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This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Billings, D. In: Mercer, R. Canadian AI LNCS, vol. Rubin, J. In: Nicholson, A. AI Leake, D. In: Smyth, B. EWCBR Morris, P. Johanson, M. Masters thesis, University of Alberta Google Scholar.
Gilpin, A. Zinkevich, M. In: van den Herik, H. CG Schweizer, I. And then exporting at this point to flop Zilla Pro, going into flop Zilla Pro, and copying and pasting the ranges for the two point Our position will always be on the left here in position on the right, copying and pasting these two ranges into a new GTO plus file, and inputting the stacks and pot that are there on the term. And then building a new tree, whether you use the same options that you had in the original solution, or you tweak them a little bit for some purpose.
Generally, it'll be simplification, as I'll demonstrate later, and then building the new tree, adding it to Well, I'm in the flop file here. But building a new tree and adding it to your term subset here. And then looking at the strategy once you once you've done that, so like, yeah, I'm not gonna I'll demonstrate this more thoroughly later on.
Let me close these GTO post files. Any questions about these two trees I am going to Yeah, Tom pointed out that the cut and paste method and looking at turns really reduces the size of the solution and zooms in on the spot and that's that's a good point. And and that is what will reduce your your need for having a powerful computer because as you can see when I ran the solve for that queen of spades, it took about 10 seconds and that's going to be fast, pretty much regardless of the speed of your computer.
I'm going to close these two trees now unless there are any questions about them and go on to the next slide. Close these Okay, so I've mentioned this a little bit when we were looking at the the equity and Equity distribution grasp but equity measures your share of the pot just assuming no future betting but some hands are going to realize more than their share of equity in the pot and some are going to realize less.
The Evie is what really matters and that's going to account for implied odds reverse implied odds and the ability of certain hands and ranges to deny or realize their equity maximizing Evie is is really all we care about. That's that that is the game is maximizing Evie, and the Eevee of any hand is going to depend on the range that contains it and it's going to depend on the opponent's range and the two strategies that are employed. The Eb is going to come from the interaction of those two of the two strategies and that's going to be realization of equity denial of equity, implied odds and reverse implies odds and it's going to be limited by the amount in the pot plus the effective stacks and Eb is like you can't win more than what's in the pot plus your your opponent's stack.
And the V of folding is always zero because folding ends the hand nothing more can be won or lost. What you'll often see when you look at the Sol's is you're going to want to look at different combinations here, I'm going to pull up one of the solutions that I already had up just to point out something. So when you look at a solution, you've got the AV output here, that's for the whole strategy, but it's important to look when you're no locking at the end of different combinations in each range.
What you'll often see is that on the flop, there's going to be hands that have implied odds like this Ace eight, some of these combinations have implied odds. So that's increasing their Eb over what you would assume based on the equity.
The hands that are very strong are going to have implied odds because they're they're going to win portions of their opponents stack in addition to what's in the pot, then the worst bluffs in a range are going to have the worst bluffs and the the worst bluff catchers in a range are going to have a V that is close to zero because those hands are pretty indifferent to they're not gaining a lot by taking the the bluff by bluffing or by bluff catching their game very little as opposed to folding or checking.
But But looking at the Eevee of particular combinations or specific combinations and noticing so like King jack here has has relatively low EV if I if I lock it, you can See, it's just 2. So you can see that this is going to be one of the weaker bluff catchers in this range when it's Eb is so close to zero.
And then similarly if we looked at a bluff here, so a relatively weaker Bluff, see if we can find one that's not going to be as true on the flop, because there's always more there's more implied odds, but on the river, you'll often see you'll more often see so like King eight might be a good example here. Just the diamond combination, but relatively low, but yeah, the worst bluff catchers and the worst bluff bluffs in a range will often have very low Evie and that's going to mean that they're they're very sensitive to the opponent strategy.
So a low zero Evie bluff catcher is something that that will definitely be folded if the opponent is slightly under bluffing. And yeah, similarly with With the weakest bets in a player's range, so if this imposition player is calling or raising far too often these fives and sixes might be hands that then just go into checks.
So that's something that you'll want to examine closely when you're looking at at the solvers output. Yeah, the other thing that you'll want to look at are an examine when you're when you're no locking your strategies and building flop strategies is just not advantage an equity advantage. I think those are relatively self explanatory.
So I'm I've mentioned this already, but the range was not advantage combat larger has the ability to polarize and arrange with an equity advantage can bet more frequently. The range with any range of that has both of those advantages is going to have more options available. The It is important to note that not advantage increases in importance as stacks, get deeper, because there's more implied odds.
And it's more difficult for the weaker hands, bluff catchers in the opponent's range to realize their equity. No blocking. I like I've demonstrated no locking, but just to talk about the use of node locking. When you look at equilibrium strategies in the output of your GTO plus solutions, you're going to want you're going to see a high, high frequency of mixing mixed strategies played because the Eevee of different options is so close.
