chromosome browser at the end of January and adding important features such as SmartMatching which matches your DNA and your family trees.

Additionally, he announced that MyHeritage partnered with the adoption community by offering 15, free kits to adoptees. You can follow my journey and the conference in Olso here , here , here , here and here. I think the concept of users being in charge and understanding what is happened with their data, and in this case, their data plus their DNA, is absolutely sound. The requirements however, were created without any consideration to this industry — which is small by comparison to the Googles and Facebooks of the world.

However, the Googles and Facebooks of the world along with many larger vendors seem to have skated, at least somewhat. Other companies shut their doors or restricted their offerings in other ways, such as World Families Network and Oxford Ancestors. Vendors such as Ancestry and Family Tree DNA had to make unpopular changes in how their users interface with their software — in essence making genetic genealogy more difficult without any corresponding positive return.

The potential fines, 20 million plus Euro for any company holding data for EU residents made it unwise to ignore the mandates. Not everyone uploaded their results, and the sites had not been updated in a number of years, but the closure due to GDPR was still a community loss. Today, mitoydna. All customers are guaranteed a minimum of STR markers in total. Matching was implemented in December.

These additional STR markers allow genealogists to assemble additional line marker mutations to more granularly identify specific male lineages. I was very pleased to see this development, because Family Tree DNA clearly has the largest Y database in the industry, by far, and now everyone can reap the benefits. In October, Family Tree DNA published their mitochondrial tree publicly as well, with corresponding haplogroup locations. They are the only vendor offering full Y and mitochondrial services complete with matching.

My attendance is very doubtful, although I vacillate back and forth. On the other hand, the MyHeritage LIVE conference was amazing with both livestreamed and recorded sessions which are now available free here along with many others at Legacy Family Tree Webinars. The Virtual Genealogical Association was formed for those who find it difficult or impossible to participate in local associations.

They too are focused on education via webinars. Genetic Genealogy Ireland continues to provide their yearly conference sessions both livestreamed and recorded for free. Everyone can benefit and I enjoy them immensely. Hope to see you there. In September, Dana Leeds publicized The Leeds Method, another way of grouping your matches that clusters matches in a way that indicates your four grandparents.

Great job Dana! In December, Genetic Affairs introduced an inexpensive subscription reporting and visual clustering methodology , but you can try it for free. I love this grouping tool. I have not worked with the new tool yet, as it has just been released, but Kitty Cooper has and writes about it here. I have not had a chance to work with Rootsfinder beyond the very basics, but Rootsfinder provides genetic network displays for people that you match, as well as triangulated views.

Genetic networks visualizations are great ways to discern patterns. The tool creates match or triangulation groups automatically for you. The newer GSA chip is only partially compatible with the OmniExpress chip, providing limited overlap between the older and the new results. This has forced the vendors to use imputation to equalize the playing field between the chips, so to speak. This has also caused a significant hardship for GedMatch who is now in the position of trying to match reasonably between many different chips that sometimes overlap minimally.

GedMatch introduced Genesis as a sandbox beta version previously, but are now in the process of combining regular GedMatch and Genesis into one. Yes, there are problems and matching challenges. Patience is the key word as the various vendors and GedMatch adapt and improve their required migration to imputation. In June Blaine Bettinger announced DNACentral , an online monthly or yearly subscription site as well as a monthly newsletter that covers news in the genetic genealogy industry.

Many educators in the industry have created seminars for DNACentral. Even though I work in this industry, I still subscribed — initially to show support for Blaine, thinking I might not get much out of the newsletter. I enjoy the newsletter and will be watching sessions in the Course Library and the Monthly Webinars soon.

The good news is that many new people are engaged. I created a Help page for just this reason. You can help with this issue by recommending subscribing to these three blogs, not just reading an article, to newbies or people seeking answers. Always feel free to post links to my articles on any social media platform. Share, retweet, whatever it takes to get the words out!

The general genetic genealogy social media group I would recommend if I were to select only one would be Genetic Genealogy Tips and Techniques. Now the bad news. Everyone had noticed the popularity of DNA testing — including shady characters.

If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is. When considering DNA testing or transfers, make sure you fully understand the terms and conditions, where your DNA is going, who is doing what with it, and your recourse. Yes, read every single word of those terms and conditions. All those DNA tests look yummy-good, but in terms of vendors, I heartily recommend staying within the known credible vendors, as follows in alphabetical order.

Understand that both 23andMe and Ancestry will sell your DNA if you consent and if you consent, you will not know who is using your DNA, where, or for what purposes. There are a few other niche vendors known for specific things within the genetic genealogy community, many of whom are mentioned in this article, but other than known vendors, buyer beware.

We do know about a few things to look for:. We as a community and also as individual genealogists will be making incredible discoveries and moving the ball forward. Happy New Year!!! I receive a small contribution when you click on some but not all of the links to vendors in my articles. I wrote a review in both and as well. For example, both www. Genetic genealogy has gone over the tipping point. Genetic genealogy is now, unquestionably, mainstream and lots of people are taking part.

From the best I can figure, there are now approaching or have surpassed three million tests or test records, although certainly some of those are duplicates. Family Tree DNA provides various kinds of genetic genealogy tests to the community and they have over , individuals with more than , test records.

