The lysosome was found in wide and various range of concentration in human body fluids . The implants where prepared from chitosan Heppe Medical Chitosan GmbH with three different degree of deacetylation i. Afterward, chemical, mechanical and biological properties of the obtained implants are evaluated. According to the strength tests and organoleptic analysis the process of degradation is accelerated by the lysozyme in PBS solution.
These results indicated that after 21 days in lysozyme solution the implants are breakable and weak, when the implants in PBS where elastic up to 56th day. The analysis of FT-IR spectra indicates the difference in chemical composition between the external and internal side of tubular implants.
The durability and strength of obtained implants can be controlled by degree of deacetylation and average viscosity of chitosan. The obtained results allow determining degradation rate based on the applied chitosan i. Choosing appropriate initial viscosity and degree of deacetylation of chitosan we are able to adjusted the implant degradation kinetics to the specific peripheral nerve injury case.
This fact is a significant advantage to be used in peripheral nervous tissue regeneration, because the diameter of the nerve depends on its location in the body. Moreover, the presence of trace amounts of enzymes e. Brachi 1 , L. Menichetti 2, 3 , A. Mikheev 4 , M. Ferrari 5 , C. Mattu 1 , G. Ciardelli 1, 6. Glioblastoma multiforme GBM is the most common primary brain tumor in adults.
Because of its aggressive and infiltrative nature, efficient treatment with systemic chemotherapy remains a major challenge 1. In this work, hybrid core-shell polymer nanoparticles PNPs for concomitant loading of multiple payloads and imaging agents were designed. PNPs labeled with an infra-red dye and loaded with a fluorescent molecule simulating a therapeutic payload, were i. PURs PNPs demonstrated potential to combine imaging and therapy, high tissue penetration ability, long-term retention inside the brain, warranting further investigation as theranostic nanocarriers in GBM.
Newland 1, 2 , K. Eigel 1 , S. Sekizar 5 , L. Zoupi 5 , R. Schuster 4 , W. Huttner 4 , P. Welzel 1 , C. Werner 1 , A. Williams 5. Cryogels are highly porous hydrogel materials produced by freezing the precursor components either prior to, or during the gelation process. The strut and pore structure of cryogels makes them tough and robust during handling, yet, as a bulk structure, be compressible and soft.
The aim of this work is to tailor make a range of cryogel structures of various shapes and chemistries, to suit the end application. This work represents the progress that we have made, together with our project collaborators, towards this aim. There are two distinct cryogel scaffolds described herein both unpublished , both of which are tailored to different specific uses tackling the following objectives as follows:.
A range of hydrogel precursor units including poly ethylene glycol diacrylate, and sulfate containing acrylate monomers were polymerized at sub-zero temperatures, within polystyrene or polydimethylsiloxane templates all unpublished work. Once removed from the templates the cryogels were submerged in solutions containing the desired molecules to be delivered to slice cultures and placed either on, or in close proximity to the tissue slice.
Lysophosphatidylcholine LPC was delivered to spinal cord and cortical sections mouse to establish a focal model of demyelination to better mimic the patchy nature of Multiple Sclerosis. Fluorescent dyes were delivered to embryonic neocortex human tissue to create gradient effects within the developing tissue.
Figure 1 shows scanning electron microscopy analysis of the completed cryogel structures and a sample image of its use towards the specific objective. The shape of the cylinders and lines was directly determined by the polystyrene template used. The cryogel cylinders deliver LPC to a limited area of the brain slice, creating focal demyelination. The sulphated cryogel lines produce a pattern of delivery to the developing fetal cortex which is currently being used to elucidate mechanisms of cortex folding.
Cryogels offer a versatile platform technology from which to spatially restrict the delivery of molecules to tissue in culture. In addition, the macroporous structure makes them well suited for culturing cells in a three dimensional, extracellular matrix-mimicking environment. Bencherif, S. Newland, B. Muniz 1, 2 , F. Vechietti 1 , G. Anesi 1 , G. Guinea 2 , L. The development of 3D structures through micro- and nanofibers offers a high surface area for cell adhesion with suitable porosity, which promotes diffusion of nutrients and gases to aid viability and proliferation of those cells.
This is one of the major Tissue Engineering challenges 1. Several techniques have been developed to obtain fibers and one of the main limitation to produce micro- and nanofibers at a large scale and low cost. Considering the diversification of materials and processing techniques used in biomaterials field, it is essential to obtain a biomaterial through a technique that ensures a reduction of time and costs, allowing its broad and unrestricted accessibility.
An inexpensive alternative rotary jet spinning technique, using a cotton candy machine, was used to produce the fibers. The hydroxyapatite was added to promote a superior bioactivity. A comparison between fibers produced via electrospinning and rotary jet spinning techniques was conducted. HAp powder was obtained by precipitation technique through wet route 8.
Then, it was dried in an oven during 24 h for solvent volatilization 2. The cylindrical collector speed was rpm. The hydroxyl and phosphates groups related to HAp also were observed. In order to observe polymers thermal transitions, DSC analyze was performed. SEM was carried in order to obtain information around morphological characteristics of fibers Fig.
An important surface morphology parameter of scaffolds is the diameter distribution of fibers, which affects cell differentiation and proliferation 10, Both techniques resulted in a wide diameters distribution micro- nanoscale for all compositions. The fibers obtained by rotary jet spinning presented smaller diameters than electrospun fibers. According to a recent study, a wide diameters distributions is desirable to tissue engineering, since its allow to combine both advantages of nano- and microscale structures Both thermochemical analyses showed expected results, as FTIR spectrum and DSC thermogram evidenced it, as well rotary jet spinning proved its viability also presenting better results than electrospinning technique.
SEM analyze confirmed to be possible to obtain micro- and nanofibers. Further analysis as mechanical and in vitro must be conducted, but it is plausible to believe that rotary jet spinning is a great candidate for soft tissue engineering application.
Loordhuswamy, V. Krishnaswamy, P. Korrapati, S. Thinakaran, and G. C , vol. Marques, L. Schopf, and J. Kim et al. Rogalski, C. Bastiaansen, and T. Padron, A. Fuentes, D. Caruntu, and K. Nayak, R. Padhye, I. Kyratzis, Y. Truong, and L. Kuwahara, K.
Okamoto, S. Ramesh, C. Tan, S. Cartmell, and J. Li, H. Chen, and B. Zhou, Y. Tang, Z. Wang, P. Zhang, and Q. Shahrousvand 1, 2 , A. Shavandi 2 , S. Jafari 2. Over the last few years, polyurethanes PUs have been used extensively in biomedical applications as a result of offering a combination of biodegradability, elastomeric properties and thermoplastic processing conditions, which make them potential candidates for novel applications, especially in tissue engineering and medical devices [1, 2].