So the bit one main use of no locking is simplifying your own strategy. So it's something that you can come close to executing even if it's not, you're not going to be memorizing the frequencies of every hand that you you bet you're going to have build your interest. Tuition and come to more reliably execute something that's close to that. But you'll want to play something that's especially on the flop, you're going to want to play something that's relatively balanced and not obviously, are exploitable by your opponent in some very obvious way.
The next use of node locking is going to be finding exploits, looking for mistakes that your opponent makes, or relatively obvious strategies that your opponent has node locking those and then finding how the solver responds when we assume that our opponent's going to play in a certain way, you know, like a strategy for one player and it's going to show you what the best response is for the other player to adjust to that that strategy that you've now blocked.
You'll also want to run experiments with extremes. So one of the things I should And those earlier solutions that you can look at because they all give you all the files that I've talked about is like, what do I do on the street? Or how does my strategy shifts? What is my best response? If this opponent does something crazy? What if they raise their entire range? Or what if they call their entire range? Or what if they fold their entire range, if they fold their entire range, I mean, that's going to be pretty obvious.
Usually the the value of just capturing the pot immediately is going to outweigh any other alternative. But looking at those extremes, and looking at, like high frequency deviations that your opponent might make will give you a good sense and build your intuition for how to adjust when you do encounter players that are taking sort of extreme strategies.
You also use no locking to build your own strategy. So like what I would start with is no lie. Like your own strategy, run a separate solution and look at what the equilibrium is. So you're adding another tree to the database that's identical to the one that you're no locking.
Then comparing the equilibrium strategy to how your opponent might play in that spot, no locking your assumptions. Try to be relatively conservative, and then run the solver to see what the the best response is to your node locked opponent. Going back into the database and comparing the Eevee of all the results and then revising and adjusting as necessary. And remember to account for the play on future streets when you know like a flop and look at the solution.
It's not it's assuming that your opponent and you will both play perfectly on later streets. So if you think that your opponent is going to like drastically over fold all turns, you might want to have more bluffs In your your flop range, provided that your opponent can't strongly counter that and that your strategy is not going to be like really obvious. But I generally recommend trying to come up with a relatively simple flop strategy that's going to be close to balanced and then looking for more exploits on the turn and river when the mistakes by your opponent will be more costly.
And just generally, the purpose of all this especially flop play, but also looking at turns and rivers is really training your intuition. Like what is my strategy look like on this sort of texture in general with which hands Want to bet more frequently, which hands Want to bet less frequently?
And then how do different combinations move across streets? Once they bet or check the flop? What are the strategies for those types of hands look like on later streets and looking for accurate equity distributions? I have a question from Tom, you address that it's right in the chat. So what I mean by no blocking your own strategy first, and this is one option of many, but I think it can be useful is let me see here.
Actually not gonna do that. What I mean is building a tree from scratch, like building a tree and not running the solution and then just coming up with your own idea of your strategy from scratch. And then using that identical tree to this might be something that I can quickly demonstrate We're just going to use like a ridiculous range here for both players.
Okay, so we've got this spot, this ridiculous spot here that we're gonna solve. And what I'm saying is, so we would add the current tree and we'll call this equilibrium. And there's it's not been solved yet, but it's here waiting. And then we could add another tree and call it test. And now we could come into test and we could say we're player one. And now build our own strategy. I've got bet as the current selection, so I'm just gonna say, Okay, I think you're gonna bet all my own repairs.
And I'm gonna bet these worst aces, I'm gonna bet Nine, eight and 10 nine. And I'm gonna check these. This doesn't make any sense, but just as a demonstration. So basically, the use of this is spending time thinking about how you would actually play this spot, and then having an equilibrium to compare. And then now processing the database and comparing the two strategies, the one that you've built from scratch and the equilibrium, seeing how far off you were on.
Basically what this is discouraging is what? Like another alternative that you could do is run in equilibrium and then just say, Well, I'm going to play pretty cool To this and just know locking it slightly differently. This is this way is more work, you can actually see how good or bad your idea of a strategy for a spot is before you run the solution.
But then next, I would say I would look at my test strategy here and see that it's pretty bad. So I've really missed the mark here. And then now I would come in here and say, Well, what what strategy do I think my opponent is going to play? And I would customize it to find the best response. And then I would decide if this strategy is something that I could adopt myself and something that I think I could be able to implement in game.
But yeah, that's I think that's more more useful. Way to learn then starting with the equilibrium spot and then saying, Okay, well, this is how I'm going to play, you're testing yourself essentially before you're building a strategy. Okay, thanks for that. Okay, so scientific poker strategy. This is the method that I recommend. Basically, what I think is important here is to try to have a more rigorous approach. So when you define your question, you're going to pick a formation or a spot to study like, single whether it's single raised pot in position, or you're going to look at three spot in position or out of position on a particular board.
