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Following day the battalion debarked and went into camp in the western edge of the city. The troops were enthusiastically received by the citizens. Sick bay battalion medical headquarters set up in Adrian type of temporary barracks, located in the administrative section of the camp. Here are the typewriter and blank form units, the regimental Navy medical and surgical chests we brought with us, health records in company units, and the battalion headquarters of Hospital Corps personnel.

One medical chest was opened to provide for routine sick call. A pocket case has been adequate for such minor surgical problems that occur. Patients with mild disorders requiring some attention are turned in here on campaign cots which are opened only when such cases develop. Patients with milder disorders I-day or 2-day -cases are permitted to remain in their own company area under the care of the company hospital corpsmen.

Company hospital corpsmen bring to the sick bay the patients they believe should see the medical officer. This is done after the morning and evening meals, although hospital corpsmen have been instructed to bring to, or call, the battalion surgeon at any time a case appears that seems to be serious. Sanitary inspections carry the battalion surgeon or his assistant throughout the battalion area daily, when opportunity is given, not only to see the officers and men, but to discuss problems with the company hospital corpsmen and to instruct them.

Here the Navy unit encountered its first medical liaison problems with the Army. As we ate now part of the Army there is nothing to do but to conform with the Army. The great problem is that presented by Navy medical reports and returns : Na vy health records Navy property, Navy personnel records and reports, Navy disciplinary procedures, Navy com- munications, Navy promotions, Navy citations, Navy pay, Navy uniforms, Navy equipment and transfers — all within the area of the Army, in and out of action, in a foreign country many thousands of miles from the Navy Department in Washington.

It represents a pioneering problem. Camp and area surgeons, dispensaries, field-evacuation-base and convalescent hospitals — all are not only Army but represent the Armies of three nations: British, French, and American. Our Navy-Marine Corps sick and wounded, therefore, will have to flow over lines of evacuation and return which will make the follow-through of naval records extremely difficult and uncertain.

The sensible course to pursue would be to drop everything Navy and adopt everything Army. This, doubtless will be necessary. It appears that conditions will be the worst imaginable, with units scattered in England and France, living outdoors, moving from place to place and, eventually, participating in military actions.

Our loyalty to the Navy will straddle us with the burden at this time of a naval administrative routine, applicable only to peacetime conditions. At St. Nazaire close order drill and practice marches were instituted. Nazaire for entrainment. The regiment is Sbout to experience its first voyage in French freight cars, each conspicuously boasting accommo- ations for 40 Hommes or 8 Chevaux.

The trip across France to the training area was pleasant. NAVY Weather was ideal; men were in good spirits and the countryside was pretty with the ripening wheat fields dotted with splashes of red poppies. The troops were hailed all along the line by the French as though we were returning from victory instead of green troops untrained in modern warfare.

In the billet towns, arches of welcome were erected. Citaens out to meet us in gala attire. Peaceful Vosges hills now scarred with practice trenches, for position warfare to be studied from all angles, both by day and by night. Alpine Cbaussers find Marines apt pupils Social relations with French cordial. Marines cleaning up villages and entertaining villagers w,th band concerts.

Women do our washing and sewing, sell milk, eggs, and fruit, and cook many wonderful meals. End of Training — Medical Situation Upon the organisation of the Second Division as a unit, all sick and surgical cases which could not be treated in quarters, flowed into the Division Army field hospital units.

Patients with chronic or surgical conditions requiring more extensive treatment were sent to appropriate evacuation points or a base hospital. Transportation to such facilities was provided by ambulances and hospital trains. When a patient left the regiment, the unit medical staff lost all connection with him. In the Vosges training area a part of some peasant's home or an Adrian shack was used as battalion or regimental sick quarters.

Nearby such sick quarters battalion and headquarters hospital corpsmen were billeted and were available for immediate calls and duty. Company hospital corpsmen remained with their companies, eating, sleeping, and entering into the training program with them. Medical aid was maintained thus. Supervision and orders flowed in an effective and orderly fashion while training and movement pro- gressed, both as single units and as a combination of units representing a relative whole. Although the use of Army field forms, nomenclature, and medical supply were mandatory, naval medical-clerical procedures were fully applied.

Under these conditions, however, the naval procedure proved futile. Early in March of , information reached the regiments that they soon would go to the front. Active steps were immediately taken for the final general shakedown. At this time specific Army equipment allowances were established. These allowances for regiments seemed extremely inadequate in contrast with the elaborate naval medical supplies issued to us before we departed from the United States. The simplicity of the Army medical allowance, which, with the exceptions of litters, splints, and blankets was divided into personal loads, later convinced us of its practicability.

Our large naval medical supply, still in cases, had to be considered lost. By 11 March military organization had been refined. The morale of everyone was excellent despite a hard winter of drilling and the discomforts of life in cold billets, and inadequate recreation and amusement.

The general average z:tm m Th nu? This move carried the new and untried Second Division into the trench system north of Verdun where the German advance into eastern France in had been so heroically and suc- cessfully arrested. The move was to begin on 13 March by the "forty and eight" Command and operations remained in the hands of the French. The region into which the Second Division moved was a kilometer stretch of hilly land lying between St.

Mihiel and Verdun, east of the Meuse River. A 3' or 4-mile strip of wooded country skirted the east bank. The ramifications of the front and rear areas of the sector occupied by the Fourth Marine Brigade were established in this rugged country, facing east. Ahead lay the plain of the Woevre occupied by the enemy.

The sections of the front manned by the two regiments and machine gun battalion of Marines were about 4 kilometers in depth and were divided as the front had been organised by the French into "subsectors," each of which were held by a regiment. Regimental subsectors were defended by several "centers of resistance," each of which could accommodate a force about the sise of a battalion. Such battalion centers of resistance were defended by several strong points which were fortified and provided with wire, water, and other forms of obstruction on their fronts.

Generally, the front was an elaborate system of deep trenches and dugouts with communication trenches connecting front, rear, and flank positions. On the front of the battalion in line, the prevailing rule was to hold as many men as possible in dugouts with a company or two in battalion reserve ; thus, a regiment was arranged in echelon from front to rear: 1. Line battalion trenches and dugouts : Front, companies.

Support, companies. Reserve, companies. Support battalion trenches, dugouts, and shacks. Reserve battalion building, or camp of shacks with shelter. NAVY Line battalion headquarters occupied secure dugouts in the center and near' rear of the battalion front.

Headquarters of the support and reserve groups, in echelon, occupied similar points as were related to their respective organizations. The positions taken by regimental headquarters usually fel! Good dugout, shelter, and communication facilities, afforded by the sector and the terrain at such points, were utilized by the regimental headquarters group. The main stations along the medical lines of communication, over all the fronts which were occupied by the Marine brigade, already were set up and were controlled by the French.

The brigade's naval medical personnel complemented the French medical staff which was present, and jointly occupied the front-to- rear dugouts of the brigade echelons that were devoted to the treatment and evacuation of sick and wounded. While the Second Division ambulance companies were being indoctrinated and familiarized with the road net of the sector, French, S.

American auxiliary sanitary service of the French Army , and an attached British am- bulance service, evacuated the sick and wounded of the Marine brigade. Routine daily calls were made at regimental aid stations. At times ambulance runs could be made at night to advance battalion aid stations located in front and in support positions. Before the brigade was moved out of this sector, routine evacuation from the brigade to rear area hospitals was handled entirely by the medical train of the Second Division.

While this front was occupied 15 March to 12 May the weather was rainy and cold. There was some snow, and there were some days when the tempera- ture stayed below the freezing point. With alternating thawing and freezing, and frequent spring rains, the wooded and trench-scarred terrain was soggy and inhospitable. Life was a muddy and uncomfortable outdoor experience for everybody.

Brigade Medical Organization The attached medical personnel for each regiment consisted of 7 medical officers, 3 dental surgeons, and 48 hospital corpsmen. Generally, the medical detachments of regiments were distributed as follows: Regimental headquarters — Regimental aid station Surgeon senior medical officer Assistant at times Dental surgeon senior dental officer Chief pharmacist's mate senior Hospital corpsmen, from 6 to 8 Battalion headquarters '—Battalion aid station 1 Surgeon Assistant Dental surgeon if available Chief pharmacist's mate Hospital corpsmen, from 5 to 7 Each company: Hospital corpsmen, from 2 to 4 U Same in machine guti battalion.

Those of this group who were attached to the reserve battalions were stationed at the regimental aid stations. In the strong points of the trench sector, the company aid stations postes des secours were manned by hospital corpsmen. These most advanced aid stations were situated in specially built trench dugouts or located on the side of a hill facing away from the enemy, or were located in tellers of partly or totally destroyed houses, or in remains of rooms.

The aid stations of warof-position must be selected with a view to affording a certain amount of warmth in winter weather, and at least minimal facilities for caring for patients who cannot be evacuated for a number of hours.

Aid stations are not moved except when extensive change of position makes such a move necessary. Aid stations are quarters for medical personnel as well as for the sick and wounded. Regimental chief pharmacist's mate, George G. Strotc, and Leon H. NAVY Battalion and regimental aid stations usually were from a half tn a m fl k. I Tnnffl! I irequent tours over the regimental echelons. They must be familiar with their idiosyncrasies. They must know who in the company is weak and who is strong, the dauntless and the faint hearted, the oversealous and the tender-footed.

Hospital corpsmen must build their bodies, so that they can withstand hard- ship. They must develop or possess a cheerful, kindly manner and a readiness to help even when tired, hungry, cold, and worn. Their work is not finished at the end of the day when the drill, practice march, or battle is finished. They must then inspect feet; dress blisters; strap ankles; rub muscles; distribute medi' cines; inform the medical officer about the physically unfit; settle problems of food, hygiene, and sanitation; make reports; and obtain supplies.