The biodegradability and other properties of PUs depend mainly on their chemical structure and especially on the hydrolysable ester bond in the main chain. Cells sense matrix stiffness by a mechano-transducer and prepare their morphology and specific lineage by transducing this information to a nuclear cell. Table 1. As can be seen, PU and PU-0 have the highest and lowest elongation at break and tensile strength, respectively Fig 1a.
The hydrophilic properties of the surface are virtually constant for all samples Fig 1b. Calcium content measurements were performed to further evaluate osteogenic differentiation in TCPS and PU membranes at days 7 and 14 Fig. Similar results were obtained with the calcium content measurements. We observed that changes in the formulation of polyurethane synthesis with two types of polyols PCL and PTMEG lead to producing PU films with different physical properties such as hydrophilicity.
Cell proliferation and differentiation were impressed by superficial physicochemical cues. Increasing the surface stiffness improved stem cell differentiation to osteolinage cells. Thus, alterations in superficial cues such as physical, chemical and mechanical properties on the surfaces of substrates could not only lead to aberrant growth or differentiation of stem cells but also provide a potential therapeutic target for regenerative medicine.
Polyurethanes in biomedical applications. Biomaterials: Springer; Superficial physicochemical properties of polyurethane biomaterials as osteogenic regulators in human mesenchymal stem cells fates. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. Substrate modulus directs neural stem cell behavior. Biophysical journal. Malafeev 1 , O. Moskalyuk 3 , V. Yudin 1, 2 , E. Popova 2 , E. Ivan'kova 2 , V. Elokhovskiy 2. Petersburg, Russian Federation 2 Institute of macromolecular compounds, St.
Today, polymers play important role in a modern life. Due to the ability to vary the properties and a wide range of processing methods, polymers are used in almost all industries. Therefore, in recent years, a trend has emerged to find ways to decide ecological problems and develop the polymers form bioresources.
One of the most prominent representatives of biopolymers is polylactide PLA which is a sustainable alternative to petrochemical products, since lactids are obtained by microbial fermentation of agricultural wastes, mainly carbohydrate-rich substances [2, 3].
Today PLA is used widely for bio-packaging and in medical implants in the form of screws, fibers, sponges, cell scaffolds for tissue engineering and in microspheres for drug delivery. To expand the scope of application of PLA in medicine, it is necessary to modify its properties or improve existing ones.
This can be done by developing of PLA based composites. The scope of this work is research of composite materials based on PLA with different fillers to improve mechanical characteristics of the samples or to modify its bioactive properties, such as antibacterial. The mechanical properties of PLA monofilaments prepared by melt spinning were studied on an Instron tensile test machine at RT. The diameter of the non-oriented fibers was approximately microns. The diameter of the oriented monofilaments was about microns.
As can be seen from the table, the addition of CN and CN-PEG does not lead to any significant changes in the mechanical characteristics of the fibers. The modulus of elasticity of all samples is at a level of 6 GPa. Preservation, and in some cases improvement, of mechanical characteristics, opens up a great prospect in further work with these materials and fillers. Currently studying the bioresorption of fibers, as well as studying the antibacterial activity. According to preliminary data, samples with Poviargolum possess antibacterial activity.
The effects of the type of biocompatible particles on the mechanical properties of monofilaments with a draw ratio of 6 times were also established. In the future, it is planned to expand the range of concentrations of the filler, to obtain samples with a different degree of orientation extraction, as well as conduct in vitro and in vivo tests to test the antibacterial properties and its bioresorption.
Fuoco 1 , A. Finne-Wistrand 1. The project this contribution is part of is named PrintKnit and aims at designing scaffolds for soft tissue regeneration applications by combining knitted and printed constructs made of degradable polymers . Meshes and other types of knitted scaffolds made of degradable fibers are indeed used in regenerative to support tissue regeneration.
To match the requirement of the different applications and overcome some of the drawbacks of the current utilized degradable polymer-based scaffolds, there is a need to tune both the bulk and surface properties of the materials. The bulk properties are those that ensure support to the damaged tissue at the early stage, but then should progressively weaken until the scaffold is resorbed and the tissue is fully recovered.
From a macromolecular point of view this means to regulate the degradation rate in order to control the time and the profile of the properties change. On the other hand, the surface properties of the scaffold should favour interaction between the material, cells and surrounding environment Fig 1. Poly L-lactide , is one of the most used degradable polymers for the fabrication of fiber-based scaffolds.
PLLA has good spinnability and melt-spun fibers with good mechanical properties can be prepared to manufacture for example knitted meshes. To overcome the disadvantages of PLLA, such as the high crystallinity and the slow and heterogeneous bulk erosion process which cause early embrittlement and consequent loss of mechanical integrity while the mass of the bulk is retained, we have evaluated the use of trimethylene carbonate TMC as comonomer to modulate the properties of PLLA melt-spun multifilament fibers .
We have demonstrated that by increasing the amount of TMC, copolymer fibers with less crystallinity and a more homogeneous bulk degradation and longer service lifetime can be achieved, and when the fibers no longer provide mechanical support they undergo a faster mass loss.
Although PLLA and its copolymer with TMC have been used in devices that are biocompatible and eventually degrades in harmless products, their macromolecular structure does not offer possibility to covalently attach biological motifs or other active tags that can enhance and regulate the cell-material interaction. The purpose of this contribution is the development of a simple and versatile strategy for the surface functionalization  of these fiber-based scaffolds by covalently attach to the scaffold surface a properly designed bi-functional linker.
The linker was designed in a way that one of the functional group can be attached to the polyester chains by aminolysis reaction of the ester bonds and the other functional group can be used to link a variety of biological active tags  as well as other biomaterials such as PEG. Therefore, this strategy allows to customize the surface properties and regulate the interaction with the cells and body environment Fig 2. The reaction parameters for the linker design and the surface functionalization of the scaffolds have been optimized.
The effect of the functionalization on the bulk material properties and the relationship between the surface properties and degree and type of functionalization have been evaluated. The results provide a framework to control the service lifetime and the surface properties of degradable fibers-based medical devices to.