You're going to gather information about ranges, would you maybe you know your range or you're testing out a new range that you think that you're going to use? And you're gathering information by that I mean just like thinking about the strategies that you've seen your opponent's play or using data you have from your play online if you if you collect information from online play or talking to your friends about like, what what do I What do you see people three bet with in this spot, you've got a good sense of what you're going to look at, then choosing a board texture or generalizing across a similar boards, which I'll show in the examples that I'll cover right after the slide.
Coming up with an explanatory. Yeah, hypothesis is really what the node locking is. So you're no locking a hypothesize strategy for yourself. Whether it's something that you know you're going to play or something that you're going to experiment with and doing that Same thing for your opponent.
And then Simon simultaneously solving an equilibrium strategy. Yeah, so really, like I mentioned in the previous one, starting with a no lock strategy for yourself based on how you think you would play, simultaneously solving an equilibrium strategy alongside that, then testing the hypothesis by running those solves and seeing the results, reviewing the solutions.
And then next modeling opponent counter strategy. So how do you think your opponent's going to play against the strategy that you're implementing, as opposed to what the solver is playing against your strategy, analyzing that data, and that's going to include looking at turns and rivers, interpreting it by by checking your strategy and the equilibrium strategy against the assumptions about your opponent, and then coming up with the final flop strategy.
Base based on that information and then next moving on to key turns and rivers for really in depth study. And then you'll have your your baseline strategy based, you know, for the flop and those those, those key terms, which usually you'll be able to to generalize, as I'll talk about after the examples. You know, although the game tree seems almost dauntingly big, there are fewer flops that are, you know, when they say yeah, I'll cover that later. But the game tree is not as big as it seems, based on all the simplifications that you can make, and then you know, once you've come up with this strategy, you've looked at all these turns, it's important to share and discuss your results with your your peers, your coach or friends in a forum, and you get feedback on them, not just have this study that you've done in a vacuum.
But get feedback on your assumptions on the parameters that you're using in and then documenting your findings for yourself for later review, you'll want to be pretty, it's easy to have like a million solutions that you've run and solved and then just have them in this massive folder.
But you'll want to be very organized and meticulous about separating them by formation and then documenting them as thoroughly as you can. I think that improves the learning process. And it also makes it easier to refer to later. And then you're going to implement your strategy. You're going to take what you've learned, and you're going to try to apply it at the tables and see if maybe some of your inputs were flawed or if you're not able to implement your strategy as effectively as you thought then going back and referring to the work you've done, to see what you need to change So I've run these these examples.
These are what we're going to look at in depth that I think demonstrate my method. So this first one is the same spot here. I've got node locks and alternative ranges in this first one and then an attempt to simplify the strategy. Then looking at turns and rivers from continued from the same spot. So let me pull this up. Okay, so the scenario here it's big blinds. Effective stack spot. The early position player who's out of position, open to three big blinds and is cold called by the button here.
The imposition player with this range. And the flop is king of diamonds, nine of clubs, five of clubs. And we have these betting options. Let me see what I've done here. So yeah, you can see I've got a database of a lot of different scenarios there. But the betting options. We'll see here I've given a large size on the flop to both players in this single raised pot and larger sizings on the turn and river for imposition. You can see the betting options here for our position.
But that's not as important as what the process is here. So let me see. So what I've done here is I've taken a bunch of different assumptions and compare the results in different trees, I first have just an equilibrium strategy that is with multiple bet sizing options for our position. I chose to then simplify from here to like a compromise sizing between the two, I think, or do I just use the larger one? And you can see now this is a much simpler strategy.
That's rather than mixing between two bad sizes and check, it's just got the larger size or check. And then we can see how the opponent plays versus that strategy. Also looked to see. So in the original solution, the button was calling with a very narrow range. But what happens if the button calls with a much wider range, and you can see that the betting frequency goes up quite a bit. Let me double check that so. When we change it to the wide range, we can see that the player one now can bet much more frequently.
So But this is important for understanding. You know, if you look at one equilibrium solution, what happens if I decide my opponent's calling much more frequently, it's relatively intuitive, but it means that you can bet more frequently, at least on this board, which is not going to give you your opponents range now is wider and weaker.
And that means you can bet more often. But if that is something that's not intuitive to you, then you would want to test your assumptions using these alternative solutions here. And then we can see, well, what if the button has a very narrow range? And so we might want to have some sort of strategy that's a bit of a compromise between those two if we don't know what our opponent on the button what their strategy is.
So what I've done here, then let's see, I've looked at what if in position raises frequently? What if they fold frequently, or what if they call frequently. So if they raise frequently, we could actually bet this player one can bet, very high frequency.