The physical and mental rigors of war wear down the resistance of many men. Aside from the frank neurologic break-downs, there are many who have to be cheered and encouraged by the hospital corpsmen, even though their own bodies ache from head to foot. Marine is in hole made by shell that destroyed band equipment stowed inside. There was a stupendous morale problem to overcome among the Allies. When the Fourth Brigade arrived on the Verdun front and while living in the trenches with the French and the few British ambulance drivers who were there, they found pessimism and depressed spirits.

The American naval per' sonnel and Marines were spiritually fresh and filled with high optimism as to the quick and successful outcome ot the war, while our Allied trench-and-dugout mates could see only a future of mutilation, capture, death, and defeat. NAVV Personality of Medical Troops The Navy medical personnel along with their Marine comrades in this trench sector were expertly schooled in the art of modem warfare.

They act as mechanics, teamsters, horse orderlies cooks, messmen, clerks, and in many other capacities than their strictly nS ess,onal duties. For such details men were selected on the b s rf p ev. Life in trench duiuts" becomes monotonous under dormant conditions: eating, sleeping and E are of only absolute necessities. Neither the medical officer nor the hospital corp smai who hugs a dugout or other shelter ever becomes a good soldier It takes a stout heart, clean body, and clear mind to be a satisfactory hospital co psman m the field.

One of them had to be awarded posthumously. Each outfit was elaborate and expensive and, no doubt, for units operating independently, possessed medical and surgic; 1 equipment sufficiently adequate for almost any requirement. The quantity, quality, and selection of drugs, instruments, and accessories were excellent. Before going to the front, virtually the only supplies used were taken from these outfits.

When the Fourth Brigade left the Vosges area for the Verdun front in March, the Army transportation allowance for the units of the regiments was limited, and only parts of the fine naval medical outfits could be carried- by the battalion r. What could not be taken, or was not considered necessary, was left in storage in the training area where it had been. It was thought that this equipment belonging to the Navy could be recovered later.

This extensive medical equipment, taken to France by the Fourth Brigade, became a source of supply for the whole medical department of the Second Division. Later these supplies were taken over by the Army and other units were well supplied with medical and surgical materials for some time. It was learned, subsequently, through medical officers and hospital corpsmen rejoining the brigade after treatment in SOS hospitals, that many white Navy blankets and other equipment had been seen in some of the base hospitals, apparently having been taken from the brigade's medical supplies left in the Vosges and later shipped to Gevres.

Although the Marine brigade had little chance to use these extensive supplies for their own numerous sick and wounded, they were used to advantage in the treatment and comfort of many other A. In the absence of instructions for guidance there was nothing else to do but abandc n the equipment. The Army orders were mandatory and concerned with getting on with the war. The transportation problem confronting the attached medical personnel was a great one. Only 1 small 2-wheeled mule-drawn cart was allowed each battalion medical unit of an infantry regiment.

Medical supplies had to be selected, therefore, for a force of 4,, not only from the standpoint of anticipated use- fulness in and out of line but to fit the space permitted. There was room for little else. The decision to carry these Navy health 'records against Armyorders was not an example f good judgment rf tra] f stationery and blank forms, and the typewriter chests.

The French had a litter of almost the same type but with the ad- dition of a contrivance for raising the head. A disadvantage of the canvas litter is its capacity to absorb and pool hemorrhae-. The Stokes stretcher equipped with broad strips of light metal resembling skis, for dragging the stretcher over the ground, would have been useful.

We had none, however, with which to make the ex- periment and it would not have been practical to have two stretchers of such entirely different types at the front. The patient is usually not changed from one stretcher to another when trans- ported from the front to the rear.

To shift the patient is awkward and it delays his evacuation to a safer spot. Such delays endanger life or precipitate shock as the result of unnecessary handling. A wounded man may remain on a stretcher from the time he is picked up on the field until he arrives at a base hospital far in the rear a day or two later. After having left the Vosges area, medical supplies used by the Fourth Brigade were drawn from Army sources medical supply section, division surgeon's office.

In explanation of the small amount of supplies of drugs and instruments actually found to be needed, it should be known that at the front all wounded, gassed, or sick, except in the mildest cases, were evacuated to a field hospital. Most of the major medical and surgical procedures were done in the field hospitals and in the hospitals farther in the rear of the front. The chief medical procedures in a regiment consist of diagnosis, caring for the slightly sick, super- vising and organizing the care and evacuation of the wounded from the battle field during action, and of keeping astride the fast-moving problems of hygiene and sanitation.

When moving into the line such medical supplies as stretchers, splints, band- ages, and morphine were carried in by stretcher bearers and hospital corpsmen. Such small supplies could not be expected to last for more than a few hours in a severe action. Replenishments were brought up by ambulances from the am- bulance heads, and from there they were carried to the line by returning litter bearers.

Although the supply of blankets was maintained by ambulances from sources in the rear, Hospital Corps dressers and battalion aid station personnel used the personal blankets from the packs of the wounded men for covering patients on litters. It was learned later, that, when going into action, the simple medical supplies used could best be carried on the backs of the hospital corpsmen.

Relative Usefulness of Supplies As a means of carrying first-aid material, the Navy Hospital Corps first-aid and dressing pouches proved a blessing. The Navy pouch was considered superior to the Army Hospital Corps belt, because the Navy pouch held more useful items; it was easy to carry; it could be taken off without removing the pack; it was handier to get things out of it; it did not interfere with body or leg movement; and it did not add to the belt-bulk of an overcrowded waistline.

The bandage scissors is the most all-around useful instrument in front-hne m ed IC1 ne. Clothing, shoes, and fabrictjmpment mu t t ZLZ removed from the area surrounding wounds, and no device for such use I so ,mple and effective as a pair of bandage scissors. Each mem ber of the Z cal staff carried a pan- of bandage scissors on his person-usually on the n X e J pushed down between trousers and puttee.

Put on a frac e th,gh or leg the patient's relief was always pronounced. Technically it is true that little of refined surgical interest occurs forward of the first emergency operating team found! When the hospital corpsman is not fee to move, litter bearers carry the man to the hospital corpsman, provided the hospital corpsman , s established in a protected place nearby.

When it is Z possible to move a man at the time, the spot where he is left lying is marked hv sticking a rifle Wiethe bayonet fixed into the ground alongsE hZ Thl type of marker serves to speed treatment and evacuation, as it obviates the neces sity of searching for men seriously wounded.

If a wounded man can walk or crawl, he usually starts out on his own to reach the nearest hospital corpsman The individual first-aid packet may or may not have been applied by the man himself or by one of his comrades. In any case the hospital corpsman assures himself that patients have a satisfactory wound dressing; if possible he gives the parents an injection of morphine; when necessary, he applies a rough splint to a fractured bone by use of the rifle, the patient's other leg, fixing the patient'!

Evacuation lanes between the front and battalion aid stations should be marked with strips of bandage or paper on bushes or sticks or broken branches of trees, Such marking serves to guide bearers and medical personnel back and forth between the battalion aid station and the companies in line, as well as to blaze the trail to be followed by the walking-wounded from the line to the battalion aid station. Runners, and others also utilize the evacuation lanes in traversing the depth of the front.

Battalion aid stations are located as close to the front as possible. The distance varies, according to circumstances, from a half to 2 kilometers in the rear of the Boyau Prague, Verdun Front, 19IS. When a patient arrives at a battalion aid station the medical officer or the chief pharmacist's mate examines the man and the dressing. Some freshly wounded arrive at the battalion station without dressings, having re- ceived wounds in the area between the station and the front line; some who have been treated by a hospital corpsman on the front, may be wounded again while in transit to the battalion aid station; there are others who are wounded again or killed before it is possible to leave the battalion aid station for further evacuation to the field hospital.

And there are some, including the medical staff, who are wounded or killed while working at the battalion aid station. In any event, the battalion medical staff does whatever is possible under the circumstances, such as improving, removing or applying dressings, tourniquets, pnd splints, and checking or preparing diagnostic tags.

The patients are treated as well as possible so as to be moved expeditiously to the rear. Important considerations, however, are as follows: 1. Proximity to the area in which the battalion is deployed : ideally, to the rear between the flanks. Nearness to paths or roads over which evacuation may be further continued: ideally, just off a road over which ambulances can travel. In the selection of any aid station, particularly near roads and paths, care must be taken to avoid those places which are likely to draw fire, 3.

The aid station itself should be large enough to work in; it should be one where light can be had at night without being seen and where protection from gas, shellfire, and bombing is available: ideally, a bombproof dugout with wide steps, up and down which Utter patients can be carried easily, and with room enough below to accommodate the medical staff in their work and to keep a number of stretcher and sitting patients awaiting evacuation.

Locations to be avoided if possible are: a Close proximity to roads that cross traffic points. Casualties The lines in this area had remained stable since the early days of the war despite the costly struggle for the possession of Verdun which was staged in this area.

The brigade sector was located a short distance north of Les Esparges and at this time it was considered to be quiet. Under these conditions the front was ideal for training operations. There was little infantry action of importance. Front activity was confined largely to patrol excursions into no-manYland and to the conditioning of details in strong points and in the firing trenches. A few raids were made on enemy positions and some raids were made on our front by the enemy.

Machine gun, trench mortar and rifle fire was sporadic along the front day and night. Grenades were used by both sides against hostile patrols and in raiding operations. A shower of artillery fire fell in many areas of the brigade echelon every day. During the 2 months spent on this front comparatively few casualties occurred. Those produced by high explosives were of the most serious character, usually being multiple, with destruction of soft tissue, fractures, amputations, hemor- rhage, and shock.

Respiratory diseases and diarrhea necessitated most sickness evacuations while on this front. The ratio of sick evacuations to wounded was approximately 1 to 6. The atmosphere was heavily saturated with a vesicant gas which contaminated everything it touched.

It was a difficult and distressing ex- perience. To add to the general problem was the tragic arrival of patients who were not wearing their masks, men with acute pulmonary edema, who, in their efforts to breath had thrown away their respirators.

To demonstrate the seriousness of this reserve-area shelling, it is well to know that out of a single company men virtually all had to be evac uated as fast as ambulances could be loaded because the degree of gassing required hospitalization. Of this number 11 percent died within 72 hours.