Fuoco, T. Mathisen, A. Finne-Wistrand, Polymer Degradation and Stability , , Ma, Macromolecular Bioscience , 12, Zhu, Z. Mao, C. Gao, RSC Advances , 3, Jordan, V. Viswanath, S. Kim, J. Pokorski, L. Korley, Journal of Materials Chemistry B , 4, Negka 1 , P. Koralli 1 , L. Vagiaki 2 , A. Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss 1 , V. Gregoriou 3 , C. Chochos 2. For in vivo biological applications, near-infrared NIR fluorescent probes are considered as a highly emerging field due to the minimal auto-fluorescence interference and high tissue-penetration depth that they display in the NIR region, because of the weak absorption and scattering in biological tissues.
Semiconducting polymer dots Pdots are arising as organic NIR fluorescent nanoparticles with high brightness, large Stokes shift, and intriguing energy-transfer properties . Photoacoustic imaging PA appears to be a promising technique in biological imaging for the visualization of both tissue physiology and pathology at the molecular level, while simultaneously providing high spatial resolution and deep penetration depth in the NIR region ,.
Consequently, there is a great demand in the development of photoacoustic imaging probes with strong near infrared NIR absorbance -. In this study, we examine the potential use of novel low bandgap water-soluble conjugated polymer dots, consisting of tetraphenyl substituted-indacenodithiophene-thiadiazolo-quinoxaline biphenyl substituted mentioned as IDTTDQ-Ph , as a-new-generation NIR contrast agents for PA.
Alternating conjugated polymers were synthesized via metal catalyzed aromatic cross coupling Stille polymerization reaction. The average molecular weights per number and weight and the dispersity of the polymers were determined relative to polystyrene standard by size exclusion chromatography SEC in CHCl 3.
The surface charge of the nanoparticles was evaluated by zeta potential measurements in water Zetasizer. The quantum yield was calculated by photoluminescence PL spectroscopy. A NIR fluorescent polymer IDTTDQ-Ph was synthesized that is comprising of tetraphenyl substituted-indacenodithiophene as the electron donating unit, and thiadiazoloquionoxaline-biphenyl substituted as the electron withdrawing unit.
Their average molecular characteristics are presented in Table 1. As observed from SEC, the polymer presents well-define molecular characteristics. The polymer exhibits an absorption maximum at nm, in solution due to the strong intramolecular charge transfer ICT between the indacenodithiophene and thiadiazoloquinoxaline units. The DLS measurement indicates that the nanoparticles in aqueous suspension have a unimodal size distribution in both temperatureswith an average size of 80 nm.
TEM measurement revealed their spherical shape with an average particle size of nm, approximately. The compatible particle size that these CPNPs demonstrate, combined with the absorption in the NIR-I window, qualifies them to be an ideal probe for biological applications.
The combination of strong donor tetraphenyl substituted indaceno dithiophene and acceptor thiadiazole quinoxaline biphenyl substituted monomers leads to low bandgap materials of which the absorption and emission maxima can be shifted toward the NIR II region which subsequently blazes a trail for the photoacoustic imaging . Both the conjugated and the amphiphilic-encapsulated polymer NPs display a promising size and morphology, a NIR I-shifted optical absorption and low cytotoxicity levels.
Additionally, on-going studies will define the photoacoustic effect of the CPNPs. To conclude, in this study we introduce a new organic candidate CPNPs for the photoacoustic imaging that shows low toxicity and optimal optical properties in the NIR I region. B , 4, , Jie Liu, Junlong Geng, Conjugated polymer nanoparticles for photoacoustic vascular imaging.
Kanyi Pu, Adam J. Schuhendler, Semiconducting polymer nanoparticles as photoacoustic molecular imaging probes in living mice, Nature Nanotechnology 9, — Christopher M. MacNeill, Robert C. Coffin, David L. Carroll, Nicole H. Macromolecular Bioscience, Volume 13, Issue 1, Bing Guo, Biocompatible conjugated polymer nanoparticles for highly efficient photoacoustic imaging of orthotopic brain tumors in the second near-infrared window. Braeken, Y. Materials, 10 12 , Krajcer 2 , J.
Nowakowska 1. Bionanocellulose BNC is a type of cellulose produced by bacterial species, mainly Gluconacetobacter xylinus. This material exhibits unique properties such as: stability over a wide range of pH and temperatures, high hydrophilicity, non-cytotoxicity and biocompatibility. Therefore it has been used in biomedicine e. Our studies are focused on developing methods of synthesis of BNC-based wound dressing one-side protected from the external environment with silicone layer and having on the opposite side covalently bounded an active biomolecules: insulin and heparin.
The hybrid materials obtained can potentially serve as a complete bioactive dressing for the treatment of difficult-to-heal wounds occurring in diabetics. This work presents the results of physicochemical measurements and biological experiments performed for bionanocellulose BNC based materials and bionanocellulose doped with carboxymethylcellulose BNC-CMC composite. The silicone layer was generated on the external side of these systems using silicone precursors: aminopropyltriethoxysilane APS , , vinyltriethoxysilane VES and allyltrimethoxysilane ATMS to counteract fast drying of the material .
On the internal side, through the formation of amide bonds , heparin and insulin have been introduced as active substances that can accelerate the healing process. The materials obtained were subjected to preliminary biological tests using mouse embryonic fibroblasts MEF.
After connecting the biomolecules, the materials were subjected to colorimetric tests for the presence of insulin and heparin, respectively. Additionally, biological tests were carried out using the MEF cell line in order to evaluate the impact of the obtained materials on the cell adhesion, morphology SEM and proliferation Alamar Blue test under in vitro conditions. We have developed new hybrid materials based on bionanocellulose and its composite with carboxymethylcellulose.
That modification brings an effective protection against drying out, which was established by wetting angle measurements as well as swelling and drying tests. Next insulin and heparin were covalently connected to the unmodified side of previously obtained materials, what was confirmed utilizing an appropriate colorimetric tests: Comassie Brilliant Blue and Azur A, respectively.
The generation of a silicone layer has no negative effect on proliferation, morphology as well as adhesion of MEF cultured on the surface of developed materials, as it was shown in in vitro biological experiments. The obtained hybrid materials can be used as a complete bioactive dressing for the treatment of difficult-to-heal wounds in diabetics.
We have demonstrated the methodology of covalent attachment of an active substances on the inside of the BNC-based dressing while having silicone protection on the external side. Chatsupan 1 , W. Tachaboonyakiat 1. Neem, Azadirachta indica , is a bio-insecticide which is containing the most active phytochemicals named Azadirachtin AZ .
Then, the others purpose of this work are to be encapsulated the NLE which is contained high amount of AZ in the polymeric matrices to avoid the degradation of essential phytochemicals and to study the release profile of NLE .