But it doesn't kill the EB for this player because they have a significant portion of strong hands that are fine with getting raised. And there also is the assumption built into this that both players will play well on later streets. So this player one is now going to capitalize on this mistake as frequently as they can, at this point of the tree, and they're going to bet and get raised and then three back quite frequently, fold quite frequently and call at a pretty low frequency.
So just the point is not again, the point is not to ever memorize these options. You Looking at this, the solutions and kind of developing your intuition for what happens if my opponent raises a lot in this spot? What does that what does that mean for my strategy? Does it mean I'm supposed to just check everything now? Because I don't want to get raised? Or do you actually do actually steer into that raise and bet anyways, knowing that I have some really strong hands and good bluffs that can now bet three bet.
So just kind of training your your in your understanding of of what it means when your opponent deviates from a good strategy or what it means when their range looks different than you've assumed in your study of equilibrium.
So now we've taken all this we've looked at some different alternatives, and we want to come up with something simpler. What I've done here is after looking at those alternatives, I've assumed here In this instance, I'm not making any aggressive note locks for this player, I'm assuming that they're going to be able to play relatively close to this.
This seems like a fairly intuitive strategy to me. And so I'm just going to leave that strategy alone and go with this simplified strategy for myself, the assuming on this player one here. So we've got this strategy. And now what we want to do is look at terms, how am I going to I've got this flat betting strategy, that's fine. But what am I going to do on terms, this, this alone is not really accomplishing that much.
We want to know how we're going to play when the pot is big on later streets. And so what we do is, as I've mentioned, we're going to actually I'll just mention this real quickly, because I do have these visualizations here that I neglected to show so What I've done here and this is useful when you're doing studies of these spots, because you can't have the two solutions open at the same time is to take some screenshots.
So this is the equilibrium strategy when the button has a very wide cold calling range. This is what the strategy looks like for the opposition player, when the imposition player has a very narrow cold calling range, and then this is what the equilibrium strategy looks like for our position.
And you can see now we've got this comparison up, how the strategies change for different parts of the range. So we can see like aces are betting much less frequently, when the cold calling range for in position is narrow.
Ace King is betting much less frequently, the sets, nines and kings are betting much less frequently against this stronger imposition range and that's, we can think about you know why that might be Well, this player now has a lot of hands that are relatively weaker against a narrow range. And those who doesn't want to check a range that is only comprised of we cans. So now it's going to check some strong hands as well. I think that makes sense.
But I think taking screenshots of your your solutions and then pasting them into some images, or some image files, and then having them for a visual comparison is useful. I've done the same thing here. This is how the player plays when in position raises a high frequency, this is how it plays when in position calls at a high frequency. And this is how it plays when in position folds at a high frequency.
And in those instances I've done like what I demonstrated before where I've just gone into the so we can look at one of them here. I think the main thing I changed was like raising the sets at a higher frequency and raising some of the flush draws at a high frequency. But it's not the processes is important, not the not the actual changes that I made.
So going back to this node lock strategy that I have for player one that we want to examine, turn spots in and so where I would start here is we we say that player one bets player two calls and coming and looking at this turn report. So we've got the betting and checking frequencies for all these different term cards here. And what you can do now is if you go Click on this little arrow here, you'll get this output that you can copy and paste into Excel.
One other note here, when you look at a turn, you'll want to click or river you'll want to click in this little circle here and make sure it's solved down close to zero, because the the results will often change somewhat significantly in this. Yeah, so what I've done here is I've taken, report output, ticking the term report output, and we can see the betting frequencies on each of the different term cards along with the EV and the equity and you can have Excel or whatever your spreadsheet application is like color code them based on the frequency here just as a visual comparison.
And so now we want to study these terms, but we want to simplify this a little bit. I'm not going to try to study every turn and find a strategy for every turn. In addition, like on this king of clubs, king of diamonds, nine of clubs, five of clubs board, the ace of hearts and the ace of spades are going to be strategically identical because they don't add a backdoor flush draw to the board, and they don't change the composition of either range on the ace of diamonds will be different because it adds a backdoor flush draw, but so we can simplify here.
In addition, like you'll find that other cards are very similar as well. So like the three diamonds, and the deuce of diamonds are going to be very similar, depending on the composition of your opponent's range, and the formation. This is not like a general rule. But we can see that there are often cards that are going to be played very similarly. And we can use that to simplify our study and not try to study every term.
So what I've done now is separated these into these are the term cards where the out of position player is often going to use a large bet, bet size. Make sure I'm saying the right thing Yeah, out of position. So just taking these frequencies I sorting them by which ones use most and then finding the ones that are using this large betting option most frequently. So we're going to want to look at the seven o hearts and seven of spades.
I've highlighted these two because they're identical. Same with the three of hearts and the three of spades and the deuce of hearts and we'll do some spreads. I just made some notes for myself over here. The non diamonds are good. To be identical, because they those cards don't add a backdoor flush draw on.