In addition to the above mentioned mainstream firms, there are other companies that provide niche testing, often in addition to Family Tree DNA Y results. In addition, there is what I would refer to as a secondary market for testing as well which certainly attracts people who are not necessarily genetic genealogists but who happen across their corporate information and decide the test looks interesting. There is no way of knowing how many of those tests exist. Additionally, there is still the Sorenson data base with Y and mtDNA tests which reportedly exceeded their , goal.

I would certainly agree. The big attraction to autosomal testing is that anyone can play and you get lots of matches. Case in point is that someone contacted me about DNA and genealogy. Africans, on the other hand, carry none or very little Neanderthal DNA. A month later, a monumental paper was published that detailed the results of sequencing a 12, Clovis child, subsequently named Anzick or referred to as the Anzick Clovis child, in Montana.

That child is closely related to Native American people of today. In June, another paper emerged where the authors had analyzed year old bones from the Fertile Crescent that shed light on the Neolithic area before the expansion from the Fertile Crescent into Europe. These would be the farmers that assimilated with or replaced the hunter-gatherers already living in Europe. Svante Paabo is the scientist who first sequenced the Neanderthal genome. Here is a great interview and speech. This man is so interesting.

In the fall, yet another paper was released that contained extremely interesting information about the peopling and migration of humans across Europe and Asia. The take away messages from this are two-fold. Secondarily, the people we thought were in Europe early may not have been, based on the ancient DNA remains we have to date.

Of course, that may change when more ancient DNA is fully sequenced which seems to be happening at an ever-increasing rate. Felix obtained the full genome files from the scientists involved in full genome analysis of ancient remains, reduced the files to the SNPs utilized by the autosomal testing companies in the genetic genealogy community, and has made them available at GedMatch. If this topic is of interest to you, I encourage you to visit his blog and read his many posts over the past several months.

The availability of these ancient results set off a sea of comparisons. Because Anzick is matching so heavily with the Mexican, Central and South American populations, it gives us the opportunity to extract mitochondrial DNA haplogroups from the matches that either are or may be Native, if they have not been recorded before. Needless to say, the matches of these ancient kits with contemporary people has left many people questioning how to interpret the results.

In the citizen science community, this is how forward progress is made…eventually. A Siberian sample that also matches the Malta Child whose remains were analyzed in late Felix has prepared a list of kits that he has processed, along with their GedMatch numbers and other relevant information, like gender, haplogroup s , age and location of sample. The output is a heat map showing which samples you match most closely. Thank you Felix. At least, ultimately, it will be a good thing. Branches have been being added to and sawed off of the haplotree on a daily basis.

This forced the renaming of the haplogroups from the old traditional R1b1a2 to R-M in While there was some whimpering then, it would be nothing like the outright wailing now that would be occurring as haplogroup named reached 20 or so digits. That is over per month or about 35 per day, every day.

Yes, indeed, that is the definition of a tsunami. Every one of those additions requires one of a number of volunteers, generally haplogroup project administrators to evaluate the various Big Y results, the SNPs and novel variants included, where they need to be inserted in the tree and if branches need to be rearranged. In some cases, naming request for previously unknown SNPs also need to be submitted. The tree has grown unbelievably in this past year just within the L21 group.

This project includes over individuals who have taken the Big Y test and shared their results which has defined about branches of the L21 tree. Currently there are almost kits available if you count the ones on order and the 20 or so from another vendor.

Other administrators are doing equivalent work in other haplogroup projects as well. I big thank you to everyone. One of the results of this onslaught of information is that there have been fewer and fewer academic papers about haplogroups in the past few years. In essence, by the time a paper can make it through the peer review cycle and into publication, the data in the paper is often already outdated relative to the Y chromosome.

Before writing about the topic, I had to translate into SNPese. The Family Tree DNA International Conference on Genetic Genealogy for project administrators is always wonderful, but this year was special because it was the 10 th annual. And yes, it was my 10 th year attending as well.

In all these years, I had never had a photo with both Max and Bennett. Everyone is always so busy at the conferences. Getting any 3 people, especially those two, in the same place at the same time takes something just short of a miracle. Ten years ago, it was the first genetic genealogy conference ever held, and was the only place to obtain genetic genealogy education outside of the rootsweb genealogy DNA list, which is still in existence today.

Family Tree DNA always has a nice blend of sessions. Two educational venues offered classes for genetic genealogists and have made their presentations available either for free or very reasonably. In addition, three books have been released in This seems to be the year that genetic genealogists are beginning to reconstruct their ancestors on paper, not in the flesh based on the DNA that the ancestors passed on to various descendants. GedMatch has created a tool called, appropriately, Lazarus that does the same thing, gathers up the DNA of your ancestor from their descendants and reassembles it into a DNA kit.

Genome Mate is a desktop tool used to organize data collected by researching DNA comparsions and aids in identifying common ancestors. I have not used this tool, but there are others who are quite satisfied. It does require Microsoft Silverlight be installed on your desktop. It assists you by visually grouping your matches, by chromosome, and who you match in common with.

Charting Companion from Progeny Software, another tool I use, allows you to colorize and print or create pdf files that includes X chromosome groupings. This greatly facilitates seeing how the X is passed through your ancestors to you and your parents. WikiTree is a free resource for genealogists to be able to sort through relationships involving pedigree charts.