According to the gas officer of the Sixth Regiment at that time, the causes of the casualties were: Cases Shell bursting in shack 60 Gas masks not put on in time 25 Premature removal of gas masks 75 Disobedience of orders 75 Insufficient clothing for change. Schaffner, pharmacist's mate, third class, and Carl O. Kingsbury, hospital apprentice, first class, U.

Navy attached to the Seventy-Fourth Company, Sixth Regiment, were with the company in the ravine during the entire period of the bombardment. Immediately, everybody sought their assistance, and, although in the same gassed and shelled atmosphere as the others, they worked in the darkness endeavoring to aid and move their patients to higher ground and shout advice.

Later when seen by a medical officer, they showed no early symptoms of poisoning and assured the medical officer that they were unaffected. They labored heroically in the evacuations from the ravine and did everything possible to assuage the suffering of their patients while awaiting transportation. Both of these hospital corpsmen ignored and even denied the prodromal symptoms of poisoning in order that they could help those who were in need of their aid.

They carried on until forced by the medical officer to cease when symptoms of poisoning were first noticed by him. These were the two hospital corpsmen who received the Army's Distinguished Service Cross. One of these lads, Schaffner, died in his efforts to save the lives of his men; the other, Kingsbury, with the same high purpose, incapacitated himself for any further service and never was able to rejoin his regiment.

This was the first example of self-sacrificing service performed by members of the Hospital Corps of the United States Navy with the Marines in the Army on French soil which resulted in death, and, no doubt, the first action death caused by a chemical warfare agent in the history of the United States Navy. Sixth Regiment. Gas poisoning, not evacuated.

Sick, evacuated No diagnosis, self evacuated '. Ravine Camp Marquenterre P. Robert P. Coulmier P. Moscou P. Dugny the destination. The First Battalion detrained at Lemmes. This change made because the Boche discovered the activities at Dugny and with a few well-placed shell?

Some gas drop! The old Marines are incomparable as soldiers. The hospital corpsmen privileged to serve with them are certain to profit. One hospital corpsman here frequently makes solitary pilgrimages into No Man's Land at night to gather rhubarb and dandelion. There is no doubt that this man's initiative and courage in the trench sector has established him as one of the most fearless and resourceful.

His physique is slight, his constitution below normal, but he has guts. Just as this relief was about completed the enemy laid down a barrage, the signal for a raid. Result : 2 men killed and 14 wounded.

No prisoners were taken by the enemy. His casualties were heavier than ours. He left with us two wounded officers. Ail injured were cared for and evacuated to one of our own field hospitals, operating in conjunction with the French. Evacuations were prompt and all wounded received antitetanic serum at the advanced dressing station.

Theee casualties are our first on a sudden and large scale. We are impressed with the importance of training we have received. The following night the battalion put on a "show. Two hospital corpsmen and eight litter bearers accompanied the party. After a day rest and thorough policing of the men the battalion again went in to relieve the Second Battalion in the Chatillion sector.

The Second had been in for 10 days. Except for occa- sional shelling, we experienced nothing but the usual routine of trench life. Effected by French troops. Hiked to Ancemont for entraining. Companies, battalions, and regiments are becoming homogeneous military units and well con- ditioned to the sights, noises, and fumes of battle and the discomforts of an out-of-doors existence.

Unit personnel are becoming hardened and the responsibilities of all are well understood. Contact, report, and supply routine are established and equipment has been shaken down to meet needs and transportation allowances. Everybody is confident of ability to perform tasks under the worst of conditions, 15 May morning : Entrained for Marne district.

Found springtime countryside and fieldB- peaceful people, and homes. Headquarters went to Pontheon; battalions, to surrounding towns. Twenty-hour hours' rest and policing of command. Usual routine established, with litter drills, instruction in first aid, and the application of splints.

Special attention given to gas mask drill. Hikes taken wearing masks greater part of time. Remained in this town 3 days. Regiment entrained at Vitry le Francois at night. Period of intensive training in open warfare begun — an angle still to be learned. Hospital corpsmen have attained high degree of efficiency in first aid. With help of trained Utter bearers, they are learning knack of giving aid in open.

Regiment accompanied on all maneuvers by medical units. Valuable information gained in establishment of aid stations and collection of wounded at central stations for evacuation to rear by ambulances. Routine sanitary inspections held daily and hospital corpsmen instructed in a new field nomenclature Army to apply to field tags. Mild wave of influenza, causing slight depletion of ranks for a few days. No fatalities. The spring season had arrived and the weather was favorable.

The men were well billeted, meals were regular, and the inhabitants were cordial. While practicing at mimic warfare over a peaceful countrysids, after having received indoctrination in actual warfare at Verdun, the men gained self-confidence. They were light-hearted and cheerful.

The columns whistled and sang while on the march, and catchy songs were originated. It was here that the famous Marine Corps song "Hinky-Dinky, Parley-Vous," 1 first heard at Blevaincourt, Vosges, came into its own, and new verses were added to it every day. Decoration Day marked the end of a pleasant fortnight for the Marine brigade.

Before the proposed counteroffensive of the Allies in which the Second Division was to take a part could get started, the Germans launched a strong attack on the Chemin des Dames, between Soissons and Rheims. On 29 May their attack was extended and their advance in the center continued to the Marne River which was reached on 30 May This brought the German lines as close as 40 mile's to Paris.

The situation was one of alarm to the Allies. Available reserves to stem the tide had diminished to nine divisions. Any further German gains could lead to serious results. A new fresh force was urgently needed; thus, the Second Division was abruptly ordered to recall all parties and units that were already proceeding on the original mission, which was to relieve the First Division. The Second Division was loaded into trucks and proceeded with all haste to the Chateau-Thierry area in order to provide support to the French who were being driven back.

Cities Occupied Between Verdun and Ch. Aisne-Marne Canal, where it passes the locks which drop it under the Paris-Met! Highway at Meaux, choked with barges filled with small children from up-country schools and convents. Their homes had been in the path of the advancing foe.

Marines see at close hand the immediate end results of war. Just after dark, a short distance east of Meaux, the tired, hungry, and dirty battalion left the busses. There had been no sleep the previous night. The men dropped in their tracks throughout a wheat field along the side of the road.

Meaux was raided by enemy planes and several bombs fell dangerously close to the sleeping men. Only a few were awakened by the loud explosions. There were no casualties, only exhaustion. French troops create disorder by falling back. Our men want to fight. Ferine Petit Mrmtgivrault, regimental aid. Hiked until , moving 55 minutes and resting 5, covering 26 kilometers. Little rations —excessive heat. Detachments of French Chausseurs met along the road, tired and worn.

Poured their red wine penar and gave it to the grateful marines as they passed. Altogether the command went along in good condition. The few who fell out caught up with the main body as it reached the heights east of this town. Rations issued with 2 days' reserve. Each man kept his issue intact. After a rest of about 3 hours the regiment moved to Pyramid Farm where regimental headquarters were established. The Second Battalion moved into a first line position northeast of the town of Matigny to support the French.

The First Battalion moved over to the right to act as an advanced guard for the Twenty-third Infantry. They remained in line for 24 hours when they moved to a ravine northeast of Marigny. In the face of the onrushing foe, Marigny had been deserted hurriedly by its civil population who left almost all their possessions behind. In many homes, food for the evening meal was left cooking on the stoves. Stray stock and rabbits found wandering around the fields and in barns and hutches improved scanty rations of the men.

Troops enjoyed the strange luxury of sleeping on big red comforters and solt pillows in deserted farm homes. Their position enabled them to care for all casualties of thetr battalion in line. Lucy likewise was under heavy shellfire and gas. A direct hit made on this station set the building on fire, necessitating evacuation. A new station soon established in a cellar, and evacuations continued from this point. The Third Battalion, acting as brigade reserve, dug in in the nearby woods.

During this engagement regiment suffered heavily from shellfire and gas, but forced enemy to give ground. Enemy losses obviously heavier. Enemy wounded and prisoners came through all stations in greater numbers than our own. Everything practicable was done for them. The character of the wounds encountered here fall chiefly into the tearing, lacerating, crushing, and amputating types, accompanied by all degrees of fractures, hemorrhage, and destruction of 6oft tissue.

Injuries of the extremities were most common, followed by those of the abdomen and chest. Despite massive injury, shock has not been common. This is probably due to early treat- ment, given by company hospital corpsmen, and undelayed evacuation through the regiment to field hospitals. Great attempts have been made to control hemorrhage, immobilize fractures, secure adequate dressings on all wounds, give morphine, antitetanic serum, hot coffee, cover patients with blankets, and promptly evacuate them from the area.

Prisoners recently captured were temporarily employed as litter bearers, facilitating treatment and evacuation which otherwise would have been delayed. Arrangements were made by the battalion supply officers to get one cooked meal to the first line every night. This meal, with coffee, is brought up under heavy shellfire and rationed out to the men. In addition to this cooked meal, the men receive two iron rations. Water details supply the lines with fresh water chlorinated as frequently as possible, under the most difficult circumstances.

As a whole, the men are standing up under these conditions well. Our men had seen little of active fighting until this time and had not realized the horrors of war. They have played with death during these firBt days of June. Without thought of rest, relief, or restoration, devote themselves wholly to their gruesome labor. The Marine brigade has undergone its first real baptism of fire.

The heroic acts that numerous hospital corpsmen have performed during furious assaults in the open and in the most advanced positions have thrilled the entire command, and, in no small way, contributed to the effort that has so far led to our military success. A seriously wounded patient who came through this station told the story of a pharmacist's mate, second class, Frank C. Welte, who died today. Welte was attached to the Twentieth Company which was holding the first line lying between Le Bois de la Chateau and the town of Lucy le Bocage.

His company, with the Foctyiifth and Forty-seventh, was ordered to attack the advancing German forces at today. The objective lay in a northerly direction, across a wheat field, and involved the southern section of the strongly fortified Bois de BelSeau. Bois de Belleau is an almost inpenetrable tangled forest with rock formations admirably adapted for defense.