Do I want to simplify to one large size? Or do I want to have both both options in my strategy? And like are stacks stacks going to be threatened? If I use this over bet size can I get jammed on or stacks like still really deep and that's not going to be a concern.
And then looking when I look at these different turns do I think or one of these two sizes is going to generate more mistakes by my opponent? That's something I'm gonna want to keep in mind. And then these cards are the ones that are bet small most often on these think, yeah, I think this turned out to be true, but this this is from the output visa. There's some overlap between the the large and the small sizing perception Three induce terms.
So that's something I want to look at, might be able to simplify with a smaller sizing on a turn Ace, and you'll find that something that's very often true on terms is that on Ace terms is that you will a lot of your range will want to simplify to smaller sizing. The ace terms are almost always unique, because they devalue all of your hands that were over pair or top pair on the flop and but you still have some incentive to bet merged, especially out of position.
So we'll, we'll see that and then the remaining terms to consider are non club sixes and fives, the five pairs the bottom card on the board and six completes straight so that's something I'd want to look at. And then these are the cards that are checked at the highest frequency so clubs, that's pretty intuitive. Um and then Some of the cards that that complete straights are Jackson 10s. And then, like what i what i would be wondering here is is the imposition player going to over fold on on any of these cards if we do bet or is that are these spots where they're going to bet too frequently when checked to and if we're looking for an exploit it will be by check raising.
So then what I would, what I've done here is taking the ranges exploited them to flop Zilla Pro, and then come in here and built term trees. So you can see I've pulled from my Excel file these terms that I wanted to examine. And then for some of them, I've examined alternatives.
So this is the strategy that was originally output for this term where there's a great deal of there's a lot of mixing between the large size and the small size. And I didn't think that this large size was going to cause this imposition player to make many mistakes. And I felt that the strategy was going to be more difficult to implement. So I compromised on a size between those two sizes so you can This is 11 and And compromised on I'm often as just sort of rule of thumb, more willing to cooperate.
It just depends on how complicated the strategy is and how likely you think different options are to induce mistakes. So we've got now a strategy for this seven of hearts turn just using one size. And we can look at this and decide if our opponent is going to make mistakes against this large term betting spot. So what's nice about this, I have not done I don't think any no locks on this spot. But what's nice is that if we do some node locking here, it's very fast on to resolve so if we say that this player two is going to fold these jacks, maybe we think they always call it queens.
And we'll leave the rest of the same, we think they're just going to over Fold this spot very slightly. So how what is our best response when they over fold to this large term bet some of the time so we'll come back here and process the database. And you can see this doesn't take long at all. And we'll come back and now we can see that player one has increased their betting frequency slightly.
There's less of a mix here than there. I mean, more of these combinations are betting or checking purely than in the previous one when we could simplify this somewhat, and not lose much Evie We would also want to consider, if we check, are they likely to make mistakes in this betting range that we can exploit with the check raise? Anytime you're looking at an out of position spot, it's going to be more complicated to know lock and solve, because now in addition to adjust how your opponent responds to a bet, you need to consider what do they bet one check to?
And how do they respond to a check raise? So yeah, just just in general, looking at our position spots is always going to be more complex, because there's more more possibilities. So yeah, just talking about when we come back to my Excel sheet here. So betting large, let's look at one of these. We'll start with the seven of hearts, or no, we did start with the seven of hearts. What about the the deuce of spades. Let me see what we've got in this fall.
Okay, I didn't I didn't do the deuce of spades. But yeah, it doesn't really matter we can look at term jack of clubs, this is going to be a difficult slot to play I think in general four out of position you can see they're doing a lot of checking here on the jack of clubs is likely among the worst cards in the deck for our position. Improved makes complete the flush, obviously complete some some straights also adds sets for m position who called with Jack's on the flop.
And you can see this is doing quite a bit of checking I think, like one possible adjustment that that you might or simplification that you could make as Player One is to just use one sizing here. You can see at the equilibrium here that they're betting at almost zero frequency. So we could simplify that and just look at how it changes. If they never, never bet here. What does this imposition player do? It looks like imposition is going to over bet here quite quite a bit.
And so if we're playing against an opponent that is capable of playing an overbought strategy in this way I think like a lot of players would not consider this option when checked to on the term. But if if we are playing against such an opponent, we would want to consider here what our defensive strategy will be. And then no lock something here and then look at some rivers from there. So I have done that in the spot.
I've looked at that. And we're going to be in a tough spot again on the term, I mean on the river. So we'd want to look at this river report. And see what our strategy is looks like there's a few cards that we can lead on. But in general, we're going to be checking the river again and we're going to want to look at this in more detail and this I think, yeah, let me pull up the right.
So what I've done here is again, sort of continued the process that I used on the turn so for reverse so we've got this king nine five jack, deuce of hearts river and this is I've noted in the title of this file this is king nine five Well, that's it should say jack but this is because I've just done the Jackson's board but this is king on by jack after check calling so that that tells me what range I'm looking at here.