In November, they announced Relationship Finder. Felix Chandrakumar has created a number of fun tools as well. Take a look. With very little fanfare, deCODEme discontinued their consumer testing and reminded people to download their date before year end. I find this unfortunate because at one time, deCODEme seemed like a company full of promise for genetic genealogy. They failed to take the rope and run. DNA Tribes has been a long-time player in the ethnicity field of genetic genealogy.

I have often wondered if Lucas Martin was a pseudonym, as very little information about Lucas was available, even from Lucas himself. Neither did I find an obituary. The website says that they expect to resume offering services in January I would be cautious about ordering until the structure of the new company is understood.

We suspected this would happen when they stopped selling kits, but we NEVER expected that they would destroy the existing data bases, especially since they maintain the Sorenson data base as part of their agreement when they obtained the Sorenson data. The current and most long-standing issue is the lack of a chromosome browser, or any similar tools, that will allow genealogists to actually compare and confirm that their DNA match is genuine. Other than their sessions and presentations, they had remained very quiet about this and not addressed it to the community as a whole, simply saying that they were building something better, a better mousetrap.

In the fall, Ancestry invited a small group of bloggers and educators to visit with them in an all-day meeting, which came to be called DNA Day. I am grateful that they reached out to the community. Some very useful dialogue did occur between all participants. However, to date, nothing more has happened nor have we received any additional updates after the release of Circles. DNA Circles, while interesting and somewhat useful, is certainly NOT a replacement for a chromosome browser, nor is it a better mousetrap.

I wonder if that is the same as being voted off of the island. So, word to the wise…check your circles often…they change and not always in the upwards direction. Unfortunately, within the ever-growing genetic genealogy community a rather large rift has developed over the past couple of years. That was accompanied by death threats. Bullying behavior like this does not make others feel particularly safe in expressing their opinions either and is not conducive to free and open discussion.

There was an interesting article, which has now been removed, correlating DNA results with latitude and altitude. These have been studied for decades to understand the major migrations of large human populations. Miko Laerton and a team of scientists have developed pioneering research that shows that these differences in our DNA also reveal a detailed map of where our own ancestors lived going back thousands of years.

The full study by Dr. April Fools Day appears to have arrived early! There is no such institution as Aberdeen College founded in This fake news item seems to be the only live page on the Aberdeen College website. There appears to be no such journal anyway. What is the take-away of all of this? Be aware, very aware, skeptical and vigilant. While the science team feels that they have positively identified the remains as those of Richard, the Y DNA of Richard and another group of men supposed to have been descended from a common ancestor with Richard carry DNA that does not match.

One of the life lessons that genetic genealogy has held for me is that we are more closely related that we ever knew, to more people than we ever expected, and we are far more alike than different. From the 23andMe blog :. The study leverages samples of unprecedented size and precise estimates of ancestry to reveal the rate of ancestry mixing among American populations, and where it has occurred geographically:.

The ancestry proportions point to the different regional impacts of slavery, immigration, migration and colonization within the United States:. So what does hold? Hopefully, it holds more ancestors, whether discovered through plain old paper research, cousin DNA testing or virtually raised from the dead!

It certainly makes me wonder what the landscape a year from now will look like. To say it has been interesting is like calling the Eiffel Tower an oversized coat hanger. We could debate all day about whether the SNP Tsunami or the 23andMe mess is more important or relevant — and there would be lots of arguing points and counterpoints…see…I told you lawyers were involved…. This was an intensively manual process of SNP discovery, but it was effective.

By the time that the Geno 2. However, the Nat Geo chip tested them and indeed, the Y tree became massively shuffled. That publication has been discussed and anticipated for some time now, but it has yet to materialize. Kind of like Jekyll and Hyde. See the Sloppy Science section. But Walk the Y, Chromo2 and Geno 2. A wealthy wife starts what could be viewed as an upscale hobby business, followed by a messy divorce and a mystery run-in with the powerful overlording evil-step-mother FDA.

Another way of looking at this is that 23andMe is the epitome of the American Dream business, a startup, with altruism and good health, both thrown in for good measure, well intentioned, but poorly managed.

We, as a community, suddenly woke up and started ordering these tests in droves. To 23andMe, the genetic genealogy community was an afterthought and genetic genealogy was just another marketing avenue to obtain more people for their health research data base. That act caused a lot of people to begin to question the corporate focus of 23andMe in the larger quagmire of the ethics of patenting genes as a whole.

Judy Russell, the Legal Genealogist, discussed this here. Was 23andMe really as altruistic as they would have us believe? Personally, this event made me very nervous, but I withheld judgment. But clearly, that was not the purpose for which I thought my DNA, and others, was being used. But then came the Designer Baby patent in This made me decidedly uncomfortable. Upon the issuance of the patent, 23andMe then said they have no intention of using it.

This also makes absolutely no business sense, to focus valuable corporate resources on something you have no intention of using? They also forgot their phone number and their e-mail addresses apparently as well, because the FDA said they had heard nothing from them in 6 months, which backdates to May of It may be relevant that 23andMe added the executive position of President and filled it in June of , and there was a lot of corporate housecleaning that went on at that time.

However, regardless of who got housecleaned, the responsibility for working with the FDA falls squarely on the shoulders of the founders, owners and executives of the company. No excuses. Something that critically important should be on the agenda of every executive management meeting. In terms of corporate risk, this was obviously a very high risk item, perhaps the highest risk item, because the FDA can literally shut their doors and destroy them.