The surrounding country is dotted with woods and fields of ripening wheat, with red patches of wild poppy. The terrain, which favored the enemy, is generally level except for a few wooded hills. These afforded commanding positions for the enemy to sweep the roads and open country with shell and machine-gun fire. The attacking troops, moving across the open wheat field, were subjected to murderous Hanking fire from machine guns, and many men went down.

Welte was swamped with many wounded while in this open field, about yards short of the woods. It was not until later that they understood that during these days the fate of Paris and the Allied cause depended on them and that a second Marne, although less bloody but as momentous as that of yJ4, was being fought.

It was the turning point of the war. From this time until the Armistice, the Germans never went ahead again. He said he had not had a stool forg days. Wounded men were lying around and coming in with all manner of injury when an examination was made with the patient lying on the ground. A hard round mass, approximately 5 inches in diameter was disclosed. It partly extruded from the fully extended sphincter ani. The exposed surface of the compaction was hard and resistant and the overloaded rectum protruded to fill the perineal space.

With the aid of glycerine and manual manipulation a huge fecalith, fully as large as a man's head, was delivered, Remarkably, the delivery was made without tearing the sphincter. Following removal of the mass, strong recurrent peristalsis, accompanied by pain, groans, and cries of the patient, forced out huge masses of soft feces. An hour later, with a small straddle dressing adapted from a small shell- wound pad applied over the remaining prolapsis, the sergeant went on his way to rejoin his com- pany and to perform acts which were later rewarded with a Distinguished Service Cross.

For about 4 hours a large area was gassed with what apparently was mustard gas with some phos- gene added; experience, however, reduced to a low incidence the casualties in our battalion. Ap- proximately were evacuated through the aid stations of the regiment but only about were men of our own regiment.

Most of the men were gassed while lying in close support of the front line in Belleau Wood or while in the small ravine that ran along back of the woods. The bandsmen who had been used as stretcher bearers suffered heavy casualties. Their work was closely allied to that of the Hospital Corps, and they were a part of the medical organization during combat.

Owing to their heavy losses, orders had been issued rightly prohibiting their further use as stretcher bearers. Twelve men from the line of each company are being detailed to the medical organization for training and use as litter bearers. The men detailed were ordered to report to the regimental surgeons and were to be available for instruction periods. This gave each company hospital corps- man 12 men, or 48 to each battalion surgeon; additional men to the regimental surgeon.

Casual- ties occurring in their ranks were replaced from their respective companies. While their work was strictly that of bearers, they were given considerable instruction in first aid, so that they might meet the emergencies of the battlefield and be of greater assistance to company hospital corpsmen.

These line litter bearers wore brassards of blue with "L. These men did excellent work and were of inestimable value to the medical organization. In this action, to date, the battalion medical unit has suffered 10 casualties 75 percent. Regimen ta I aid station remained in place and worked in conjunction with the Seventh Medical Unit, Two battalions moved to towns of Lucy and Merry to clean up and get a few days' rest.

While here : the American Red Cross distributed chocolate and jam to each man. Looking back upon the life we spent in the trenches at Verdun, though at the time it seemed fraught with great privation and hardship, it now seems like a luxurious rest area in comparison with the blood-stainedlbattlefields'of openjwarfare. How ignorant everybody was of this recently encountered form of fighting! How crude are the daily conditions of life and what reversions to savage, even animal levels!

The Ninth Infantry and the Sixth Marines were the first troops to occupy a portion of the line. The Second Division was in support. The French had orders to drop back through the American lines. On 5 June the Second Division line extended from the southwest corner of Bois de la Marette, through Bois de Clairimbaults, Triangle, Lucy le Bocage, woods northwest of Lucy, and through a point on the Champillon-Bussieres road, meters northwest of Lucy all inclusive.

Several Boche attacks had been successfully repulsed. The Germans hesitated before the fresh troops. They made good use of artillery and shelled the Americans vigorously. Early on the morning of 6 June the Second Division began a series of attacks on the German front, which were to continue for almost a month and would end with the capture of Belleau Wood and Vaux. The First Battalion, Fifth Marines, went over the top on Hill , north of Champillon, and drove into the German lines for more than a kilometer toward Torcy.

At the attack began on the Bois de Belleau and Bouresches. The town of Bouresches was captured but the advance into the Bois de Belleau was checked. Fighting con- tinued throughout the night. The usual German counterattacks followed but were repulsed. On 7, 8, and 9 June attempts were made to capture the Bois de Belleau, without artillery preparation. Each time little progress was made.

The "galleys" of the companies, usually, were located undercover in the near rear area. From there, every evening, the prepared food in French "mar- mite" cans would be handled by men up to the companies in line. Except for the losses that occurred en route, this system worked fairly well, although such cooked foods as beans, rice, and potatoes many times would be soured by the time they reached the men. In the area close to the front, it was often observed, that when large cans of meat from the reserve rations are opened, only about one man's share is eaten and the rest is left to spoil.

Canned meats for the reserve ration should be separately put up with just enough in a can for one man's meal. Such a can should be flat, similar to an ordinary sardine can, so that it will fit well in the pack. It was during this action that the medical organisation was developed better than on any other front: 1. Here hospital corpsmen established an aid station at the post command of each company.

An advanced aid station was set up about yards in the rear of the center of the front line of each battalion. Battalion dressing stations were located about half a kilometer in the rear of the advanced stations. Proportionate details of litter bearers were stationed at the various company post commands.

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Binary options trading 2021 ford Our casualties until then were few and mostly of a slight degree because of our having caught the enemy off guard. Many medical personnel of the Sixth Regiment then in joelmir betting morte darthur reserve assisted us bus oberbettingen hillesheim rp by dressing wounded in the field and marking their positions with rifles or by carrying them into our station. They are the only personnel of any martial arm of our Government who, although part of one branch, may be shifted from one arm to the other. While here everybody in the brigade "turned-to" in the serious business of training and shaking'down preparatory to entering the lines. There were comparatively few cases of acute infectious disease; most cases were of mumps. Several Boche attacks had been successfully repulsed.
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Lakeside darts 2021 betting His position had been strengthened with trenches, dugouts and interlacing barbed wire. Hysterical patients were left alone. In the absence of other means of trans- portation, enemy walking-wounded were used to carry our seriously bus oberbettingen hillesheim rp. When the hospital corpsman is not fee to move, litter bearers carry the man to the hospital corpsman, provided the hospital corpsmans established in a protected place nearby. At times ambulance runs could be made at night to advance battalion aid stations located in front and in support positions. The record of activities of medical personnel of the Navy, from the earliest days of our national life, reveals its historical importance.
Dj bettinger It was the turning point of the war. The positions taken by regimental headquarters usually fel! Nazaire St. Naval medical personnel are the only class of service personnel subject to perform duty with the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps simultaneously. In the Vosges area, bathing was done under a few improvised showers and mostly in buckets. Altogether the command went along in good condition.

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Addresses of sports and music clubs can be downloaded from our website: Sportvereine. The latest version of this guide is available as a pdf-file for free download under www. Mo-Fr Mo-We: Mo, Di, Th, Fr Co ntact: Mr. Werker Address for visitors: Dockweiler Str. Bernd Steinmetz Office hours: Mo-Th, Daun Office Mehrener Str. FIN e. Answering machine is checked daily.

All women and their children are accepted no matter what their financial situation and their place of residence. Nikolaus Daun Burgfriedstr. Phone Marienhaus Klinikum Eifel St. Daun office Mehrener Str. Contact: Miriam Arenz We Appointments must be made in advance. Emergencies Caritasverband Westeifel e. Historians have neglected, doubtless through oversight, to record in detail the participation of these men. Their accomplishments as a unit perhaps have been considered as the performance of duty in the ordinary sense.

Insofar as their individual heroic acts, and the importance of their task to the military have gone unrecorded, an error has been made which this book seeks to correct. As brother enlisted men, as officers, as civilians, let us henceforth pause reverently in memory of those naval medical men who have served their country so honorably in the campaigns and expeditions, and who are no longer here to receive deserved homage.

And let us always rightly honor the living Navy medical personnel who even now enter upon meritorious projects. But never have there been more notable displays of heroism, greater accomplishments of valor, or more courageous acts under the most arduous conditions than on the battlefields of France during World War I. Would that it were possible to relate every brave, exemplary act of the in- dividual naval medical man who served with the Marine Brigade as a part of the American Expeditionary Forces in France.

Many were awarded decora- tions for valor by the American Government. A few received both American and French awards. The courageous exploits of others will never be known, for their acts were unobserved. The medical man carries on modestly. There are those who, while heroically expecting the duties of war, offered their lives in the very act of succoring fallen v 9 comrades.

As a result of their historic acts and faultless devotion, virtually every member received a decoration or award. The quality of the duty performed by them, under the worst conditions, measured up to the finest standards of Navy, Marine Corps, and Army tradition. True to the best principles of American service ideals, these Navy men per' sonified everything that could be expected of any body of men. A glance at their record will show that out of involved during the period of actual fighting: 18 were killed or died of wounds, were wounded or gassed, and citations and medals awarded.

The destroyers, U. Osborne, were named in honor of 2 brave men of this Navy group. Their work, carried out during the greatest engagements of World War I, covered the handling, treating, tagging, and evacuating back to the areas of recovery and safety approximately 13, battle casualties. This huge number does not include the sick of the Fourth Brigade of Marines and the casualties of Army and French units which had been in liaison with the Fourth Brigade of Marines, nor the extensive number of wounded German soldiers, mopped up on the brigade fronts.

They won for their corps and branch of service a record of war accomplishment ranking high in naval history. N Hospital Corpsmen, U. George G. John A. Le Jeunh, U. American Expeditionary Forces, France, 11 October All vital factors connected with the everyday life of military personnel, are likewise the problems and responsibilities of the medical profession. Food, clothing, housing, environment, pleasures, morals, and morale all are important in the maintenance of optimum health, happiness, and usefulness fall under the medical officer's charge and supervision.