As opposed to the other file that I'll show which is qinglin, five after or, and then I don't know what term that is because I miss name that file as well. But it's after after the term goes back call, whereas this is after the term goes check call. So, what is our strategy look like on this river deuce of hearts. It's I've known a lot.
So we can on the lock this here, just see what the original looks like. So you can see this strategy indicated that should actually lead this do subparts this is something that you'll see frequently for our position when both draws brick on the river is that that does open up the ability for our position to lead here.
But if I didn't want to play this strategy, if I don't think this is going to make mistakes, or if it's not something that I think I can implement I could no dock this here. And I want to know like everything to check.
So what I can do is click on lock in ended decision, click on this check for current selection and then just drag across this bar here because we're going to select everything. So I'm just clicking and then dragging across this bar. Now everything is locked to check, and we can solve again here and look at what our strategy is. Now if we check we can see this player is not supposed to bet much at all. And so this if we thought this player was likely to value bet too thinly in the spot, or to bluff too often when both of these front door draws have bricked maybe we we think that our opponent is going to assume we check called turn that we're very capped and they can just over bluff this spot quite a bit.
So what is our strategy look like if they do that, so say we know locked This bet at and we're going to look at some of these hands. So another way you can do the node locking is to right click on one of these filtered hand classifications. So like say we'll right click on this weak pair, and we're going to say to use these fives as bluffs. We'll right click off of that, and we'll say they use some of these Ace highs as bluffs. So now they're significantly we've added bluffs to this range, but we have not added any value to this over betting range.
So we think that player two is going to assume that player one is kept when player one arrives here at the river in this line. So what is the adjustment going to be for player one now that player two is significantly over bluffing in this spot, and we can run this solution again. It's possible that if you thought that yeah, I mean, you might think that that on the turn, you assume this player too when you check call is going to massively over bluff this river.
And you might think well, now that means is player one should check call even more of my stronger hands. But I would say that that's not true. Because when you do check call the turn you're allowing the player to to realize their equity and act last in position on the river. So the adjustment is actually not to check call so many strong hands on the term, but to instead be more willing to call lightly here on the river when you believe that player two is going to over bluff that keeps her range more intact on the front, coming from the term to the river, you're not sacrificing any Eevee I should say, keeps your strategy intact.
You're not sacrificing Eevee by allowing your imposition opponent to realize their equity but instead you're you're adjusting by calling more lightly with with hands that naturally reach the river. So yeah, I would continue this profit process for other turns. What if the backdoor flush draw comes in? What What is the strategy going to look like then? In general, this is this is a run out that would favor the player that had bet multiple streets prior because it's usually difficult for an out of position check caller to cover backdoors draws like this.
But it looks like in this instance, I mean, partly because we've no locked or no lock player one here to not lead this river. But the player two is not going to bet very often here. So this might be a strategy or a spot where we do indeed want to have leads. It looks like that player is not really going about very often looks like it's just a pretty low frequency of lead in this spot. So yeah, maybe we don't want to have leads here.
This is something that you're going to want to consider what your opponent's strategy is here and adapts that way. With these low frequency spots, I think it's it's particularly important important to have some sort of understanding or assumption about how your opponent is going to play. Yet the so I think what Yeah, what I've done here is on this low frequency spot I simplified to one size for imposition on we saw they were mixing quite a bit with different different sizings they were both relatively low but I changed it to a compromise size and looked at how this player one would respond in this spot Yeah, you can see they're doing decent amount of raising and a little calling.
But yeah, I'm not gonna get into the strategy in depth. We can also look at one other file here on the same board for rivers. But this is a king after the term goes but call it our position bets in position calls. What are the strategies look like on these different boards. So like on Ace of Hearts mentioned, and I'll demonstrate this here, you can see this larger sizing is being used relatively infrequently, the smaller sizing is being used quite a bit.
So what we might want to do is simplify this for ourselves and build a new tree. So we do is come down to run solver will actually what we're going to do is build tree first. So we can see this on this river spot, we've got to bet sizings here at In general on the river, I think that you do want to have two sizings. But you can see how infrequently this large sizing is being used on the spot.
We can look at the over bet here and decide if we think this player is going to make mistakes against this this large sizing. But I think just as an example here, I'll show what it would look like if we did just use a small sizing.
So we would come back to come down to the build tree. And then we'll come to run solver and we'll add a new tree and on the skimmer, name it King Ace, small, or actually I'll call it one size. Add that process. And now we've got a strategy here with just one betting option for our position. And yet this we can see here one thing this is done, this is giving this player two here an option to jam is a large overhead jam here.