There is little they can do to control or affect the FDA situation, except to work with the FDA, meet deadlines and engender goodwill and a spirit of cooperation. The risk of not doing that is exactly what happened. I mean, really, what were they thinking? There has been an outpouring of sympathy for 23andme and negative backlash towards the FDA for their letter forcing 23andMe to stop selling their offending medical product, meaning the health portion of their testing.

However, in reality, the FDA was only meting out the consequences that 23andMe asked for. My teenage kids knew this would happen. Just ask my son about his prom…. Now why my kids, or 23andMe, would push an authority figure to that point, knowing full well the consequences, utterly mystifies me. It did when my son was a teenager and it does with 23andMe as well.

Some people think that the FDA is trying to stand between consumers and their health information. Why I think that is because the FDA left the raw data files alone and they left the genetic genealogy aspect alone. The difference is that Promethease is not interpreting any data for you, only providing information.

There is some good news in this and that is that from a genetic genealogy perspective, we seem to be safe, at least for now, from government interference with the testing that has been so productive for genetic genealogy. The really frustrating aspect of this is that 23andMe was a company who, with their deep pockets in Silicon Valley and other investors, could actually afford to wage a fight with the FDA, if need be.

But they let us all down. Right now, 23andMe is selling their kits, but only as an ancestry product as they work through whatever process they are working through with the FDA. Unfortunately, 23andMe is currently having some difficulties where the majority of matches are disappearing from some testers records. In other cases, segments that previously matched are disappearing. One would think, with their only revenue stream for now being the genetic genealogy marketspace that they would be wearing kid gloves and being extremely careful, but apparently not.

One thing is for sure, it will be extremely interesting to see where 23andMe is this time next year. The soap opera continues. In a landmark decision, the Supreme Court determined that genes cannot be patented.

Other firms followed suit, and all were subsequently sued by Myriad for patent infringement. I was shocked by this, but as one of my lawyer friends clearly pointed out, you can sue anyone for anything. Making it stick is yet another matter. Many firms settle to avoid long and very expensive legal battles. Clearly, this issue is not yet resolved, although one would think a Supreme Court decision would be pretty definitive. This is, indeed, a breath of fresh air for genetic genealogists, as well as a welcome relief.

Autosomal DNA testing and analysis has simply exploded this past year. More and more people are testing, in part, because Ancestry. Another boon to autosomal testing was the 23andMe push to obtain a million records. Fourth is the site, GedMatch, at www. Also unfortunate is that GedMatch has struggled for the past few months to keep up with the demand placed on their site and resources.

A great deal of time this year has been spent by those of us in the education aspect of genetic genealogy, in whatever our capacity, teaching about how to utilize autosomal results. Fortunately, we also have third party tools like www. While this tool, www. Family Tree DNA has always provided segment matching boundaries through their chromosome browser tool, but until recently, you could only download 5 matches at a time. Multiple steps?

A special hats off to Rob. So, please donate if you use the tool. I covered www. All they did have was a list of your matches, with their trees listed, with shakey leaves if you shared a common ancestor on your tree. The implication, was, and is, of course, that if you have a DNA match and a shakey leaf, that IS your link, your genetic link, to each other.

Unfortunately, that is NOT the case, as CeCe Moore documented in her blog from Rootstech starting just below the pictures as an illustration of WHY we so desperately need a chromosome browser tool. What this means is, of course, that the DNA match and the shakey leaf match are entirely independent of each other.

So what Ancestry customers are receiving is a list of people they match and possible links, but most of them have no idea that this is the case, and blissfully believe they have found their genetic connection. No DNA needed. The ethnicity predictions are certainly different, dramatically different, but equally as unrealistic.

See the Ethnicity Makeovers section for more on this. The search function helps, but what we really need is the chromosome browser, which they have steadfastly avoided promising. Ancestry has the funds to do development. They are not a small company. Why is this? The IBM sales rep got married, and on his wedding night, he sat on the edge of the bed all night long regaling his bride in glorious detail with stories about just how good it was going to be….

You can sign a petition asking Ancestry to provide a chromosome browser here , and you can submit your request directly to Ancestry as well, although to date, this has not been effective. They seem to be more interested in selling kits and providing shakey leaves that are misleading in terms of what they mean than providing true tools.

This has been a huge year for advances in sequencing ancient DNA, something once thought unachievable. We have learned a great deal, and there are many more skeletal remains just begging to be sequenced. Just this week, evidence of yet another archaic hominid line has been found in Neanderthal DNA and on Christmas Day, yet another article stating that type 2 Diabetes found in Native Americans has roots in their Neanderthal ancestors.

Closer to home, by several thousand years is the suggestion that haplogroup R did not exist in Europe after the ice age, and only later, replaced most of the population which, for males, appears to have been primarily haplogroup G. It will be very interesting as the data bases of fully sequenced skeletons are built and compared. The history of our ancestors is held in those precious bones. The race to the buck in some instances is the catalyst for this.

It certainly does nothing for their credibility in the eyes of people who are familiar with the topics at hand, but it does garner a lot of press and probably sells a lot of kits to the unwary. Sensationalist reporting, while irritating, can be dealt with if the science is sound. However, until the results are published in a peer-reviewed academic journal, we have no way of knowing. Thankfully, Debbie Kennett has been keeping her thumb on this situation, occurring primarily in the British Isles.

