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Their combined citations are counted only for the first article. Merged citations. This "Cited by" count includes citations to the following articles in Scholar. Add co-authors Co-authors. Upload PDF. Follow this author. New articles by this author. New citations to this author. New articles related to this author's research. Email address for updates.

My profile My library Metrics Alerts. Sign in. Articles Cited by. Title Sort Sort by citations Sort by year Sort by title. Asian Journal of International Law 7 1 , , Australian Journal of Human Rights 23 3 , , Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Other regional human rights instrument also recognize several core rights related to VAW, including the rights to life, non-discrimination, equal protection, physical and mental integrity, personal liberty, dignity, privacy, family, and access to justice.

It is the only human rights treaty directed solely toward eradicating violence against women that includes an individual complaint mechanism. Despite serious limitations, the Inter-American system has an increasingly-effective track record. The Inter-American system directly addresses issues of state responsibility for responding to violence against women, broadens possibilities of a shared understanding for what it means to exercise due diligence in VAW cases, creates certainty in standards, and has served as a mobilizing force for advocates and survivors.

Despite these positive developments, there are legitimate concerns about the norms, structure, and position of the Inter-American system. All of these treaties recognize several core rights related to VAW, including the rights to: life, non-discrimination, equal protection, physical and mental integrity, personal liberty, dignity, privacy, family, and access to justice. The Convention expressly recognizes the relationship between gender violence and discrimination, indicating that such violence is a manifestation of historically unequal power relationships between women and men preamble and art.

Under this provision, States must immediately commit to refrain from engaging in acts of violence against women; adopt appropriate legal, legislative, and administrative measures; apply due diligence principles to prevent, investigate, and punish violence against women; and ensure effective access to effective remedies.

Amnesty International Crenshaw Because the scope of such complaints is limited to discrimination, however, several types of substantive rights violations—concerning, e. This process resembles the reporting procedure of the U. It has not done so to date. Based in Washington, D. In carrying out its mandate, the Commission may refer to all of the regional human rights instruments within the OAS, including those discussed above.

Bettinger-Lopez The IACHR will investigate the matter and determine, after a two-phase process involving admissibility and merits phases, whether the State violated one or more of the applicable regional human rights treaties. The IACHR may hold case-related public hearings or private working meetings during any phase of the case. If the IACHR finds a violation of a treaty, it will issue a report on its legal conclusions and recommendations for remedies and non-repetition.

The measures may be of an individual or a collective nature, to prevent irreparable harm to persons due to their association with an organization, a group, or a community with identified or identifiable members. The granting of precautionary measures and their adoption by the State does not constitute a prejudgment on the violation of the rights protected by regional treaties.

Most of these cases involve acts of violence committed by state actors. The Office of the Rapporteur has undertaken initiatives to address the problem of discrimination against women in the exercise of their civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights. This takes place through country visits by IACHR commissioners to investigate the general situation of human rights, including the issue of VAW; reports that the IACHR publishes about the general human rights situation in a particular country, where VAW is addressed within a larger human rights analysis; and public hearings the IACHR hosts on the general human rights situation in a given country or region, where VAW is one of several human rights violations that are addressed.

Two illustrative examples follow below. Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Haiti In this context, the Commission found, rape was used an instrument of political violence and terror. On December 22, , the IACHR granted precautionary measures for all the displaced women and children living in 22 camps for internally displaced persons in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in the wake of the devastating January 10, earthquake.

Precautionary Measures re Women and girls residing in 22 Camps for internally displaced persons in Port-au-Prince, Haiti The request for precautionary measures alleges a pattern of sexual violence and a series of acts of violence against the women and girls residing in these camps. First, it applied to all women and girls living in 22 displacement camps, thereby strengthening the recognition of the right to be free from sexual violence under regional norms and customary international law.