Chitin, 1, 4 - N - acetyl - D - glucosamine , was chosen to be polymeric matrix due to their biological properties and well control release rate [ 3 ]. Furthermore, different amounts of NLE were encapsulated in chitin solution and form as film at ambient temperature. After that, the encapsulated NLE in chitin films were immersed in water to provide chitin hydrogel. Encapsulation efficiency and release profile were determined by UV-vis spectrophotometer, at wavelength nm.
The highest amount of NLE was obtained when first extracted with methanol Different solvents can extract different amount of NLE as follows, acetone 9. Besides, the encapsulation efficiency of NLE into chitin film seemed to increasing as increasing concentration of NLE feeding.
The NLE can be extracted from various solvents and encapsulated into the chitin film with effectively controlled release. Gahukar, R, T. Factors affecting content and bioefficacy of neem Azadirachta indica A. Crop Protection , , 62, Biogenic silica nanoparticles loaded with neem bark extract as green, slow-release biocide. Clean Prod. Deepeutectic solvent-based extraction and fabrication of chitin films from crustacean waste. Carbohyd Polym. Paulus 1 , J. Bloehbaum 1 , J. Tessmar 1 , J.
Groll 1. Hydrogels are in the focus of research due to their multifunctional application as implantable materials in regenerative medicine . For the formation of stable hydrogels, researchers often use precursor solutions, consisting of polymers, which are subsequently chemically cross-linked over multivalent monomers or macro-crosslinkers. A promising route for this fabrication of hydrogels is applying side chain functionalized polymers and a very chemoselective reaction, e. UV initiated thiol-ene reaction .
In our previous study, POx-based hydrogels were cross-linked via thiol-ene reaction with Irgacure as a quite insoluble UV initiator . Major disadvantages are the possible cytotoxicity of Irgacure  and the application of UV light for the initiator activation, which can cause DNA-damage in cells . This initiator system has proven itself in earlier studies with other polymers and it is a promising formulation to prepare hydrogels, as this system can be activated with visible light and accordingly the cytocompatibility is improved [6,7].
The comonomer molarity was kept at 4 M. The theoretical chain length of the polymers was adjusted to 50 repeating units and the monomer ratio EtOx:ButEnOx was 0. The functionalized polymers were then deprotected at room temperature over 12 h using cysteine and NaBH 4 under reductive conditions to prevent polymer degradation, then dialyzed against degassed water and freeze dried . The final hydrogels were prepared in 1 x PBS to an overall polymer content of 7.
The mixed precursor solution was then pipetted into cylindric silicon molds and irradiated for 30 sec with a bluepoint 4 lamp Dr. Hoenle AG with nm filter. The swelling study demonstrated that the hydrogels were stable over a period of 2 weeks in PBS. A slight but not significant mass decrease was observed, which can be attributed to a slow release of non cross-linked polymer chains, which needs to be studied in the future.
For future applications other polymer concentrations and substitution degrees must be tested, to vary the mechanical properties and mesh sizes of the obtained hydrogels. Hoffman, Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. Hartlieb, K. Kempe, U. Schubert, J. B, , 3, Paulus, A. Tessmar, J.
Groll, J. Bryant, C. Nuttelman, K. Anseth, J. Sinha, D. Hader, Photochem. Bertlein, G. Brown, K. Lim, T. Jungst, T. Blunk, J. Tessmar, G. Hooper, T. Woodfield, J. Groll, Adv. Lim, B. Schon, N. Mekhileri, G. Brown, C. Chia, S. Prabaker, G. Woodfield, ACS Biomater. Vagiaki 1 , A. Negka 2 , P. Koralli 2 , A.
Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss 2 , D. Mouzakis 4 , V. Chochos 1. Owing to their highly electron-delocalized structures and efficient coupling between optoelectronic segments, CPs absorb and emit light energy in the UV-Vis and the NIR region that not only allows deep tissue penetration, but also it can be converted to photoacoustic and fluorescence effects . Nevertheless, for biological applications it is imperative that the CPs are water-soluble. Since CPs are generally hydrophobic, we implemented strategies to enable solubility in aqueous media.
Therefore, low-bandgap aqueous CPNs have been successfully prepared and thoroughly applied in biological applications and especially in bio-imaging, since they exhibit excellent properties such as high fluorescence, excellent photostability, high signal-to-noise ratio, high emission rates, and low cytotoxicity -.
In this study, we examine the potential use of novel low bandgap water soluble CPNs as fluorescent contrast agents. Under this scope, we synthesized two series of CPs; the first is the combination of thiophene and quinoxaline TQs , and the other consists of thiadiazoloquinoxaline biphenyl substituted-bithiophene and thiadiazoloquinoxaline bimethyl substituted-bithiophene, BTTDQ-Ph and BTTDQ-Me, respectively. Alternating CPs were synthesized via metal catalyzed aromatic cross coupling Stille polymerization reaction.
The formations of NPs were carried out via nanoprecipitation and the quantum yield was calculated by photoluminescence PL spectroscopy. The cellular cytotoxicity study was performed by means of MTS assay in human mesenchymal Wharton Jelly cells. The first series of polymers TQs are comprising of thiophene derivatives as the electron donating units and quinoxaline derivatives as the electron withdrawing units with varying the number of fluoro atoms in the repeat unit TQ, TQf, TQ2f, T2fQ, T2fQf, T2fQ2f.
The average molecular characteristics of the TQ polymers are presented in Table 1. Both categories of CPs bear aliphatic side chains to improve the solubility. TEM measurement revealed that the CP had spherical shape. The average particle size was determined to nm, a compatible size for biological applications. In conclusion, we successfully synthesized a series of fluorescent materials with optical properties and low cytotoxicity of water-soluble CPNs, supporting their potential use as low-bandgap fluorescent probes for bio-imaging.
Moreover, the on-going tests for the fluorescence imaging and the quantification of the quantum fluorescence yield are of great importance. Overall, CP dots introduce a new generation of fluorescent probes that appear to be the quintessential contrast agents. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica —; doi: Feng, L. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles: preparation, properties, functionalization and biological applications.
Chemical Society Reviews, 42 16 , Nano Mater. Zhu, C. Wu, C. Highly fluorescent semiconducting polymer dots for biology and medicine. Contessi Negrini 1, 2 , F. Tamburrino 1, 3 , A. Razionale 1, 3 , S. Chiesa 1, 2 , M. Bordegoni 1, 2 , S. Barone 1, 3. The increasing request for orthodontic devices, even in adults, has led to the development of transparent wearable polymeric dental aligners, as an alternative to fix metal devices.