Citizen science has been slowing coming of age over the past few years. By this, I mean when citizen scientists work as part of a team on a significant discovery or paper. Bill Hurst comes to mind with his work with Dr. As the years have progressed, more and more discoveries have been made or assisted by citizen scientists, sometimes through our projects and other times through individual research.

Turi King, the new editor, to become available, was a great avenue for peer reviewed publication. But in hindsight and thanks to your relaying your experience, it is now gone from any presentation. I traced all of my ancestors back into slavery and after finding them living in families in and census records, I drove myself crazy wondering how many of them could have been misattributed parentage conceptions.

This issue is only part of the baggage that comes from the stigma of blaming the victim that still follows so many today, but knowledge and hope bring healing. Thank you so much, Blaine. Great post and great advice. I spent most of my own youth joking that I must have been the son of the milkman.

I recently published a novel which I dedicated to her. The novel deals with the history of violence including rape that we all have in our ancestry somewhere. Taking these stories lightly is neither professional, nor respectful of those who are living those experiences today. So, again, thank you for this post to remind us that the people around us have had experiences that we may never know about, and we should always be conscious of that.

Thank you for this thoughtful and illuminating post. I have been guilty of being flippant, and by being so probably unintentionally implied blame on the victim. I was aware that many of these incidents were probably non-consensual, but many who are just beginning to explore their families are truly unsettled when they find their ancestors were not angels.

I tried to make the point that people are people, then and now — good, bad, and ugly. I will be more sensitive in the future. Through DNA, I have narrowed who my prospective grandfather is to someone who was living in the same city nearly years ago. My chief complaint right now is that while I use due diligence to insure that my tree is correct, Ancestry is spreading falsehoods.

Additionally, I have Native American ancestry and have tribal membership in that tribe but Ancestry shows my ancestry as being from South America which is misleading to anyone wishing to compare our heritages. I have tried to contact someone in Ancestry to fix these problems but to no avail. Is there someone beside a bot that I can communicate with?

Some of my ancestors are in over other trees there. No way to write and ask for corrections. I have concluded that the wikitree. It is free, and the website requires some experience to navigate easily, as we are all volunteers there. Check it out? Take an ancestor way back, quite likely to be listed on wikitree already, and see if the data on them is correct. Then scroll down generation by generation and see if You are already listed. You might never go back to those for profit sites that entice us with the Thrulines and Circles power.

It would be painful and possibly embittering to tell the child that she was conceived in those circumstances. Just reading some of the responses from men in this thread show why women decide to remain quiet. It was kind of Blaine to write this thoughtful article and fend off the more derisory comments in this thread.

The grandmother was married at the time but did she have an affair or was it a non-consensual event? I guess we are more sensitive to the subject now since the news coverage is much more than in the old days. I have presented a talk about an abandoned baby case and we wondered the same.

Was it consensual or not? Thank you for bringing this to our attention. I jumped into genetic genealogy a few years ago when investigating who may birth mother was and I have always enjoyed the insights Blaine and Others share on their blogs. So I have to say that what some of the critical comments here are saying rings true to me.

The overwhelming profile of our ancestors were hard-working, decent people. So suggesting that the milkman joke is offensive to anyone other than a very few does seem a little off topic and different from what I am accustomed to seeing on this blog. I am a strong woman and I have little doubt that my distant maternal ancestors were the same.

We were and are not victims and I too do not want to see victim mentality creep into what is not my dearest hobby. I for one would like to see everyone lighten up and let jokes be jokes good or bad. Thanks Blaine for what is otherwise a great blog that has really helped me as a beginner! But I can offer you two points of data that may help. There was FAR less chance of retribution or punishment in the past. Every time. We know that there is interpersonal and societal violence including rape in every generation.

We know of many, many circumstances which resulted in large numbers of NPEs due to rape war, violent systematic racism, slavery, misogynist laws — until relatively recently in history, even in America, women and children were essentially property. Bettinger cites in his audiences are what you would expect. You are deluding yourself if you think the incidence is less than one percent and can mostly be explained by consensual relations.

Some of those were not consensual. Thank you Mr. Bettinger, for this post. European culture I will try to find the reference. I would think genealogists have a reverence for their history and would not hide dark moments where they are known to be true.

However, If anything, the otherwise public viewing lens seems to be quite grey rather than rosy and hence the pushback by some on victim culture. I am an anthropology academic and am frustrated how real issues that impact women and families are being drowned out by ideological agendas that skew facts. I am confideny you are very well-meaning, but we must be careful to not build opinions and judge others on false narratives thrown out willy nilly in the media that exaggerate sexual assault and every other grievance to serve political agendas.

Also, Urban life today, that includes drugs and alcohol and a different sexual playing field, cannot be projected back more than a generation or two. I am certain I have read informed literature on this matter. Of course things were different during wartime, and so specific times, locales and definitions are pertinent.

The MeToo movement is controversial by many for good reason and hence is very political even where I live and travel. IMHO, unless credible evidence speaks to the contrary, NPEs are not best viewed thru the lens being suggested and I see why there is pushback from men above. It could lead down a slippery slope and paint our ancestral cultures in an unfair light. And BTW, exactly for political reasons do I also prefer to use only my first name. His words may seem sharper and more provocative than most not my style , but shaming joke tellers due to political correctness is a hot button these days down under.