The Commission had previously issued select precautionary measures rulings regarding sexual violence committed by state actors. Davis Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women in Canada Although indigenous women and girls represent a small percentage of the total population in Canada, they have been murdered or have gone missing at a disproportionately high rate. They argued that the Governments of Canada and British Columbia have failed in their obligation to exercise due diligence to adequately prevent the violence, investigate reports of disappearances and murders, and bring perpetrators to justice.

Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls Government of Canada; Domonoske Bennett Its two main functions are adjudicatory and advisory. Commission, which has jurisdiction over all OAS Member States, the Court has contentious jurisdiction only over those countries currently, 19 that have ratified the American Convention on Human Rights ACHR and that have additionally accepted its jurisdiction. ACHR art. The Court has addressed several cases of VAW, some of which are discussed below.

It may require parties to submit periodic reports on compliance, hold public and private hearings on compliance, and issue Court orders on compliance. These orders may declare full or partial compliance with the judgment, and require additional information from the parties. This implies the special obligation to protect that the State must exercise with regard to acts and practices of third parties who, with its tolerance or acquiescence, create, maintain or promote discriminatory situations.

These provisional measures are similar in nature to precautionary measures issued by the Commission, though each has different procedural requirements. In , in its Cotton Field decision, the Court held that it indeed had jurisdiction over Article 7 claims. The Court found that it lacked competence ratione materiae to find violations of Articles 8 and 9 of the Convention, since the treaty only grants such jurisdiction over Article 7.

However, the Court found that Articles 8 and 9 can be used to aid interpretation of Article 7 and of other pertinent inter-American instruments. Marin and Sandoval, ; Bettinger-Lopez The first line, decided between and , focused on cases alleging discrimination and violence against women by state actors, and impunity toward those acts, in violation of the American Convention.

While the Court was slower to come around, it eventually became a trailblazer on VAW-related international human rights jurisprudence. Celorio Some of the major cases are discussed below. Maria da Penha Maia Fernandes v. The case involves the attempted murder of a woman by her husband that rendered her paraplegic.

Maria da Penha Seventeen years later, at the time the Commission issued its decision, the State had still not sentenced the husband. The law defined the main forms of violence affecting women in their daily lives sexual, economic, physical, psychological, and moral violence and offered new mechanisms and measures for prevention, protection and assistance to VAW survivors.

Hein de Campos In August , the National Council of Justice of Brazil collected data that indicates positive results from the Law. Between , more than , cases of domestic violence were prosecuted, with , resulting in final judgments, and the national call center received nearly two million calls. However, obstacles financial and social to fully implementing the Law still remain. UN Women Moreover, only Special Courts for Domestic and Family Violence against Women had been set up in , a woefully insufficient number to serve a population of nearly million.

Kim ; see also Hein de Campos Inter-American Commission on Human Rights See, e. She claimed that while in detention, she was tortured, threatened, raped, and subjected to other forms of mistreatment. Loayza-Tamayo Many have critiqued this decision as indicative of a decision to impose a higher burden of proof for sexual violence than for other forms of violence.

Caballero Delgado and Santana v. Colombia was that it failed to recognize important gender dimensions of the case. In Caballero Delgado and Santana, the Court relied on eyewitness testimony in a forced disappearance case and concluded that the victims—a man and a woman—had been detained in violation of Article 7 right to liberty and had been deprived of their right to life in violation of Article 4 of the ACHR.

Caballero Delgado and Santana Despite this testimony, the Court concluded there was insufficient evidence to find a violation of Article 5 right to humane treatment. This suggests that, in the eyes of the Court, the fact that Santana was stripped and bound while Caballero Delgado was dressed was not even a factor in its decision regarding inhumane treatment.

Guatemala Plan de Sanchez involved a brutal raid of a Mayan village by government armed forces in Upon arriving in the village, however, the soldiers brutally raped, tortured and murdered the young women, beat the children to death, and killed with hand grenades, guns, and fire the remaining inhabitants. The men returned to the village the next day to find the bodies burning in pyres.