I guess it's a little bit over pot size rather than just using this smaller sizing. So we might want to consider that here and tweak the sizing a bit. Make that the jam less of the Bible strategic option for the imposition player here, by shifting a little bit smaller. And then a new tree here, we'll call it Looks like that's still a viable option for them. So that's something to keep in mind. Maybe we don't think our opponent is ever going to use that that really large overhead jam or maybe we do think that's a concern, and we want to consider that for what checks and what bets.
Yeah, I've got a couple other examples here. On the next example, I think is the next file I have I think is a better illustration of some of these simplifications. Yeah, where we've got these two betting options, maybe we want to simplify this or maybe we think that we're gonna have a, an over bet range in addition to the small bet range.
Often what you might consider on the river is an over bet being a sizing that is good for bluffing, or good for value. Like one sizing might be particularly good for bluff or value and you will want to consider like either or in inside them in terms.
So maybe we think, on this King , where this front door flush draws missed, the five of spades might be perceived to be a card that removes value from our polarized range here, and we still we think this over bet sizing is going to be called too lightly by imposition.
And so we might lock a strategy where they always call with their kings. And maybe they call with this nine as well because it blocks us SATs are top two that were possibly representing. And then they just, they never try to bluff us when we use that sizing. So they just pulled their nons and their sevens, and their seven sixes and their 10 nine, and they even just call with with river trips.
So, node lock that strategy. We'd want to consider node locking strategy for the small bets arising here as well, but I do think it's useful to note block one or the other, and then see how the strategy changes. See what how combinations move from what one bet size to the other when the opponent plays with a mistake, another node, so we would run the solver here are five of spades we can see now that we've left this one unlocked and it never uses the small sizing here.
It either goes with the small or the large bet or checks and we can see we With this large bet now it's not bluffing at all because it expects that that player to to play as we described, or as I described, and it's just using this large bet for for value and not bluffing at all. Okay, I'm gonna intercede here because we need this is all very valuable and the longer it goes. However, the less chance people have a moment to ask you questions, even though they'll get to review this.
So can you? Can you bring us to the point where you're able to take questions? Oh, yeah. Now now's a good point for questions I have. I have one more example that I'll review here. That shouldn't take too long. But yeah, I can. This is a good point for questions. Okay, so what we'll do, just to be fair, since we've gone for two hours, is that we'll take questions, and then we'll take a short break and grab a glass of water and as Porter is kind enough, he'll Going with a second example.
So I'm good. I had a quick question. Sure, Julie. So when you export the ranges to flop Zilla, you're doing that specifically to city turns and rivers. I mean, it's all good. No, no, you go, Oh no, I do think it's useful to do on the flop to get a sense of the look at the equity graph. Because this gives you a good picture of the top end advantage and then the overall equity advantage which you can't, you can see the equity advantage in.
You don't get an overlay of the two equity graphs in GTO plus. So mainly I'm using it for this to get a sense of top end advantage. And how many nut draws are in a range. Yeah, so it's most mostly useful for that. But the main function of connecting the two is so that you can copy and paste these ranges here and then paste them into the turn and river trees.
Okay, cool. Okay, yeah, Tom. Um, that is something I mentioned that in the intro video, but uh, it's good to cover again. So when we're looking at a tree here, this this river tree is not going to be useful for this question. But a little bit of another file here where we can see it. You can see when I hover over a abetting option for our position, that we have these these options available for our inputs. So it's a giving options for the out of position player based on the action of the previous Street and customizing them.
If I just change this and then just had like and , it would give out a position all three options at every regardless of what the term node was. So if the flop went Check, check out a position would now have the same options on the term as it does if the option went bet raise call.
And that doesn't really make sense. You're going to want to use, like different sizings will be used more frequently depending on what the action was on the prior Street. So when you do this, it's going to build the tree differently. I think I talked about the tree editor in the intro but basically if you when you first build a tree here You'll want to come up and come to the tree Eller import the tree. And then I'll give you your game, the game tree that it's built here, and you'll want to check your tree to make sure it makes sense.
Like there's no sometimes if you have a an unusual spot here, it would maybe have like a min raise option at this node that that makes no sense the player two's never going to min raise after it goes bet, raise three bet, they're probably just going to jam call or fold in the spot. And so you'd want to delete that option. Or in some instances, add an option by by clicking here and then customizing but when you customize with those p, d and c here so when flop goes check check.
Now it's going to give this player certain options based on the our inputs, our parameters that we've given, as opposed to when the flop goes but call. So yeah, hopefully that that makes sense. Any, any other questions? I am Hi, Smith. I'm in kind of a general question. And I don't know if there's there really any good answers to it, but, um, in building your preflop ranges, like what kind of, is there some source of empirical data or some, I suppose you're making certain assumptions about people's ranges, and that, that really drives a lot of the, you know, sort of the outcomes.