Blaine I am beginning to see why some objected to your blog. I did no such thing and it is you who are not doing anyone any favours with over-simplifying a complex topic. It is well known that the definitions of rape have been migrating greatly of late under pressure from some extreme political agendas.

I see no need for genetic genealogy to be tackling this topic as it is well beyond the simplicities you are advocating. Until the science is in, I would stay clear of projecting biased studies onto our distant ancestors. These women were straight up raped, just the way we think of it. Honestly reference your own life and that of your family and friends. Sexual violence is rampant today, even when women are generally recognized as equal, full human beings, at least on paper.

Acknowledging reality is NOT embracing victimhood. Denying it is flat wrong. To be an objective researcher, you need to let go of your delusions. More power to you Mr. Are you aware, Natasha, that there are literally hundreds of thousand of rape kits left untested in evidence lockers across the country?

You can challenge any of these individual statistics, Natasha, but no challenge will result in the kind of numerical absurdity you claim. I find this comment to be somewhat offensive. You seem to be denying the terrible way in which most women in history have been treated by men. Alec you seem to get easily offended. The point is that modern urban life has little similarity to the life our ancestors lived, excluding recent generations.

I was not intending to focus on any specific factor. Traditionally, each sex had roles to play as dictated by nature, and it was nature itself that oppressed both men and women, albeit in different ways. Yes men have treated women badly, as they did most other men. This whole oppressive patriarchy theme is misguided IMHO. I had to delete comments from an individual on this post. There was nothing derogatory and he seemed to be only correcting the record from his perspective , referencing a public intellectual, and summarizing his motivations concerning his comments.

Bottom line for me as an anthropologist is that to extrapolate modern day ideology backwards in time is fraught with pitfalls although it is unfortunately becoming very popular. Until very recent political agendas have taken hold, there is very little in our anthropological record to indicate abnormal violence by men against women was prevalent.

Certainly we have a violent past, but its a lot more complicated than the feminist theories of You advocate for science and logic but you seem to be quite biased on what assertions to believe or ignore. You have a PhD so you would agree that the majority consensus is often mistaken. I was following this debate with some interest and really do not see what everyone is upset about? I would like to know what to think about my NPEs.

Most comments here are aligned with political correctness today, and others were challenging the status quo that sometimes plays with the narrative we have the msm to thank for that lol. It makes me now wonder when I read anything online just how much is being censored or manipulated? It is becoming difficult to know what is fact and what is bullocks anymore and I would think a genealogy blog could have some open discussion. I always thought the milkman joke mostly centered around how diverse children can look despite the parents, with a playful wink about infidelity which everyone knows exists, and which is overtly tolerated in many cultures.

It was never about sexual violence? You blokes need to watch some Monty Python! Can we get back to talking about genetic genealogy? And notably, a blog is not a democracy. Blaine most blogs enable comments to allow community engagement. No need to be so authoritarian because some disagree with you. On the morning of May 3, my mother called me and asked me to go to the hospital because my grandmother was expected to pass away.

She had been in the hospital for the last several years of her life with Alzheimer disease. None of her three living children, her husband of 65 years, none of her other grandchildren were present but me. What does that tell you about the family feelings toward this woman? I have since discovered the family of the man who was my genetic grandfather. Is it possible my grandmother could have been a victim of sexual assault?

But does that excuse her lifetime of behavior toward her own children and grandchildren? I have no problem letting the joke die but I do have issues with you telling us what our emotions should be about our ancestors. Maybe next time you will omit that as well.

Of course no one can proscribe emotions toward any specific situation. I can only say that we need to be aware of the past, and that it is not as rosy and easy as most people pretend. Issues of pro- or anti-feminist agenda, man-hating, and others are your issues and problems, not mine, and none of them are necessary to address the issue of making stupid jokes about events that no one can refute included rape. It did, often, like it or not. I saw this joke hurt a member of my audience, and I know MANY genealogists that are offended by this joke.

But even those opposed to my post can no longer make the joke flippantly. Now you know that it ignores the reality of the past, and that it re-victimizes living people. Alcohol and loneliness are the catalysts of a lot this. Also abusive or neglectful husbands. My father was a bigamist bicoastal. His brothers were Tomcats as well, I keep running into new close DNA matched unknown relatives even as a septuagenarian. There are at least half a dozen products of consensual affairs in my family.

I am always amused for instance when some of my Latino relatives call someone an anglo when they are Polish or Irish. Being an old Opelousas Coon Ass I grew up tough and Jokes and insults about marrying you cousins and such etc were plentiful. Blaine is right in my eyes. Thank you, Blaine, for having the insight and courage to write on such an important topic. Posts like yours encourage much-needed dialogue and help to create positive change.

Some of the comments here are a stark reminder of that. Interesting but as someone who was the victim of parental fraud not every woman who gets pregnant by a man who is not her partner has been raped. In my case my then spouse lied about me being the father and when found out lied as to his identity and then the law refused to take action for her crime. You neglected the middle ground between Love and Rape.

I have an NPE in my 3x Great Grandfather whose mother was separated from her husband due to his infidelities. My reading of this was revenge sex or simply desperate to have sex. The man involved in the sex also sired another man in the area by another woman. He was an itinerant surveyor who passed through going to and fro from the Virginia to what would become Kentucky.