When armies and navies go forth to do battle the medical profession goes with them. There is little doubt that the largest train of an army or navy is that employed in the handling, supply, maintenance, repair, and replacement of the human elements. Every phase of an army's or navy's vital organisation is per- meated by, and is under the close scrutiny of, the medical profession. With each company of infantry, cavalry, artillery, engineers or aviation units, there are to be found representatives of the medical profession attached troops.

They are also found among the crews of all vessels of the Navy — large and small, surface and submarine — and in the field and in the air, with naval and marine landing parties operating in nations beyond the continental limits of the United States. These naval-military medical men are of the Regular Military and Naval Establishments! They wear the uniform of the branch of service to which they belong or to which they may be attached. They eat the same food and live in the same barracks, trench, or compartment on board ship.

They suffer the same privations. They go over the top with Infantry and drop in parachutes or force beaches and push through the jungle with the Marines. They are locked in watertight casements with gun crews in battleships, destroyers, and submarines where they encourage, aid, and restore the fighters. In the field, in the gun spaces aboard men-of-war during action, the soldier- sailor-marine medical men, sharing all the danger and hardship of the fight, often under the circumstances of the bravest of fighters, collect and start the task of repairing the human debris of battles.

NAVY transfuse exsanguinated tissues; protect injuries against destructive infections; take a farewell word or note from those about to die; record full particulars of the incident for record, for future claims, and for history; remove the helpless from danger and transport them to safety. And in the doing of these things, their own lives are gambled. In support of fighting units, troops, ships, and aircraft, are evacuation hospi- tals, hospital trains, hospital ships, and base hospitals.

There other workers in medicine, in less danger and with better facilities, continue the task of human repair. In such places patriotic men and women, as nurses and aides, tend the men who have offered their superb wholeness. Because of disfiguring wounds and disheveled uniforms, many "front-line casemate" medical personnel, no longer recognizable as medical officers or hos- pital corpsmen, are found sprinkled among the war tides of human debris in hospitals as casualties of action.

The United States Government, in each of its specific major divisions employs quotas of the medical profession. Such governmental medical bureaus have been established by law and are supported by departmental appropriations. In accordance with the specializations of medicine as they are applicable to specific fields of governmental activity, medical workers administer and carry out the responsibilities of medical science which are concerned with the vital problems of national health.

Most of the departments of the Government maintain a bureau made up of workers in medicine who have been trained in the functions and duties associated with each specific departmental field. These features of department medical specialization and employment apply to the War Department, United States Army military medicine , and to the Navy Department, United States Navy naval medicine.

These medical bureaus, despite their specifically martial specialization and far-flung environ- ments, are composites, in general function, of all other types of governmental medicine. All divisions of governmental medicine, though administratively independent of one another, work in harmony for mutual welfare as well as for the general welfare of the public in the universal field of scientific medicine : Advancing knowledge, safeguarding life, and promoting health.

In a combined manner ' their work promotes higher standards of living, better health, stimulates educa- tion, and, generally, advances the morale and contentment and efficiency of the Nation's citizenry. The lessons learned and the experience gained in these wide zones of applica- tion provide a corps of experts which exert influence throughout the field of medical education and practice.

The medical schools of our universities receive valuable material and guidance from governmental medical sources. Many Federal medical workers are leaders in national medical organizations, scientific bodies and societies, and they serve on boards and national committees of stand- ardization, research, legislation, and enforcement.

The Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Navy Department, administers the field of medicine as it applies to the general naval environment. This Bureau was authorized by the act of August 31, R. These Bureaus formed the nucleus of the modern Navy Department. Appointment to this office is from among a certain group of active naval medical officers, the designation being made by the President of the United States through the Secretary of the Navy after consultation and recommenda- tion with the advice and consent of the Senate.

The Senate confirms the Presidential nomination. The period of service is for 4 years. A term is renewable for an additional 4-year period by reappointment. His presence thereon is as the expert representing medicine as medicine applies to the wide and diversified environment peculiar to the Navy, which includes the medical phases of the field covered by the United States Marine Corps. The record of activities of medical personnel of the Navy, from the earliest days of our national life, reveals its historical importance.

From before the inception of our Government until 31 August, , the history of the Medical Department of the Navy was interwoven with that of other branches of the naval service. In , the Continental Congress authorized the first American Navy. Our Navy has existed longer than our present form of Government and was established prior to the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. The earliest vessels and personnel, constituting the Colonial Navy, were under military control, conducted directly through a naval committee of the Continental Congress.

After our independence, the Navy, as well as the Army, was controlled by an executive unit known as the War Department, created by act of Congress in Another executive unit denominated the Navy Department, was established by act of Congress 30 April At this time the Navy Department consisted of only one office, whose head, then as now, was the Secretary of the Navy.

The administrative Bureaus of the Navy Department were developed subsequently as the result of reorgan- ization and enabling legislation. NAVY A phyaciM general who shall be charged with the superintendence and direction of all military hospitals, and generally of all medical and surgical practice or service concerning the Army and Navy of the United States, and of all persona who shall be employed in and about the same time, m camps, garrisons and hospitals; an apothecary general, and one or more deputies, who shall be charged with the safe-keeping and delivery of all medicines, instruments, dressings and other articles for the use of the hospitals and Army; a purveyor, who shall be charged with providing medicines and whatever else may be necessary in relation to said practice or service.

The naval aspects of medicine soon took shape as an independent service. In Congress authorized the President to appoint three naval officers as a board of commissioners for the Navy to be attached to the Secretary's office, and under his direction, to discharge the ministerial duties of his office.

It was not until the provisions of the act of 31 August were put into effect that the present Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Navy Department, came into being. He headed which was until then the greatest aggrega- tion of medical personnel ever assembled under the jurisdiction of the Navy. Devoted to the multitudinous details of the vast medical responsibility connected with a Navy and Marine Corps of , men, during war, and the handling and treating of the returning sick and injured of the A.

Where elements of the Marine Corps go, naval medical personnel likewise go. While on this duty naval medical personnel are hard to identify because they discontinue wearing navy blue and don the winter field, khaki, white, or olive-drab of the Marine Corps or Army, depending on the situation that the Marine Corps elements with which they serve are required to meet.

There is a law in the Statutes of the United States U. Naval medical personnel are the only class of service personnel subject to perform duty with the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps simultaneously. They are the only personnel of any martial arm of our Government who, although part of one branch, may be shifted from one arm to the other. At times naval medical elements may be found in each major service. Naval medical personnel are men of the specific naval field who not only are medical workers in naval hospitals and dispensaries but also are required to be sailors, marines, and doughboys.

This broad service requirement leads to unusually arduous application when duty is performed with the Army, the Navy, and Marine Corps simultaneously, and especially at such times when Americans and American arms are placed in the critical position of comparison and trial in a foreign allied nation during a great war with a common enemy, across the ocean.

There are the ideals, esprit de corps, and high standards of each specific arm with which to conform creditably and with enthusiasm, while still retaining their own identity and corps ideals. This type of duty, intensified now by wide and constantly changing application, must be performed by such medical personnel without intersex, vice malice or criticism; and, at the same time they must represent their country favorably in foreign nations where representatives of all nations are passing in critical review.

The service, in the Army, of naval personnel, as authorized by the provisions of this statute, brought to light the fact that no administrative orders existed for the regulation of interse'rvice liaisons which resulted when the statute was invoked. There were no regulations pertaining to personnel or administrative details They were mute, so far as the service of naval medical personnel in the Army was concerned Navy Regulations, Articles of War, manuals, general orders, including U.

The statute remains the only point of law on the sub- ject, the provisions of which never have been interpreted in detailed adminis- trative regulations. The unqualified provisions of the statute, where Navy medical personnel are involved, precludes application of the universal privilege of equal service opportunity; i. As the situation exists, departmental responsibility for the legal status of Navy personnel transferred to the Army, as at present qualified, is hard to place.

This opinion becomes apparent when jurisdiction regarding claims and duties based on service while with the Army, during war, is questioned. O'g William P. Gilmer MC , U. Strott, chief pharmacists' mate, V. Havy, shown with "Elizabeth Pierce" the name by which this famous ambulance was known. The military forces at once obtainable, although scat- tered around the country and in places beyond the seas, were organized on paper into specific war units and steps were taken to effect early concentration along the Atlantic seaboard in preparation for overseas embarkation.

A survey was made of available and equipped troops, including the United States Marine Corps. The Marine Corps had a large number of highly trained personnel distributed throughout the United States in navy yards, munition depots, naval hospital.

The Navy Department was in a position to concentrate this particular class of sailor 'sol- diery in a short time, and by running a spirited enlistment campaign, it was estimated that a force could be recruited to provide, in phases, two full war- strength brigades of infantry with an additional force sufficient to develop necessary replacement elements and desirable auxiliaries. The Secretary of the Navy offered to the Secretary of War a Marine force which when finally devel- oped, would equal a full war-strength division.

Legal provision for the transfer of such a force from the jurisdiction of the Navy to that of the Army, "by order of the President of the United States, 1 '' already existed in the Statutes of the United States" U S. The formal acceptance of these Marine Corps elements by the Secretary of War followed. A Presidential order was issued for the transfer to the Army, of such Marine Corps elements as would be available to the Army overseas.

There was also sufficient personnel available for the organization of a general headquarters as well as supplemental men and equipment to lay down the skeletal structure of a service of supply. Counting potential elements already in Europe; that is, civilian hospital units, motor corps, aviation elements and troops functioning as volunteers and auxil- iaries with the various Allied armies, in connection with similar elements SS7— 4?

NAVY organized and about to sail for Europe for the same purpose, the United States mustered the military fundamentals upon which a gigantic force would be built 1 he Navy had an adequate transport train in which was counted several splendid German merchant vessels, sequestered as a result of having been interned prior to our declaration of war.