Approximately people—most of them women—died in the massacre, and the perpetrators were never brought to justice. The case came before the Court 22 years after the events in question, and the government of Guatemala accepted responsibility for violations of eleven articles of the ACHR, including the right to humane treatment under Article 5.

The women who were raped by the State agents on the day of the massacre, and who survived the massacre, still suffer from that attack. The rape of women was a State practice, executed in the context of massacres, designed to destroy the dignity of women at the cultural, social, family and individual levels. These women consider themselves stigmatized in their communities and have suffered from the presence of the perpetrators in the town's common areas.

Also, the continuing impunity of the events has prevented the women from taking part in the legal proceedings. Castro-Castro v. Even inmates attempting to surrender were gunned down. Forty-one people died in the attack and approximately were injured. The Court awarded higher amounts of compensation to victims of sexual violence and rape and, without specifically referring to sexual violence, ordered the State to provide all victims and their next of kin with free medical and psychological treatment.

Punish Torture. However, the Court stopped short of finding an independent violation. It resolved this question three years later, in the Cotton Field case discussed infra. Finally, the Court found that the mothers in solitary confinement had experienced enhanced suffering.

In even another dimension, many of the women who survived the bombing of the Prison of Castro-Castro. Castro-Castro laid the groundwork for a series of landmark decisions by the Inter- American Court and Commission that expanded and deepened the due diligence principle in the context of both state-sponsored and private acts of VAW, provided for transformative reparations at the individual and structural levels, and broadened the analysis of the intersection of VAW, gender, race, and ethnicity.

At issue in Cotton Field was the abduction, sexual abuse, and killing of three poor migrant women, two of whom were minors. Cotton Field marked a watershed moment in the Inter-American system. Additionally, the Court examined the cases at issue in the context of mass violence against women and structural discrimination, found that gender-based violence constitutes gender discrimination, and articulated its most comprehensive definition to date of gender-sensitive reparations designed not only to return victims to their status prior to the violation individual remedies , but also to transform the preexisting situation structural remedies.

In its judgment, the Court found Mexico responsible for numerous rights violations: the right to life art. Honduras case. The court affirmed its conclusion in Castro-Castro that, pursuant to article 12 of that treaty, it had jurisdiction over claims brought under article 7 immediate obligations. The court further concluded that it did not have jurisdiction over claims brought directly under article 8 progressive obligations or under article 9 intersectional obligations.

Still, the court found that the various articles of the Convention—including articles 8 and 9—can nevertheless be useful to aid interpretation of article 7 and of other pertinent Inter-American instruments, such as the American Convention. Judge Medina asserts that the suffering at issue in the case was sufficiently severe to constitute torture, as other international bodies have repeatedly found in cases involving gender-based violence.

The Court, however, rejected the argument advanced by the Inter-American Commission and Petitioners that, as a matter of non-repetition, Mexico should be required to design, coordinate, and implement a long-term national policy to guarantee due diligence in responding to cases of violence against women.

Ciudad Juarez continues to have a staggering murder rate. In , approximately women and girls were murdered during a renewed wave of violence against women in Ciudad Juarez. Cave Together with the U. The Mexican government states that it continues to investigate the murders of the three named victims, in conjunction with a program called Attention to Victims that incorporates a gender perspective into the investigation.

First Report Investigations also continue regarding the allegations of irregularities. The Mexican government claims to have enacted 36 different administrative sanctions against officials. The design, construction, and inauguration of the monument in memory of the victims in Ciudad Juarez presented a series of complications for government officials.

After considerable controversy over an appropriate location for the memorial, it was built on the same land where the women were found ten years earlier. The actual monument has not yet been built. El Universal Emphasizing that the violations are of local, not national, character, they also criticized the federal government for taking the lead role in delivering the official apology instead of state or local officials, whom they claimed were more directly responsible for the violations.