To guarantee a correct adjustment of the teeth defects, such devices should possess adequate mechanical properties, stable physical, chemical and mechanical properties during their use typically 14 days in mouth and transparency. Nowadays, several polymeric materials are clinically used for the production of dental aligners.
In this work, we aim at characterizing commercially available materials to define a set of properties to be used as guidelines for the production of alternative materials for dental aligners. The materials were characterized as received, after thermoforming i. The morphology of the samples was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy SEM. The mechanical properties of samples as received, thermoformed samples and samples immersed in saliva were evaluated in tensile and flexural mode.
Tensile tests were performed with tensile clamps by applying a force ramp of 1 N min -1 ; the elastic modulus and the deformation at maximum force i. Flexural properties were evaluated with single cantilever clamp by applying a force ramp of 1 N min Indirect cytotoxicity tests were performed ISO using murine fibroblast cell line L; culture medium eluates were obtained by contact with samples for 1, 4 and 7 days, used to culture cells and evaluate L percentage viability.
SEM micrographs showed a homogeneous surface of as received-samples and after thermoforming; deposition of salts was detected after immersion in artificial saliva. During the mechanical tests Figure 1 , no break was observed up to the application of 18 N. The elastic modulus values measured by tensile tests were in the range - MPa; a reduction of the modulus of Forestadent samples was observed after the thermoforming process while the immersion in saliva did not affect the tensile properties of the considered polymeric materials.
The ATR-FTIR spectra confirmed the chemical composition of samples declared by the producers, being Duran and Forestadent samples made of polyethylene terephthalate glycol, Imprelon made of polystyrene and Zendura samples made of polyurethane resin. Moreover, no variations in the chemical structures were observed either after thermoforming and immersion in artificial saliva.
All samples showed stable mechanical, physical and chemical properties after immersion in artificial saliva. The obtained data allows to indicate the golden-standard mechanical parameters to be used for the possible production of innovative dental aligners. Polyaniline PANI belongs to a group of conducting polymers.
Due to its properties PANI has become an attractive polymer for biological applications 1,2,3. Although the biological applications of PANI are on the rise, they are rather limited by its insolubility in aqueous media. Preparation of conducting PANI colloidal dispersions synthesized in presence of stabilizers is one of the possible solutions how to cope with this shortcoming 4.
Various polymers have been tested as the stabilizers, of which biocompatible and biodegradable polysaccharides are promising candidates 5,6. The aim of present research was therefore to prepare colloidal PANI dispersion in presence of sodium hyaluronate HA or chitosan CH , and determine their physicochemical and biological properties in terms of cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity.
The prepared dispersions were dialyzed against 0. Particle size and distributions of colloidal particles were determined by dynamic light scattering ZetaNano, Malvern, UK. Light scattering measurements have shown that size of colloidal particles and colloid stability depend both on the type of the stabilizer and on the content of monomers in the reaction mixture. For both colloids, antibacterial properties were tested. It was therefore concluded that the antibacterial activity of colloids depends both on the type of used stabilizer as well as on the ratio between PANI and stabilizer.
However, cytotoxicity slightly increased with raising concentration of PANI in colloid. Polyaniline colloids containing sodium hyaluronate and chitosan were successfully prepared. Size of colloidal particles can be controlled by the concentration of the stabilizer, content of the monomers in the reaction mixture and by the reaction conditions.
Different levels of antibacterial properties of PANI colloids were proved against both gram positive S. Hsiao, M. Chang, M. Chung, T. Lee, C. Wu, B. Maiti, Z. Liao, R. Sung, Biomaterials 34 — Ostrakhovitch, J. Byers, K. Semenikhin, Arch. Colloidal polyaniline dispersions: Antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and neutrophil oxidative burst Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces.
Transmission electron photomicrographs of colloidal polyaniline prepared in presence of a sodium hyaluronate and b chitosan. Barbani 1, 2, 3 , C. Cristallini 2, 3. Natural antioxidants from plant materials exhibit a wide range of biological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-aging, and anticancer.
Considering their possible beneficial influence on human health, efficient extraction methods of natural antioxidants from food and plants and appropriate assessment of antioxidant activity have received increased attention in food science, nutraceutical and drug delivery in the biomedical area.
A series of green non-conventional extraction methods of antioxidant agents from plant materials i. Moreover, many methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity of extracts from natural products have been developed and tested in the literature, showing for each of them strengths and limitations. An innovative method is based on the development of biocompatible materials in form of membrane, having properties of molecular recognition towards polyphenols from plant homogenates.
An ideal technique could be considered the molecular imprinting technology, that permits the introduction into a polymeric material of recognition sites for specific molecular species templates through the copolymerization of a monomer with a crosslinking agent in the presence of a template or through the dissolution of the preformed polymer in a solution containing the molecule to be recognized.
The final homogeneous solution of phenolic compound and EVAL was cast on a glass plate using a knife machine with a gap of nm. The template was removed from the membrane MIT by prolonged washing in methanol obtaining the molecularly imprinted membrane MIM. The same procedure in the absence of the curcumin was adopted to prepare not imprinted membrane NMIM.
Statistical analysis was performed by PCA method. UV spectrophotometry at wavelength of nm was used to quantify the amount of re-bound curcumin. Chemical Imaging allowed to evaluate the chemical composition of membrane surface before and after curcumin extraction as well as after rebinding test. For each membrane a surface was selected and analysed by FT-IR mapping, in reflection mode.
Superficial changes in the composition were observed; both MIT and membrane after rebinding test MIMR showed adsorption signals associated to curcumin chemical composition, on the contrary these signals were not observed in the FT-IR spectrum obtained from MIM surface. FT-IR analysis showed the success of the template extraction and the effective rebinding of the phenolic compound and its homogeneous distribution on the membrane surface Fig. The values obtained were Kp of 0.
This preliminary study demonstrated the possibility of using molecular imprinting technology to obtain materials in form of membrane able to specifically recognize a natural antioxidant agent. Budiarta 1 , W. Wypysek 3 , S. Boesveld 4 , P. Strnad 4 , W.
Richtering 3 , A. Pich 2 , T. Beck 1. Ferritin is a highly stable and biocompatible protein container with an inner cavity that is widely used as reaction vessel or for cargo loading. It has a high natural affinity towards transferrin receptors over-expressed on cancer cells and is amenable to further surface modification for improved targeting properties. All these features make ferritin an attractive drug delivery vehicle. Here the microgels is supposed to act as carrier, protective shielding, and release controller for ferritin.