The Navy also had ready many destroyers and other classes of war craft to act as armed convoy as well as to augment Alhed sea forces in the North Atlantic. Having these basic elements throughout France and scattered over the ocean simultaneously with thearrival of combat troops m Europe it was considered that the primary contribution of the United States would be adequate, and equal to the best expectations of the Allies Steps were immediately taken by the Navy Department to withdraw all Marines from posts where they could be spared, including most of the elements which were on expeditionary duty beyond the seas.

The U. These marines were to be concentrated adjacent to a port of embarkation for organization, training, and equipping. Quantico, Va. With preparations made, related plans were at once pursued for training- center construction. In the development of a great center of con- centration, training and equipping of marines for overseas service, it procured a large tract of land on the Potomac River at Quantico, Va.

Mann M. The Tenth Regiment, the designation given a Marine regiment of motorized howitzer artillery, was scheduled for organisa- bon and training for possible use in a contemplated Marine division; likewise to fill the gaps anticipated as a result of combat in the lines of the Marine ele- ments, a number of replacement battalions were provided.

Training regiments and battalions were laid down for holding-service in occupied West Indies countries. To develop this project successfully an enormous tide of coordinated industry was turned loose by the Marine Corps. The attack on the recruiting phase was lively and colorful. It was instituted on a solid and productive basis a week or so after war was declared. The key- note and slogan of this campaign, "First to Fight," not only successfully filled Marine Corps quotas but also stimulated a wave of spontaneous enlistment in the Army and Navy.

With the steady flow of recruits filling the recruit depots and the movement of veteran troops northward from the Tropics, by the middle of May the Marine Corps planning board had sufficient personnel available to make the Fifth Regiment a reality and to begin the construction of the Sixth Regiment. About this time, with the Quantico tract being procured and contract let for the construction of a great cantonment, the Marine artillery then at An- napolis, was ordered to proceed, by barge, via Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac , River to this site.

During the development of these early Marine Corps problems there was born the spirit of bull-dog determination which, later, through constant repetition of brilliant exploits, became the permanent character- ization of the corps and gave the Marines the name "Devil Dogs. Owing to the rapid arrival of Marines at Quantico and Philadelphia from various points throughout the United States and the West Indies, during the last few days of May , the organization, mobilization, and partial equipping of the original Fifth Regiment consumed only a few days, from 20 May to 8 June Sunday morning, 14 June , the Fifth Regiment, in ships acting as convoys and train quietly slipped anchor and passed out to sea.

At Quantico the organization and training of the Sixth Regiment and the Sixth Machine Gun Battalion soon followed along with three residual infantry companies of the Fifth Regiment, and the reorganized Tenth artillery Regi- ment. September First Battalion, Sixth Regiment.

October January The various elements of the Fourth Brigade, U. Nazaire St. This training for active field service and the actual distribution of medical personnel to the new war strength organisations companies, battalions, and regiments were conceived and worked out by the post medical administrative staff under Dr.

Mann at Quantico. Battalion dispensaries and post sick quarters were built, equipped, and occu- pied. Large numbers of troops were inspected for communicable diseases upon arrival in trains from all over the United States.

Sick call, physical inspections, problems of quarantine, mass vaccination, and training of new medical person- nel, sanitary inspections, and mosquito control — all were accomplished while organising a huge war camp with full war strength regiments during a period of transition which began from bare fields along a railroad track. The transition moved rapidly from a tent to a solid and compact military camp of substantial semipermanent buildings, with paved, drained, and lighted streets, water, sewerage and electrical service, training trenches, grenade, rifle and pistol ranges — everything that goes into a complete and modern cantonment.

Later, after the departure of the Fourth Brigade, the activities and training of overseas units continued unabated. The general activities at Quantico, with increasing tempo lasted until August — more than 2 years — when, and at which place, the returned overseas elements were demobilised. World War I marked the beginning of epochal changes in military medicine, the first phase of a new era and as the result of the time, the kind, the size, and the intensity of the training that was developed and given at Quantico, the first practical school of field medicine in the United States was instituted.

This represented a concrete advance in the science of military medicine, out of which modern amphibious medicine was grown. Credit is due the naval medical department at Quantico under Dr. Mann, Jr. During the early days ashore in Europe the homogeneity of medical department function was broken by the scattered nature of the brigade's employment.

Along lines of communication, in training areas, and at base ports, the Marines were assigned various duties, usually in small detachments. These duties included those of military police in a number of cities including Paris and towns in France and England; as engineers at base camps, ports, docks, and reservoirs, and as labor parties unloading transports and supply vessels.

Because the Marine is versatile, he was assigned a variety of duties in those early days of organisation of the A. Generally, the duties of attached medical personnel were those incident to the health and comfort of the Infantry-Marines and l embraced personal and billet hygiene and sanitation. NAVY corpsman of the naval medical contingent was to be found, either with or independent of commissioned medical personnel.

This persons responsibility was the care of the health of those with whom he was associated He not on y gave treatment to the sick but he took all the necessary precautions to prevent illness Wherever he was, he took care of his company's medical routine and performed auxiliary duties as well in which he frequently displayed noteworthy ingenuity and originality. From the standpoint of effective and efficient training and employment of medical personnel for use with combat infantry in overseas warfare, the in- fluence of Quantico m subsequent days was beneficial.

Little variation from the original plan developed during training was found necessary in function 1 he greatest difficulty encountered was that connected with the conduct of naval administrative procedure. NAVY Department relative to the manner by which personnel and records were to be handled by naval units detached from the Navy for field service with the Army.

This interdivisional change required a move of Marine Corps elements into a new training area. The billet villages of this new area were typically French. Almost every house had its steaming stack of manure piled high to the right or left of the front door. Surface drainage from these stacks moved thickly in shallow ditches, on both sides of the unpaved streets, to a creek running through the center of each village.

Human excrement was disposed of in soakage pits of the privy type except when homes bordered the town creek. Then the privy houses straddled the creek, and sported the "a. This was soapy water that flowed underneath and came from the public roadside laundry farther upstream.

These factors gave the odor of home to the sheep- herder but provided many basic hygienic and sanitary problems for the brigade medical department to solve in making the respective towns habitable for troops. Native social activity centered around the potable water source where, not only human drinking water was obtained but all animal life was watered from a trough built to catch the overflow from the human tank. This animal trough in turn emptied into the washing tank where the village laundry was pounded out by women of various ages.

Drinking water was obtained from small creeks. In its conservation for human and animal purposes, frequently odd engineering skill was seen in spreading the supply through a series of tanks and spillways, all concentrated in a surprisingly small space. To protect the washer-woman from the sun and weather, the washing pools of these water systems are sometimes covered with a crude circular and domed construction. To take care of this need "Adrian" barracks were constructed in sufficient number to accommo- date the men comfortably.

Ice, snow, sleet, and thaw prevailed during most of the stay in this area. While here everybody in the brigade "turned-to" in the serious business of training and shaking'down preparatory to entering the lines. Litter drills and practice marches with troops, conducted during day and night operations, were supplemented by lectures about practical application of the various special and improvised splints and dressings.

Gas mask drills were carried out with the French mask and the British respirator. The drills involved exposure to chlorine in chambers and marching, running, carrying, and trans- mitting verbal orders with the masks in place. Seasoned French medical officers gave lectures and demonstrations in caring for and transporting wounded in various systems of trenches and dugouts.

During this period September until March the plan of training ' centered 1 around building and occupying trench systems, trench raids, grenade and bayonet attacks, Chau Chau and Hotchkiss gun drills, laying field communi' cations, airplane signals, Very lights, 37 mm. This training thoroughly adapted and prepared the Marine brigade for active service. Strenuous activities were carried out to prepare the troops for occupation of a trench sector.

This started first with small detachments and later involved regimental and brigade units. A great deal of the training was along lines essential for participation in a highly specialized form of warfare. Although the tactics and drills practiced were especially of the types for carrying on position or trench warfare, the possibility that the character of warfare might at any time be changed to one of movement or open warfare made it necessary for the training to include drills for both methods.

Regimental, brigade, and divisional maneuvers were conducted in the open country under all kinds of weather, characterized by "the rain, the cold, and the mud; the mud, the cold, and the rain. The weather during this particular stage of training duplicated that which is said to have existed at Valley Forge.

Medical and Hospital Corps personnel attached to their respective infantry organizations likewise became hardened to the rigors of an outside existence and familiarized themselves with the many situations entirely new and foreign to them characteristic of infantry and trench warfare. Living in close contact with the men under these severe conditions not only meant undergoing the same physical adjustments and hardships but acquainted them personally with the multitudinous variations in individual endurance, courage, and psychology of the men with whom they were serving.

NAVY weather over a wet or frozen terrain, the use of new hob-nail shoes and being required to go several days without removing clothing; rodents and vermin; various problems arising from exposure; the requirements of individual, battalion,' and regimental medical equipment for warfare of position trench and movement. Because the greater number of the Marines had had tropical service prior to going to France, the change in climatic and living conditions caused many cases of bronchitis.

There were comparatively few cases of acute infectious disease; most cases were of mumps. As a result of intensive education regarding venereal infection and prophylaxis, m conjunction with weekly inspections of organizations, disciplinary measures and pay checkage, ineffectives resulting from these conditions were surprisingly few.

Flat foot for a time gave some concern. But this was quickly remedied through the use of orthopedic appliances, graduated exercise, iron-clad follow- through instructions and examinations, and the best possible fitting of new shoes. It was felt that the low sick rate was largely due to the use of shelter halves as partitions between bunks in billets where a number of men were accom- modated. All units of the regiment were given their first debusing in August , when a mobile plant was assigned to the brigade.

Bathing and the changing of clothing was a problem, mostly because of move- ment, the character of training, and inadequacy of the water supply. In the Vosges area, bathing was done under a few improvised showers and mostly in buckets. During the transition period before combat while on transports, in ports of debarkation, in temporary-duty camps, and the training area in the Vosges, the general detail and employment of medical personnel continued as instituted at Quantico.