Bustamonte Mexico has made efforts to bolster its institutional capacity to conduct investigations and gender trainings. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women Torres Ruiz and Martinez Orpineda Torres Ruiz Lakhani Rama and Diaz But many have expressed doubt about the efficacy of such measures against an overburdened, weak and often corrupt justice system.

The families, however, insist that the government has done no more than redirect them to the same mental health services provided through the universally accessible public health system, and that these services fall short of the specialized and integral health services ordered by the court. Mexico and Ortega v. Mexico involve similar facts, legal findings, and reparations. The cases also impugn Mexico for granting military courts, rather than civilian courts, jurisdiction over cases of human rights violations committed by military personnel.

Finally, the Court found that Mexico did not comply with the obligation to guarantee, without discrimination, access to justice Articles 8 1 and 25 1 ACHR to the detriment of the victims. In the case of Ms. For instance, Mrs. As a result, the Court found, Ms. Third, they urge Mexico to remove human rights violations from the jurisdiction of its military courts and place jurisdiction before civilian courts.

Mexico has made limited progress in implementing the reparations ordered in these cases, and much remains to be done. Jessica Lenahan Gonzales v. Lenahan v. It also addresses issues of federalism in the implementation of international human rights law. Nearly ten hours after the abduction, Simon Gonzales drove his truck to the police department and opened fire. He was shot dead by the police. The slain bodies of the three girls were subsequently discovered in the back of his truck.

Jessica Gonzales filed a lawsuit against the police in federal court in Colorado. The case eventually landed at the U. Town of Castle Rock Jessica Gonzales who subsequently remarried and changed her last name to Lenahan then filed a petition in with the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, alleging that the United States violated her human rights under the American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man by failing to exercise due diligence to protect her and her daughters from acts of domestic violence perpetrated by her ex- husband.

In , the Commission published its merits report and recommendations. The Commission offered a series of well-developed recommendations for both individual and policy-focused remedies. Beginning in , the U. Schneider et al. Department of State Additionally, approximately 30 cities and counties across the U. And in December , U. Attorney General Loretta Lynch announced the release of an official Department of Justice guidance for police departments nationwide.

Department of Justice

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Regza engine 10 bitcoins Prosecutor v. In even another dimension, many of the women who survived the bombing of the Prison of Castro-Castro. Sign in. These provisional measures are similar in nature to precautionary measures issued by the Commission, though each has different procedural requirements. Celorio Nearly ten hours after the abduction, Simon Gonzales drove his truck to the police department and opened fire.
Argentina-brazil betting expert football Jessica Gonzales who subsequently remarried and changed her last name to Lenahan then filed a petition in with the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, alleging that the United States violated her human rights under the American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man by failing bettinger lopez ssrn working exercise due diligence to protect her and her daughters from acts of domestic violence perpetrated by her ex- husband. Yae Brutas. Bustamante, A. In the case of Ms. The Court, however, rejected the argument advanced by the Inter-American Commission and Petitioners that, as a matter of non-repetition, Mexico should be required to design, coordinate, and implement a long-term national policy to guarantee due diligence in responding to cases of violence against women. Treaty Series, No. After considerable controversy over an appropriate location for the memorial, it was built on the same land where the women were found ten years earlier.
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Bettinger lopez ssrn working Ciudad Juarez continues to have a staggering murder rate. United States, for instance, its legal analysis was restricted to the American Declaration on the Bettinger lopez ssrn working and Duties of Man, whose broad human rights standards and name make it a far cry from ideal source of law to address VAW. Jessica Lenahan Gonzales v. It has not done so to date. Miguel Castro-Castro Prison v. The measures may be of an individual or a collective nature, to prevent irreparable harm to persons due to their association with an organization, a group, or a community with identified or identifiable members. Schneider, E.
Bettinger lopez ssrn working Sa Nada. He was shot dead by the police. However, obstacles financial and social to fully implementing the Law still remain. Document Information click to expand document information Date uploaded Mar 10, Hein de Campos Kim ; see also Hein de Campos Open navigation menu.
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