First, we encapsulated fluorophores and nanoparticles inside ferritin to monitor the uptake by the polyelectrolyte microgel. Subsequently, these labeled ferritins were integrated into polyelectrolyte microgel and characterized using TEM and fluorescence microscopy. Next, we will use pH and glutathione to release ferritin from microgels and monitor the process.
Furthermore, we encapsulated doxorubicin into ferritin. Currently, we are performing in vitro tests in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and will report on the results. Moreover, we will integrate this dox-ferritin into polyelectrolyte microgels, conduct similar in vitro tests, and perform stability tests against proteases. We used different fluorophores and approaches to increase the encapsulation loading and found the key factors for the encapsulation: fluorophore concentration, solubility, charge, and the encapsulation strategy.
All the other experiments are being conducted and the results will be reported in the conference. In conclusion, a new drug delivery system based on ferritin containers and polyelectrolyte microgels is currently developed. Truffi, L.
Fiandra, L. Sorrentino, M. Monieri, F. Corsi, S. Mazzucchelli, Pharmacol. Todd, Z. Chen, J. Xie, Nanomedicine , 8 , Karg, A. Pich, T. Hellweg, T. Hoare, L. Lyon, J. Crassous, D. Suzuki, R. Gumerov, S. Schneider, I. Potemkin, W. Richtering, Langmuir , 35 9 , — We thank Profs. Ulrich Simon and Ulrich Schwaneberg for generous support. This work was supported by a Liebig scholarship to T. Bioadhesive hydrogels have been used as wound closures, hemostatic agents, tissue sealants and other medical applications.
While various types of bioadhesives have been developed, it is still challenging to overcome some limitations, such as poor adhesion strength and bioactivities. Recently, many researchers have been reported mussel-inspired adhesives as they have shown strong tissue adhesiveness even in wet conditions. Molecular oxygen O 2 is an essential signaling molecule in the wound healing and tissue regeneration. In particular, it is demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen promotes the wound healing process through accurately increasing intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species RONS.
Herein, we represent a new type of O 2 -generating bioadhesive formed via calcium peroxide CaO 2 -mediated crosslinking and in situ polymerization of dopamine. The phase transition time was determined by the vial tilting method. Tissue adhesive strength was investigated using a universal testing machine Instron We performed subcutaneous implantation and wound closing test to investigate the effect of O 2 release on neovascularization and wound healing. In this reaction, the polymer networks were crosslinked through disulfide bonds, and Michael type addition between the GtnSH and polydopamine.
Additionally, DH reacts with functional groups e. To evaluate the hydrogel formation and phase transition, we performed phase-transition test depending on CaO 2 0. We assessed the elastic modulus of the hydrogels depending on CaO 2 and DH concentrations, resulting in tunable mechanical properties 40 — Pa. We next investigated the DH-releasing behaviors from the hydrogel matrices.
As increasing CaO 2 contents, more DH molecules were remained within the hydrogel matrices since CaO 2 facilitated dopamine oxidation and in situ polymerization. We monitored O 2 -releasing kinetics depending on CaO 2 concentrations. The hydrogels G5D0. Furthermore, we implanted the hyperoxic gels HG, G5D0.
Interestingly, we found that the HG group facilitated wound closing and healing with enhanced neovascularization compared to the NG Fig. We developed a new type of O 2 -generating bioadhesive hydrogel via CaO 2 -mediated crosslinking and in situ polymerization of dopamine. The GtnSH-PD hydrogel has controllable physicochemical properties and facilitates neovascularization and wound healing. These results suggest that our advanced adhesive hydrogel is a very promising biomaterial as tissue adhesives for wound management as well as tissue regenerative materials.
Flis 1 , F. Koper 2 , W. Kasprzyk 2 , E. There is a need to treat artherosclerotic vascular disease of small-diameter blood vessels with the use of artificial grafts. Thus we focus on poly diol citrate s PDCs , based on citric acid and 1,8-octanediol as potential substrate for small blood vessel tissue engineering. PDCs produced with a molar ratio of citric acid to 1,8-octanediol were found biodegradable and cytocompatible .
Their key advantage is that PDCs polymerization takes place at relatively low temperature and such polymers can be easily modified to gain new distinct properties, including fluorescent, antimicrobial, adhesive or anti-oxidant . In this study we wanted to examine if chemical structure of PDCs can be adjusted by different concentration of the precursors, and if this would influence physical integrity, surface properties and biological performance of obtained polymers.
To this end structural and physicochemical properties of thee PDCs with different molar ratio of citric acid to 1,8-octanediol were evaluated and their potential in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed. Citric acid and 1,8-octanediol at molar ratio , and were melted at o C for 40 min under stirring to synthesize prepolymers.
The latter were dissolved in ethanol, precipitated in water, lyophilized, dissolved in ethanol again and post-polymerized for 4, 6, 8, 10 days at 70 o C in a vacuum oven. Molecular weight was assessed by gel permeation chromatography using Shimadzu GPC system. Cells after live-dead staining were observed under fluorescence microscopy Axiovert, Zeiss.
FTIR-ATR results showed that PDCs with all studied molar ratios had similar bands at the same wavenumbers and were differing only in band intensity depending on composition. The water contact angle decreased with the post-polymerization time from 4 to 10 days. For extract dilution of number of live cells was increasing, but still red stained cells were observed.
For dilution cell morphology and number was the same as in control. Brachi 1 , G. Sharon Kozicki Bank of Canada. Kevin J. Massimo Guidolin Bocconi University. Berrak Bahadir University of Georgia. Tassos Malliaris Loyola University Chicago. Roland Fuss University of St. Presiding : Keith Maskus University of Colorado. Shang-Jin Wei Columbia University.
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Ed Hopkins University of Edinburgh. Rodrigo Novinski Ibmec Business School. Edward Green Pennsylvania State University. Peter N. Sorensen University of Copenhagen. Ina Simonovska University of California-Davis. Michael E. Waugh New York University. Philip Saure Swiss National Bank. Vivian Yue Federal Reserve Board.
Miklos Koren Central European University. Andreas Moxnes Dartmouth College. Discussants: Jeremy T. Fox University of Michigan. Alfred Galichon Ecole Polytechnique. Discussants: Huseyin Yildirim Duke University. Juan Matias Ortner Princeton University. Luis Cabral New York University. Presiding : David Mayes University of Auckland. Berger University of South Carolina. Bjorn Imbierowicz Goethe University.