Even though units were often separated by many kilometers, the attached Hospital Corps maintained unit relationships with the parent organization and, when alone, brought their sick and injured to the proper area medical officers. Generally, the major sections of regiments stayed together, and battalion medical and dental officers held regular sick call. The regimental surgeons and their staffs carried out these routine functions for the personnel of the headquarters contingent, received daily sick reports from battalion surgeons, and performed the medical-clerical duties for the units as a whole.

Most of the sick were treated in quarters. Those with serious illnesses and those requiring emergency surgery were evacuated daily to an area hospital. Ambulance service was provided by a divisional ambulance company or the area hospital. The ambulance came routinely each day or when called by a unit medical officer. Log of a Battalion Surgeon The following excerpt logs the average situation, met by the battalion surgeons who were with the first Marine Corps elements to arrive in Europe.

Following day the battalion debarked and went into camp in the western edge of the city. The troops were enthusiastically received by the citizens. Sick bay battalion medical headquarters set up in Adrian type of temporary barracks, located in the administrative section of the camp. Here are the typewriter and blank form units, the regimental Navy medical and surgical chests we brought with us, health records in company units, and the battalion headquarters of Hospital Corps personnel.

One medical chest was opened to provide for routine sick call. A pocket case has been adequate for such minor surgical problems that occur. Patients with mild disorders requiring some attention are turned in here on campaign cots which are opened only when such cases develop. Patients with milder disorders I-day or 2-day -cases are permitted to remain in their own company area under the care of the company hospital corpsmen. Company hospital corpsmen bring to the sick bay the patients they believe should see the medical officer.

This is done after the morning and evening meals, although hospital corpsmen have been instructed to bring to, or call, the battalion surgeon at any time a case appears that seems to be serious. Sanitary inspections carry the battalion surgeon or his assistant throughout the battalion area daily, when opportunity is given, not only to see the officers and men, but to discuss problems with the company hospital corpsmen and to instruct them. Here the Navy unit encountered its first medical liaison problems with the Army.

As we ate now part of the Army there is nothing to do but to conform with the Army. The great problem is that presented by Navy medical reports and returns : Na vy health records Navy property, Navy personnel records and reports, Navy disciplinary procedures, Navy com- munications, Navy promotions, Navy citations, Navy pay, Navy uniforms, Navy equipment and transfers — all within the area of the Army, in and out of action, in a foreign country many thousands of miles from the Navy Department in Washington.

It represents a pioneering problem. Camp and area surgeons, dispensaries, field-evacuation-base and convalescent hospitals — all are not only Army but represent the Armies of three nations: British, French, and American. Our Navy-Marine Corps sick and wounded, therefore, will have to flow over lines of evacuation and return which will make the follow-through of naval records extremely difficult and uncertain.

The sensible course to pursue would be to drop everything Navy and adopt everything Army. This, doubtless will be necessary. It appears that conditions will be the worst imaginable, with units scattered in England and France, living outdoors, moving from place to place and, eventually, participating in military actions.

Our loyalty to the Navy will straddle us with the burden at this time of a naval administrative routine, applicable only to peacetime conditions. At St. Nazaire close order drill and practice marches were instituted. Nazaire for entrainment. The regiment is Sbout to experience its first voyage in French freight cars, each conspicuously boasting accommo- ations for 40 Hommes or 8 Chevaux. The trip across France to the training area was pleasant.

NAVY Weather was ideal; men were in good spirits and the countryside was pretty with the ripening wheat fields dotted with splashes of red poppies. The troops were hailed all along the line by the French as though we were returning from victory instead of green troops untrained in modern warfare. In the billet towns, arches of welcome were erected. Citaens out to meet us in gala attire. Peaceful Vosges hills now scarred with practice trenches, for position warfare to be studied from all angles, both by day and by night.

Alpine Cbaussers find Marines apt pupils Social relations with French cordial. Marines cleaning up villages and entertaining villagers w,th band concerts. Women do our washing and sewing, sell milk, eggs, and fruit, and cook many wonderful meals. End of Training — Medical Situation Upon the organisation of the Second Division as a unit, all sick and surgical cases which could not be treated in quarters, flowed into the Division Army field hospital units. Patients with chronic or surgical conditions requiring more extensive treatment were sent to appropriate evacuation points or a base hospital.

Transportation to such facilities was provided by ambulances and hospital trains. When a patient left the regiment, the unit medical staff lost all connection with him. In the Vosges training area a part of some peasant's home or an Adrian shack was used as battalion or regimental sick quarters.

Nearby such sick quarters battalion and headquarters hospital corpsmen were billeted and were available for immediate calls and duty. Company hospital corpsmen remained with their companies, eating, sleeping, and entering into the training program with them. Medical aid was maintained thus. Supervision and orders flowed in an effective and orderly fashion while training and movement pro- gressed, both as single units and as a combination of units representing a relative whole.

Although the use of Army field forms, nomenclature, and medical supply were mandatory, naval medical-clerical procedures were fully applied. Under these conditions, however, the naval procedure proved futile. Early in March of , information reached the regiments that they soon would go to the front. Active steps were immediately taken for the final general shakedown.

At this time specific Army equipment allowances were established. These allowances for regiments seemed extremely inadequate in contrast with the elaborate naval medical supplies issued to us before we departed from the United States. The simplicity of the Army medical allowance, which, with the exceptions of litters, splints, and blankets was divided into personal loads, later convinced us of its practicability. Our large naval medical supply, still in cases, had to be considered lost. By 11 March military organization had been refined.

The morale of everyone was excellent despite a hard winter of drilling and the discomforts of life in cold billets, and inadequate recreation and amusement. The general average z:tm m Th nu? This move carried the new and untried Second Division into the trench system north of Verdun where the German advance into eastern France in had been so heroically and suc- cessfully arrested. The move was to begin on 13 March by the "forty and eight" Command and operations remained in the hands of the French.

The region into which the Second Division moved was a kilometer stretch of hilly land lying between St. Mihiel and Verdun, east of the Meuse River. A 3' or 4-mile strip of wooded country skirted the east bank. The ramifications of the front and rear areas of the sector occupied by the Fourth Marine Brigade were established in this rugged country, facing east. Ahead lay the plain of the Woevre occupied by the enemy.

The sections of the front manned by the two regiments and machine gun battalion of Marines were about 4 kilometers in depth and were divided as the front had been organised by the French into "subsectors," each of which were held by a regiment. Regimental subsectors were defended by several "centers of resistance," each of which could accommodate a force about the sise of a battalion. Such battalion centers of resistance were defended by several strong points which were fortified and provided with wire, water, and other forms of obstruction on their fronts.

Generally, the front was an elaborate system of deep trenches and dugouts with communication trenches connecting front, rear, and flank positions. On the front of the battalion in line, the prevailing rule was to hold as many men as possible in dugouts with a company or two in battalion reserve ; thus, a regiment was arranged in echelon from front to rear: 1. Line battalion trenches and dugouts : Front, companies. Support, companies. Reserve, companies.

Support battalion trenches, dugouts, and shacks. Reserve battalion building, or camp of shacks with shelter. NAVY Line battalion headquarters occupied secure dugouts in the center and near' rear of the battalion front. Headquarters of the support and reserve groups, in echelon, occupied similar points as were related to their respective organizations.

The positions taken by regimental headquarters usually fel! Good dugout, shelter, and communication facilities, afforded by the sector and the terrain at such points, were utilized by the regimental headquarters group. The main stations along the medical lines of communication, over all the fronts which were occupied by the Marine brigade, already were set up and were controlled by the French. The brigade's naval medical personnel complemented the French medical staff which was present, and jointly occupied the front-to- rear dugouts of the brigade echelons that were devoted to the treatment and evacuation of sick and wounded.

While the Second Division ambulance companies were being indoctrinated and familiarized with the road net of the sector, French, S. American auxiliary sanitary service of the French Army , and an attached British am- bulance service, evacuated the sick and wounded of the Marine brigade. Routine daily calls were made at regimental aid stations. At times ambulance runs could be made at night to advance battalion aid stations located in front and in support positions.

Before the brigade was moved out of this sector, routine evacuation from the brigade to rear area hospitals was handled entirely by the medical train of the Second Division. While this front was occupied 15 March to 12 May the weather was rainy and cold. There was some snow, and there were some days when the tempera- ture stayed below the freezing point.

With alternating thawing and freezing, and frequent spring rains, the wooded and trench-scarred terrain was soggy and inhospitable. Life was a muddy and uncomfortable outdoor experience for everybody. Brigade Medical Organization The attached medical personnel for each regiment consisted of 7 medical officers, 3 dental surgeons, and 48 hospital corpsmen. Generally, the medical detachments of regiments were distributed as follows: Regimental headquarters — Regimental aid station Surgeon senior medical officer Assistant at times Dental surgeon senior dental officer Chief pharmacist's mate senior Hospital corpsmen, from 6 to 8 Battalion headquarters '—Battalion aid station 1 Surgeon Assistant Dental surgeon if available Chief pharmacist's mate Hospital corpsmen, from 5 to 7 Each company: Hospital corpsmen, from 2 to 4 U Same in machine guti battalion.

Those of this group who were attached to the reserve battalions were stationed at the regimental aid stations. In the strong points of the trench sector, the company aid stations postes des secours were manned by hospital corpsmen. These most advanced aid stations were situated in specially built trench dugouts or located on the side of a hill facing away from the enemy, or were located in tellers of partly or totally destroyed houses, or in remains of rooms.

The aid stations of warof-position must be selected with a view to affording a certain amount of warmth in winter weather, and at least minimal facilities for caring for patients who cannot be evacuated for a number of hours. Aid stations are not moved except when extensive change of position makes such a move necessary. Aid stations are quarters for medical personnel as well as for the sick and wounded. Regimental chief pharmacist's mate, George G. Strotc, and Leon H. NAVY Battalion and regimental aid stations usually were from a half tn a m fl k.

I Tnnffl! I irequent tours over the regimental echelons. They must be familiar with their idiosyncrasies. They must know who in the company is weak and who is strong, the dauntless and the faint hearted, the oversealous and the tender-footed. Hospital corpsmen must build their bodies, so that they can withstand hard- ship. They must develop or possess a cheerful, kindly manner and a readiness to help even when tired, hungry, cold, and worn. Their work is not finished at the end of the day when the drill, practice march, or battle is finished.