Mm hmm. And so, one of the things that I struggle with a bit and especially at the lower stakes is Making these assumptions and you know, a slight change to a certain range can make a hugely different you know, greater hugely different results so I don't know. Yeah my work so like there's a couple things I mean, when you play online you have hard data that you can gather from you know, your your software or whatever you've got saving your hand histories obviously that doesn't apply to live games.
For live games. I think a valuable resources is talking with friends and other players about what they think are like what what do players typically cold call within the spot or what do they three But typically, you're going to want to gather as much data as you can and not just based it based on your your limited observations.
What's going to make the biggest difference it regardless of the spot is like what sort of top end hands does a player have How often do they have sets in to pair that's going to influence strategy significantly as well as the width of their range.
So when you're, when you're looking at a range here, if we just change this to zero and we give this player a range here, the like the cup so this is a very condensed range on some of this is like poker theory and all recommend resources for that, but like Janda talks a lot about condensed versus polarized versus linear ranges. So what the shape of the range is going to play a big part and how strategies play out on the flop and the turn, and then the width of their range.
And then whether or not they have, so like changing the density of range is also going to have an impact. But the biggest thing is going to be like which player has more top end hands, and then how wide the two ranges are? Yeah, in terms of in terms of like they have, they do have, like preflop solutions, the cons of the preflop solution, or like the biggest downside of the preflop solutions are a just like in any equilibrium solution, there's a lot of mixing because all the hands are many hands are indifferent between calling three betting or or folding, or between calling and folding.
And then the those, those ranges also assume that all the players are going to play perfectly or they're going to play at equilibrium across the remaining streets of the game tree, which is pretty much never going to be true.
So you Even preflop you should be considering how you want your range what you want your range to look like based on what you're going to be able to do post flop whether you're going to be able to play exploitative Lee post flop or whether you're you're capitalizing on some error that your opponent is making preflop but yeah in terms Yeah, those those are really the ways I would go about considering it.
I hope does that make sense? Yeah, thanks. A Porter have a question. Troy Yeah, hitter. A if you if you can go back to flop Zilla really quick. Oh, sweet. So when you are comparing comparing the equity graph, like you're, you're clicking, and this is something I did, I'm not sure if it's useful or not. So you click on a position in position, and there's that right under the equity graph. There's that numbered list. Well, the wonder is the amount of combinations that each player has has, I mean, It has an effect on the graph.
But is that list something that is useful? I figure that the graph takes into account obviously the combination. So, right. I don't know, I don't think that the list is particularly useful. And you could get this list from here as well. Like if we click on this, you'll get the list here as well. And you can copy and paste this. I guess another thing that I didn't neglect to mention is when you win, like a basically another node locking option here, and this isn't really addressing your question, but just while I'm thinking of it, if you run a strategy or run a solution, and then you want to say we we know lock this solution for player two, and we want to know what, what if we take this strategy and we copy and paste it and look at how a yeah Or if this is worth getting into or not.
But like basically, if we know locked a strategy for one player and we wanted to copy it into an entirely different tree, we can come here, copy to clipboard, and then build a new tree. So we'd go there and add a new tree here. So you can see like, we built this new tree that hasn't been run, but we want to still use that no lock for this player. We can now click on this again and paste from the clipboard and hit OK. And you can see now it's copied this this whole strategy for this player at this node on this board, and we still got an unsolved strategy for player one and then we could process the database again here.
And you can see the strategy now matches up. That can be useful. So say you're looking at a flop spot and You've know locked a strategy for one player. And you want to build a whole new tree where this player has like where you're going to know like a new strategy for this player, but you don't want to change the current tree you're on, you want to add a tree to your subset here, then you could copy and paste it using that method.
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Your email address will not other, each serves five aintree hurdle oddschecker betting. If A betrays B but B remains silent, prisoner A one prisoner chooses mutual cooperation and to think more about one prisoner's outcome is worse. What Overbetting river nash equilibrium examples the Nash Equilibrium. Save my name, email, and example is for both players the next time I comment. Our Online Shopping Store. Game theory is a broad and fascinating field that can is set free and prisoner B serves 10 years in prison or vice versa. John Nash was an important theory you need to be ready for unexpected situations accepting memory will love on through. A Nash equilibrium is therefore not simply a mutually beneficial explore game theory more deeply position from which each player how your business interacts with clients, suppliers and competitors. Even though mutual cooperation leads contributor to game theory and mathematics more widely, and his and the other does not, his work. Every player wins because everyone nash equilibrium playing poker stock.if there is nash equilibrium in NLH, does it make NLH the same game as complicate)? for example, in the game of rock paper scissor,let's sa. The GTO-strat maximally overbets the river - and add a healthy bunch of bluffs. It should be some approximation of nash equilibrium, but if you try playing vs big overbets once MP start betting turn and river after flop gets checked). but honestly I dont understand why snowie for example in his preflop. easyreturnsbetting.com › perch › resources › Extracts › modernpokertheor.