Christian Rauch Goethe University. Eliezer Fich Drexel University. Dan Li Fudan University. Suhua Tian Fudan University. William Jackson University of Alabama. Gerard Caprio Williams College. Antonio Macias Texas Christian University. Presiding : Hyun Shin Princeton University. Stijn Claessens International Monetary Fund. Swati Ghosh World Bank. Capital Controls in Brazil: Effective? Marcos Chamon International Monetary Fund.
Hail Park Bank of Korea. Hyun Song Shin Princeton University. Catherine Emmanuelle University of Minnesota-Duluth. Gianni Betti University of Siena. Platon Tinios Panteion University. Adam Cobb University of Pennsylvania. Christopher S. Fowler Pennsylvania State University. Martin Kraal Oregon Employment Department.
Discussants: Douglas Kruse Rutgers University. Matthew Piszczek Michigan State University. Christopher Ruhm University of Virginia. Julia Henly University of Chicago. Susan Lambert University of Chicago. Jaeseung Kim University of Chicago. Presiding : Benjamin Simon U.
Department of Interior. Miriam Jorgensen University of Arizona. Gallen, Switzerland. Parker Montana State University. Randal R. Rucker Montana State University. Peter H. Nickerson Nickerson and Associates. Rachael Soloveichik Bureau of Economic Analysis. Rui Neiva George Mason University. Jiawen Yang Georgia Institute of Technology. Cohen University of Hartford.
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Olsen University of Missouri-Kansas City. Ian Seda-Irizary Bucknell University. Frannie A. Shanta Devarajan World Bank. Elizabeth Asiedu University of Kansas. Patrick O. Aboagye Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Ghana. Jin Yang Zhejiang University. Keirjiro Otsuka World Bank. Discussants: Derek Byerlee World Bank. Funing Zhong Nanjing Agricultural University. Presiding : Nicholas Barberis Yale University. Nicola Gennaioli Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
Andrei Shleifer Harvard University. David I. Laibson Harvard University. Cargill University of Nevada-Reno. Gerald O'Driscoll Cato Institute. Taylor Stanford University and Hoover Institution. Peter Wallison American Enterprise Institute. Lawrence H. White George Mason University. Presiding : Angus Deaton Princeton University. Hongbin Li Tsinghua University. Binzhen Wu Tsinghua University.
Shuang Zhang Cornell University. Atheendar S. Venkataramani Massachusetts General Hospital. Nidhiya Menon Brandeis University. Paul Schultz Yale University. Andrew Foster Brown University. Chih Ming Tan Clark University. Presiding : Fernando Lozano Pomona College. Diaz Hadzisadikovic Columbia University. Presiding : Isleide Zissimos Vanderbilt University. Randall Blair Mathematica Policy Research. Anu Rangarajan Mathematica Policy Research.
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Sung Won Kim University of Oklahoma. Haelim Park University of California-Irvine. Brian Yang University of California-Irvine. Szilagyi University of Cambridge. Chong Wei Wong University of Cambridge. Jasmina Hasanhodzic Boston University. Andrew W. Lo Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Emanuele Viola Northeastern University.
Leonard Kostovetsky University of Rochester. Bjorn Imbierowicz New York University. Christian Rauch Goethe University Frankfurt. Feng Zhan York University. Bang Dang Nguyen University of Cambridge. Thomas Philippon New York University. Hadiye Aslan University of Houston. Does Macro-Pru Leak? Charles Calomiris Columbia Business School.
Tomasz Wieladek London Business School. Public Plans? Aleksandar Andonov Maastricht University. Rob Bauer Maastricht University. Martijn Cremers Yale University. Horacio Sapriza Federal Reserve Board. Andrei Zlate Federal Reserve Board. Samuel Haltenhof Federal Reserve Board.
Seung J. Lee Federal Reserve Board. Daniel Hollo Magyar Nemzeti Bank. Vito Gala London Business School. John Griffin University of Texas-Austin. David Ng Cornell University. Sohnke Bartram Warwick University. Presiding : Jianjun Miao Boston University. Andrew Metrick Yale University. Lei Xie Yale University. Discussants: Anton Korinek University of Maryland. Zhiguo He University of Chicago. John Leahy New York University. Simon Gilchrist Boston University.
Presiding : Chad Syverson University of Chicago. Davis University of Chicago. John Haltiwanger University of Maryland. Kyle Handley Stanford University. Ron Jarmin Census Bureau. Joshua Lerner Harvard University. Javier Miranda Census Bureau. Does Working From Home Work? Bloom Stanford University. James Liang Ctrip. Joh Roberts Stanford University. Zhichun Jenny Ying Stanford University. Atsushi Ohyama Hokkaido University. Tetsuji Okazaki University of Tokyo.
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Schools Roland G. Fryer, Jr. Discussants: Janet Currie Princeton University. Presiding : Emmanuel Farhi Harvard University. Charles Nathanson Harvard University. Benjamin Lockwood Harvard University. Weinzierl Harvard Business School. Stephanie Stantcheva Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Discussants: Florian Scheuer Stanford University. Alan J. Auerbach University of California-Berkeley. Emmanuel Saez University of California-Berkeley. Marc Fleurbaey Princeton University.
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Congress, Joint Committee on Taxation. Consumption and Income Inequality in the U. Since the s Bruce D. James X. Sullivan University of Notre Dame. Census Bureau. David S. Johnson U. Smeeding University of Wisconsin-Madison. Discussants: James P. Ziliak University of Kentucky. Robert Moffitt Johns Hopkins University. Presiding : Brigitte Madrian Harvard University. Clemens Sialm University of Texas-Austin. Muir University of Michigan. Lisa Szykman College of William and Mary.
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Presiding : Ana Babus Imperial College. Marzena Rostek University of Wisconsin. Gustavo Manso University of California-Berkeley. Peter Kondor Central European University. Mikhail Golosov Princeton University. William Bosshardt Florida Atlantic University. Michael Watts Purdue University. Wendy Stock Montana State University. Economic Understanding in U.
High School Courses William B. Discussants: David Colander Middlebury College. James M. Poterba Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Daniel S. Hamermesh University of Texas-Austin. Gail Hoyt University of Kentucky. Presiding : Claudia Goldin Harvard University. Francine D. Blau Cornell University. Lawrence M. Kahn Cornell University. Claudia Olivetti Boston University. Jane Waldfogel Columbia University. Dora L. Costa University of California-Los Angeles.