They must then inspect feet; dress blisters; strap ankles; rub muscles; distribute medi' cines; inform the medical officer about the physically unfit; settle problems of food, hygiene, and sanitation; make reports; and obtain supplies. The physical and mental rigors of war wear down the resistance of many men.

Aside from the frank neurologic break-downs, there are many who have to be cheered and encouraged by the hospital corpsmen, even though their own bodies ache from head to foot. Marine is in hole made by shell that destroyed band equipment stowed inside. There was a stupendous morale problem to overcome among the Allies.

When the Fourth Brigade arrived on the Verdun front and while living in the trenches with the French and the few British ambulance drivers who were there, they found pessimism and depressed spirits. The American naval per' sonnel and Marines were spiritually fresh and filled with high optimism as to the quick and successful outcome ot the war, while our Allied trench-and-dugout mates could see only a future of mutilation, capture, death, and defeat.

NAVV Personality of Medical Troops The Navy medical personnel along with their Marine comrades in this trench sector were expertly schooled in the art of modem warfare. They act as mechanics, teamsters, horse orderlies cooks, messmen, clerks, and in many other capacities than their strictly nS ess,onal duties.

For such details men were selected on the b s rf p ev. Life in trench duiuts" becomes monotonous under dormant conditions: eating, sleeping and E are of only absolute necessities. Neither the medical officer nor the hospital corp smai who hugs a dugout or other shelter ever becomes a good soldier It takes a stout heart, clean body, and clear mind to be a satisfactory hospital co psman m the field. One of them had to be awarded posthumously.

Each outfit was elaborate and expensive and, no doubt, for units operating independently, possessed medical and surgic; 1 equipment sufficiently adequate for almost any requirement. The quantity, quality, and selection of drugs, instruments, and accessories were excellent.

Before going to the front, virtually the only supplies used were taken from these outfits. When the Fourth Brigade left the Vosges area for the Verdun front in March, the Army transportation allowance for the units of the regiments was limited, and only parts of the fine naval medical outfits could be carried- by the battalion r.

What could not be taken, or was not considered necessary, was left in storage in the training area where it had been. It was thought that this equipment belonging to the Navy could be recovered later. This extensive medical equipment, taken to France by the Fourth Brigade, became a source of supply for the whole medical department of the Second Division.

Later these supplies were taken over by the Army and other units were well supplied with medical and surgical materials for some time. It was learned, subsequently, through medical officers and hospital corpsmen rejoining the brigade after treatment in SOS hospitals, that many white Navy blankets and other equipment had been seen in some of the base hospitals, apparently having been taken from the brigade's medical supplies left in the Vosges and later shipped to Gevres.

Although the Marine brigade had little chance to use these extensive supplies for their own numerous sick and wounded, they were used to advantage in the treatment and comfort of many other A. In the absence of instructions for guidance there was nothing else to do but abandc n the equipment. The Army orders were mandatory and concerned with getting on with the war. The transportation problem confronting the attached medical personnel was a great one.

Only 1 small 2-wheeled mule-drawn cart was allowed each battalion medical unit of an infantry regiment. Medical supplies had to be selected, therefore, for a force of 4,, not only from the standpoint of anticipated use- fulness in and out of line but to fit the space permitted. There was room for little else. The decision to carry these Navy health 'records against Armyorders was not an example f good judgment rf tra] f stationery and blank forms, and the typewriter chests.

The French had a litter of almost the same type but with the ad- dition of a contrivance for raising the head. A disadvantage of the canvas litter is its capacity to absorb and pool hemorrhae-. The Stokes stretcher equipped with broad strips of light metal resembling skis, for dragging the stretcher over the ground, would have been useful. We had none, however, with which to make the ex- periment and it would not have been practical to have two stretchers of such entirely different types at the front.

The patient is usually not changed from one stretcher to another when trans- ported from the front to the rear. To shift the patient is awkward and it delays his evacuation to a safer spot. Such delays endanger life or precipitate shock as the result of unnecessary handling. A wounded man may remain on a stretcher from the time he is picked up on the field until he arrives at a base hospital far in the rear a day or two later.

After having left the Vosges area, medical supplies used by the Fourth Brigade were drawn from Army sources medical supply section, division surgeon's office. In explanation of the small amount of supplies of drugs and instruments actually found to be needed, it should be known that at the front all wounded, gassed, or sick, except in the mildest cases, were evacuated to a field hospital.

Most of the major medical and surgical procedures were done in the field hospitals and in the hospitals farther in the rear of the front. The chief medical procedures in a regiment consist of diagnosis, caring for the slightly sick, super- vising and organizing the care and evacuation of the wounded from the battle field during action, and of keeping astride the fast-moving problems of hygiene and sanitation.

When moving into the line such medical supplies as stretchers, splints, band- ages, and morphine were carried in by stretcher bearers and hospital corpsmen. Such small supplies could not be expected to last for more than a few hours in a severe action. Replenishments were brought up by ambulances from the am- bulance heads, and from there they were carried to the line by returning litter bearers.

Although the supply of blankets was maintained by ambulances from sources in the rear, Hospital Corps dressers and battalion aid station personnel used the personal blankets from the packs of the wounded men for covering patients on litters. It was learned later, that, when going into action, the simple medical supplies used could best be carried on the backs of the hospital corpsmen.

Relative Usefulness of Supplies As a means of carrying first-aid material, the Navy Hospital Corps first-aid and dressing pouches proved a blessing. The Navy pouch was considered superior to the Army Hospital Corps belt, because the Navy pouch held more useful items; it was easy to carry; it could be taken off without removing the pack; it was handier to get things out of it; it did not interfere with body or leg movement; and it did not add to the belt-bulk of an overcrowded waistline. The bandage scissors is the most all-around useful instrument in front-hne m ed IC1 ne.

Clothing, shoes, and fabrictjmpment mu t t ZLZ removed from the area surrounding wounds, and no device for such use I so ,mple and effective as a pair of bandage scissors. Each mem ber of the Z cal staff carried a pan- of bandage scissors on his person-usually on the n X e J pushed down between trousers and puttee. Put on a frac e th,gh or leg the patient's relief was always pronounced. Technically it is true that little of refined surgical interest occurs forward of the first emergency operating team found!

When the hospital corpsman is not fee to move, litter bearers carry the man to the hospital corpsman, provided the hospital corpsman , s established in a protected place nearby. When it is Z possible to move a man at the time, the spot where he is left lying is marked hv sticking a rifle Wiethe bayonet fixed into the ground alongsE hZ Thl type of marker serves to speed treatment and evacuation, as it obviates the neces sity of searching for men seriously wounded.

If a wounded man can walk or crawl, he usually starts out on his own to reach the nearest hospital corpsman The individual first-aid packet may or may not have been applied by the man himself or by one of his comrades. In any case the hospital corpsman assures himself that patients have a satisfactory wound dressing; if possible he gives the parents an injection of morphine; when necessary, he applies a rough splint to a fractured bone by use of the rifle, the patient's other leg, fixing the patient'!

Evacuation lanes between the front and battalion aid stations should be marked with strips of bandage or paper on bushes or sticks or broken branches of trees, Such marking serves to guide bearers and medical personnel back and forth between the battalion aid station and the companies in line, as well as to blaze the trail to be followed by the walking-wounded from the line to the battalion aid station. Runners, and others also utilize the evacuation lanes in traversing the depth of the front.

Battalion aid stations are located as close to the front as possible. The distance varies, according to circumstances, from a half to 2 kilometers in the rear of the Boyau Prague, Verdun Front, 19IS. When a patient arrives at a battalion aid station the medical officer or the chief pharmacist's mate examines the man and the dressing.

Some freshly wounded arrive at the battalion station without dressings, having re- ceived wounds in the area between the station and the front line; some who have been treated by a hospital corpsman on the front, may be wounded again while in transit to the battalion aid station; there are others who are wounded again or killed before it is possible to leave the battalion aid station for further evacuation to the field hospital. And there are some, including the medical staff, who are wounded or killed while working at the battalion aid station.

In any event, the battalion medical staff does whatever is possible under the circumstances, such as improving, removing or applying dressings, tourniquets, pnd splints, and checking or preparing diagnostic tags. The patients are treated as well as possible so as to be moved expeditiously to the rear. Important considerations, however, are as follows: 1. Proximity to the area in which the battalion is deployed : ideally, to the rear between the flanks.

Nearness to paths or roads over which evacuation may be further continued: ideally, just off a road over which ambulances can travel. In the selection of any aid station, particularly near roads and paths, care must be taken to avoid those places which are likely to draw fire, 3. The aid station itself should be large enough to work in; it should be one where light can be had at night without being seen and where protection from gas, shellfire, and bombing is available: ideally, a bombproof dugout with wide steps, up and down which Utter patients can be carried easily, and with room enough below to accommodate the medical staff in their work and to keep a number of stretcher and sitting patients awaiting evacuation.

Locations to be avoided if possible are: a Close proximity to roads that cross traffic points. Casualties The lines in this area had remained stable since the early days of the war despite the costly struggle for the possession of Verdun which was staged in this area. The brigade sector was located a short distance north of Les Esparges and at this time it was considered to be quiet.

Under these conditions the front was ideal for training operations. There was little infantry action of importance. Front activity was confined largely to patrol excursions into no-manYland and to the conditioning of details in strong points and in the firing trenches. A few raids were made on enemy positions and some raids were made on our front by the enemy. Machine gun, trench mortar and rifle fire was sporadic along the front day and night. Grenades were used by both sides against hostile patrols and in raiding operations.

A shower of artillery fire fell in many areas of the brigade echelon every day. During the 2 months spent on this front comparatively few casualties occurred. Those produced by high explosives were of the most serious character, usually being multiple, with destruction of soft tissue, fractures, amputations, hemor- rhage, and shock.

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