Informative article. I had a situation where a child ended up on the census for my 3rd great grandparents. They were clearly too old to have a child but the child had their last name. It turns out that he is the child of one of their daughters and they apparently raised him until he was old enough to go off on his own. The daughter married but the son never lived with the daughter and her husband.

My first thought was rape since this occurred during the civil war but I can find no instance of a battle in their area. Of course the daughter could have been visiting somewhere else where a battle did occur. Nonetheless, a non-consensual event likely occurred. I made a note in my ancestry account that he was born out of wedlock just to explain what was occurring and why he was listed with the daughter in the genealogy.

I made no personal determining either way. Thank you, Blaine, for your thoughtful blog post. I definitely agree with the points you made. It often bothers me when someone finds an NPE and assumes it can only mean that a wife was unfaithful. There are so many reasons unexpected parental results happen. He may have been secretly adopted, or even trafficked by the likes of Georgia Tann or Dr. Thomas Hicks. I have an ancestor who was born in Canada and immigrated to the US as a young man, and, years later, he began using the birth date and place of a man born in the US with the same first and last name because, I believe, it was easier to get proof of the local birth of the other man than it was to get proof of his actual birth in a different country.

Both my sisters are his. They both took it to their graves even though he knew and said so in several outburst when I was really young. Thank you Blaine for this post. I have heard the joke many times and laughed myself reflexively. I agree its time to retire it. I am aware of non-consensual sex resulting in the birth of relatives of mine I will not name for privacy reasons. You have to be very naive to think that it is a rare circumstance in any generation. Most were born in the era before abortion was legal and were adopted.

I feel their pain and wish I could help. Fortunately there are websites and resources online now that can help them in their search and some laws are changing to make their search a little bit easier. My mother passed away in In her last moment, She told us that our grandfather her father was not biologically related to us.

When She was a child She felt rejection of her paternal family. My grandmother was a very humble and poor coloured person and my new relatives are very rich and white people here in my country. At first, I criticised my grandmother in my mind, How can it be possible? Thank you for your words, excuse my English. Noticing your last name Bettinger. How might I get her in contact with you? Misattributed paternity of late has become a resounding theme in my family. The more I research the more I find.

The family gossip advanced the scenario that my grandfather pursued my grandmother knowing that my grandmother was in love and impregnated out of wedlock by his brother. The story goes that his brother refused to marry her…so my grandfather made her an honest woman by marrying her while she was pregnant. The truth: my grandmother and her sister were placed in an orphanage in TN after their father was shot and killed in the line of police duty.

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Are all of them ever going to reflect the exact same data? Who is the ultimate authority anyway? Accuracy is a worthwhile goal, but genealogy is a mess because humans beings are a mess. Great read! Sequence beginning and end? I am totally confused by different methods. A cousin had y-dna testing done hoping to lead to the identity of an unknown great-grandfather.

I am furiously trying to learn as much about dna testing as possible, as quickly as possible. Is this possible? Where should I direct these questions so that they get to you, the author? Hi Dr. I have a quick question about my DNA sample from ancestry. How is it that in some cases the children have a higher percentage of DNA attributed to a certain place than the parents?

Thank you very much. One of them was telling us that you are doing a study re Endogenous families. Some of us were discussing it and wondering does that mean intermarrying in a community or where your can trace your ancestors and your husbands ancestors back in the centuries to where they met up and married. I have traced my husband and mine back to a marriage in with one family in Meopham, Kent and another marriage in Speldhurst, Kent. Looking forward to hearing from you.

Many thanks for all that you have and are doing for we amateur genealogists. Are there any estimates on the probability that two related people at a specified degrees of separation or relationship will have an AncestryDNA match? The Shared cM Project Version 4. I am interested in probabilities for longer degrees of separation. Your email address will not be published. Courtesy CeCe Moore. Pingback: Small-leaved Shamrock.

Pingback: Genetic Genealogist Dr. Did you rec the email to your hotmail address? Any better one? Are you an author? Help us improve our Author Pages by updating your bibliography and submitting a new or current image and biography. Learn more at Author Central. Previous page. Kindle Edition. Next page. Blog post. Version 4. March Update to the Shared cM Project! The Shared cM Project ScP is a collaborative data collection and analysis project created to understand the ranges of shared cM associated with various known relationships.

Putting the Milkman Joke to Rest. Some of us have even made it. All information is anonymized. New Tools Everywhere! The biggest winner of all, of course, is the consumer! Examining Outliers in Shared cM Amounts. It is canon that you received your mtDNA from your mother, who received it from her mother, who received it from her mother, back through time to Mitochondrial Eve. But could that canon be wrong? Probably not. There are also new samples undergoing extraction this coming week.

All extracted samples will be genotyped before Christmas. The genealogical community has a serious issue we need to talk about. We are amassing one of the largest collections of genealogical information ever created, in the form of DNA match data. Many DNA test takers have a wealth of genetic relatives! For example, I have more than 50, different genetic cousins across all the genealogy DNA testing companies.

There's a problem loading this menu right now. Learn more about Amazon Prime. Get free delivery with Amazon Prime. Books By Blaine T. Unlock the family secrets in your DNA! Discover the answers to your family history mysteries using the most cutting edge tool available. This plain-English guide newly updated and expanded to include th latest DNA developments will teach you what DNA tests are available; the pros and cons of the major testing companies; and how to choose the right test to answer your specific genealogy questions.