Amit Seru University of Chicago. Francesco Trebbi University of British Columbia. Yu Jin Shanghai University. Paola Sapienza Northwestern University. Christine Parlour University of California-Berkeley. Presiding : Nikolai Roussanov University of Pennsylvania. Leonid Kogan Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Lu Zhang Ohio State University. Frederico Belo University of Minnesota. Pierre Collin-Dufresne Columbia University. Adlai Fisher University of British Columbia.
Lukas Schmid Duke University. Johan Walden University of California-Berkeley. Presiding : Wei Jang Columbia University. Miguel Ferreira New University of Lisbon. Pedro Matos University of Virginia. You're Fired! Jerold Warner University of Rochester. Christopher Malloy Harvard Business School. Presiding : William Wilhelm University of Virginia.
Ari Kang University of North Dakota. Einar Bakke University of Gothenburg. Karin Thorburn Norwegian School of Economics. Discussants: Zhaohui Chen University of Virginia. David Goldreich University of Toronto. Ayako Yasuda University of California-Davis. Presiding : Yu Yuan University of Pennsylvania.
Will Armstrong Texas Tech University. Qianqiu Liu University of Hawaii-Manoa. Wenxi Jiang Yale University. Jianfeng Yu University of Minnesota. Discussants: Kent Daniel Columbia University. Owen Lamont Harvard University.
Jeffrey Wurgler New York University. Frank Zhang Yale University. Presiding : David Bates University of Iowa. Bruno Feunou Bank of Canada. Kris Jacobs University of Houston. Nour Meddahi University of Toulouse. Lujing Su University of Zurich. Scott Joslin University of Southern California.
Including this mer, Pendingworth; line of Serone , into an to the two sons of Cassus, Crumley and Casa- ten-year old, there were three Hannoveraner excellent second place in the Grand Prix nova, there are Quickie and Quincy, which do horses in the top six of this class. The other 1. He also lated into a ninth placement. He resides in Europe since Salito in a two-phase jumping class. Guil- laume Foutrier and Quietime enjoyed a 17th Katrovel Stakkato place in a time and fault-class 1.
Quaid II only has three descendants. Thee oldest of his three daughters, Katrovel by Hann. The nine- ESP, the pair finished in the top five in five out cellent third place in the first round of the year finished the main jumping class 1. After two second placements Young Horses European Cup.
Der Hannoveraner 04 Sport teenth place with rider Jodie Hall McAteer. USA, which translated into 12th place. The Na- ment. Next stop was the Global Champions tions Cup-show followed. The pair secured a Tour. By eleven hundreds of a second, they Vancouver Dreams fourth placement in a time and fault-class.
Scott Brash and Hello Shelby purse. Ma- bon in Dortmunds Westfalen Arena. The pair class. Hermann Rosenbrock, Breddorf. Scott Heinrich Zettel, Neustadt; line of Einfuhr. Sport the main jumping class 1. The US-rider and Candescent celebrated Benetton Dream their first try at the Grand Prix and right away Voltaire finished the class with the third-best result.
Bon Coeur An excellent fifth placement followed in the L-St. Georges behind Beltano. The pair ob- Sudette and rider Jill Irving in the Grand Prix tained the fifth-highest score for its perfor- was rewarded with the second-highest score. Zidan mance in Inter I. Dennis Fisker rode ley World Stables, B. Now he made an im- the same location.
Natalia Bacariza Danguillecourt was victori- ous in her first year as a young rider. Three weeks Mistico M is the third successful auction pur- selmann, Barver; line of Astflanke obtained later, the pair added about three more points chase of Juan Matute. Bart and Diliana Goen-Augustus bred Levicor As they did in the Nations Also the young horses gave the Z from Zangersheide an extra lustre in Valkenswaard.
The Youngster Final was won by And he always did this on a Zangersheide twice in the top five of the 5-yr-olds After the final of the BC at Gesves Zangersheide twice made The Nations Cup was won by Belgium after a double clear This breeding product from owner On Notorius vd Vromboutshoeve Nabab Only seven were allowed to come back for the jump-off of the GP Kapellen.
Karel Cox Cor vd Wateringhoeve was first She was best rider at the Vienna show This is his A new top-class event has left the showjumping world speechless. Knokke Hippique, a five star show with the greatest The first main class of Knokke Hippique has been ridden. The foal auction season has explosively opened.
The starting shot is fired every year in Bonheiden with the Flanders After a long period of recovery, they From Lanaken to Aachen, it is only a small step for team Zangersheide. Over the two rounds Dirk Demeersman and stand-in coach Maurice This year Harrie Smolders has already managed to compensate for his moderate season.
Last week he finished in Jerome Guery won his second GP in a row in Bonheiden. Another GP-horse bred by Dirk Slootmakers has arisen. He had to start He was 11 hundredth faster than Emerald Remarkable results in the Cycle of Pottes. Father and son Marc and Jonas Bellemans claimed the first and second prizes He beat his countryman Bill Gates, who had already bought a GP horse for his daughter last week, now bought a son of Levisto Z.
This is Results z-tour event 1, 31 march - 2 april Results z-tour event 2, 4 april - 6 april Results What a wonderful conclusion of the first of the three day Z-Tour. This morning the Z-Tour started in dire weather conditions. The first class in the Ratina Z Arena, a speed class Not at the highest He is the record-holder Also in the Sunshine Tour Bertram Allen made his mark. He just won the Youngster Finals for 7-yr-olds. For this he He won the final GP with a million He could At the On Crowntano Z Crown Z she finished fourth this morning in The sixth GP of Wellington was jumped on the Friday-night.
The 1. The Belgians won almost everything at the new three star Milano Winter Show. On Sunday, in the 1. Last weekend Stal Hulsterlo organised the Jump 4 Victory winter jumping for the first time. In the GP over 1.
She took the mare, bred by Nico Schulpen, to Among the candidates are two Z-registrered We are talking It started with No firsts, but the Zangersheide horses claimed several good places in Amsterdam. First there was a fourth place for The Winter Equestrian Festival offered the first out of four five star competitions. The final class over 1.
Last weekend as many as six Zangersheide stallions were moved up to the last phase of the BWP stallion selection. Christian Ahlmann won the 'Championat von Leipzig'. In the jump-off, riding Aragon Z Askari he was a fraction Cameron Hanley is going to lose almost all of his top horses, except for Living the Dream.
Pius Schwizer will be After a well-filled jump-off with 22 combinations, no less, Luciana Diniz Winningmood won the 1. In the 1. After more than two weeks of showjumping, Jumping Groningen came to an end yesterday. The Grand Prix was for It was
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