And once you've taken a DNA test, this guide will help you use your often-overwhelming results, with tips for understanding ethnicity estimates, navigating suggested cousin matches, and using third-party tools like GEDmatch to further analyze your data. Other Formats: Audible Audiobook , Paperback. Genetic Genealogy in Practice Nov 18, Bettinger , Debbie Parker Wayne.

Written by Blaine T. Bettinger, PhD, JD, and Debbie Parker Wayne, CG, CGL, the book provides family historians and genealogists who have just begun to explore genetic genealogy practical, easy to understand information that they can apply to their research. Each chapter includes exercises with answer keys for hands-on practice. Blaine Bettinger is an intellectual property attorney in Syracuse, New York.

The author of The Genetic Genealogist blog, he is a genealogy educator, a trustee of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, and organizer of the Shared cM Project, a crowdsourced project examining the associations between genetic data and genealogical relationships. Other Formats: Paperback. This new book offers an in-home course in advanced genetic genealogy.

Case studies demonstrate analyzing the DNA test results, correlating with documentary evidence, and writing about the findings, all incorporating the updated standards for using DNA. Full-color illustrations help the genealogist incorporate these techniques into personal or client research projects. Each of the fourteen chapters was written by a professional genealogist with DNA experience. Eight chapters study real families some using anonymized identities , including methods, tools, and techniques.

Jim Bartlett covers how to triangulate a genome mapping DNA segments to ancestors. Blaine T. Bettinger demonstrates the methodology for visual phasing mapping DNA segments to the grandparents who passed down the segment to descendants, even when the grandparents cannot be tested.

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And once you've taken a DNA test, this guide will help you use your often-overwhelming results, with tips for understanding ethnicity estimates, navigating suggested cousin matches, and using third-party tools like GEDmatch to further analyze your data. Other Formats: Audible Audiobook , Paperback. Genetic Genealogy in Practice Nov 18, Bettinger , Debbie Parker Wayne.

Written by Blaine T. Bettinger, PhD, JD, and Debbie Parker Wayne, CG, CGL, the book provides family historians and genealogists who have just begun to explore genetic genealogy practical, easy to understand information that they can apply to their research. Each chapter includes exercises with answer keys for hands-on practice. Blaine Bettinger is an intellectual property attorney in Syracuse, New York.

The author of The Genetic Genealogist blog, he is a genealogy educator, a trustee of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, and organizer of the Shared cM Project, a crowdsourced project examining the associations between genetic data and genealogical relationships. Other Formats: Paperback. This new book offers an in-home course in advanced genetic genealogy.

Case studies demonstrate analyzing the DNA test results, correlating with documentary evidence, and writing about the findings, all incorporating the updated standards for using DNA. Full-color illustrations help the genealogist incorporate these techniques into personal or client research projects.

Each of the fourteen chapters was written by a professional genealogist with DNA experience. Eight chapters study real families some using anonymized identities , including methods, tools, and techniques. Jim Bartlett covers how to triangulate a genome mapping DNA segments to ancestors. Blaine T. Bettinger demonstrates the methodology for visual phasing mapping DNA segments to the grandparents who passed down the segment to descendants, even when the grandparents cannot be tested.

Kathryn J. Johnston shows how to use X-DNA to identify and confirm ancestral lines. James M. Melissa A. Johnson covers adoption and misattributed parentage research. Kimberly T. Powell provides guidance when researching families with endogamy and pedigree collapse. Ann Turner describes the raw DNA data and lab processes.

Three middle chapters cover genealogy standards as they relate to DNA and documentary evidence. Karen Stanbary applies the Genealogical Proof Standard to genetic genealogy in a hypothetical unknown parentage case illustrating start-to-finish analysis.

Patricia Lee Hobbs uses atDNA to identify an unknown ancestor and that ancestor's maiden name, moving back and forth between documentary and DNA evidence. Thomas W. Jones describes best practices for genealogical writing and publishing when incorporating DNA evidence. Three concluding chapters deal with ethics, emotions, and the future. Judy G. Russell covers ethical considerations. Michael D. Lacopo describes the effect on relationships when family secrets are uncovered, surfacing issues for all concerned.

Debbie Kennett covers the current limitations and future promise of using DNA for genealogy. An extensive glossary, list of recommended resources, and index are included. More Information. Anything else? Provide feedback about this page. Back to top. Get to Know Us. Amazon Payment Products. English Choose a language for shopping. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers.

Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. Sell on Amazon Start a Selling Account. Editors: Claire Smith. Contents Search. Bettinger, Robert L. How to cite. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Bettinger, R. The surface archaeology of Owens Valley, eastern California: prehistoric man-land relationships in the Great Basin.

Google Scholar. Aboriginal occupation at high altitude: alpine villages in the White Mountains of eastern California: American Anthropologist. Hunter-gatherers: archaeological and evolutionary theory. New York: Plenum Press. Hunter-gatherer foraging: five simple models. The Numic spread: Great Basin cultures in competition. American Antiquity.

Point typologies, cultural transmission, and the spread of bow and arrow technology in the prehistoric Great Basin. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. The origins of food production in north China: a different kind of agricultural revolution. Evolutionary Anthropology. Further Reading Bettinger, R. Holocene hunter-gatherers, in G. Price ed. Archaeology at the millennium: a sourcebook: - Elston, D. Madsen, Z.