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He has also impressed in Scotland this season with Motherwell currently third in the Premiership. Healy's stock continues to rise following Linfield's impressive run in Europe this summer when they narrowly missed out on reaching the group stages of the Europa League. Here's our main Belfast Live Facebook page. On Twitter, you can follow our account by clicking here. If you're a lover of photos, then check out our Instagram.

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The noite mauro bettinger Acta botanica Brasilica, v. Indigenous adaptation to amazonian palm forests. Comparing to the other pollen records in the Altai Mountains, Lake Grusha and Lake Hoton had recorded sports betting twin river slightly different process of vegetation evolution in the early Holocene, where forest was built up in the the noite mauro bettinger side of schwierigkeit bitcoins Chinese Altai faster than that of the Kanas Lake area. Timber resource statistics for all forest land, except national forestsin eastern Oregon. Analysis of short sequences of high-speed, high-resolution video footage shows that the sustained fountaining is maintained by not by a continuous discharge but rather by closely spaced bursting of two-to-five meter-wide bubbles. However, disadvantages such as safety, difficulty in interpretations of results, lack of objective biomarkers, risks of resensitization, efficiency in daily practice, and lack of standardized protocols, are poorly debated. Therefore in these cases it will not be possible to discover whether AEDs are really necessary to maintain freedom from seizures.
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In both modes the turbo-compressor is driven by a helium turbine which has contra rotating stages to improve its efficiency at low rotational speed and reduce the number of stages required. Due to the large speed of sound mismatch between the air compressor and the helium turbine it is possible to eliminate the turbine stators by contra rotating the spools. The compressor is divided into low pressure and high pressure spools although by normal gas turbine standards they are both low pressure ratio machines.

Computational simulations using structured overlapping grids with the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics LAVA solver framework are presented for predicting tonal noise generated by a contra -rotating open rotor CROR propulsion system. A higher-order accurate free-stream preserving metric discretization with discrete enforcement of the Geometric Conservation Law GCL on moving curvilinear grids is used to create an accurate, efficient, and stable numerical scheme. The aeroacoustic analysis is based on a permeable surface Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings FW-H approach, evaluated in the frequency domain.

A time-step sensitivity study was performed using only the forward row of blades to determine an adequate time-step. The numerical approach is validated against existing wind tunnel measurements. PubMed Central. Furthermore, the influence of vascular multiplicity on outcome of donors and recipients was studied.

CTA had the highest accuracy levels regarding vascular anatomy assessment. Regarding outcome of donors with vascular multiplicity, warm ischemia time WIT and skin-to-skin time were significantly longer if arterial multiplicity AM was present 5. Skin-to-skin time was significantly longer, and complication rates were higher in donors with venous multiplicity vs. Outcome of renal transplant recipients showed a significantly increased WIT 30 vs. Conclusions We conclude that vascular multiplicity should not be a contra -indication, since it has little impact on clinical outcome in the donor as well as in renal transplant recipients.

Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore 'extended donor criterion' is still under debate. We conclude that vascular multiplicity should not be a contra -indication, since it has little impact on clinical outcome in the donor as well as in renal transplant recipients. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato. Ultra-compact, flat-top demultiplexer using anti-reflection contra -directional couplers for CWDM networks on silicon.

Wavelength-division-multiplexing WDM networks with wide channel grids and bandwidths are promising for low-cost, low-power optical interconnects. Wide-bandwidth, single-band i. Using such filter components, we demonstrate a 4-channel, coarse-WDM demultiplexer with flat passbands of up to 13 nm and an ultra-compact size of 1.

Fundamental parameters of BE UMa revised. Shimanskii, V. We have determined a complete set of parameters for the young pre-cataclysmic variable BE UMa from a comprehensive photometric and spectroscopic analysis using model atmospheres. Our precise photometry and spectroscopy were acquired with the 6-m telescope and Zeiss telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory and the 1.

We performed a detailed identification of emission lines of ten elements. We have studied the radial-velocity curves of the cool star using lines of various elements. All the curves exhibit the previously predicted distortions due to reflection effects in the close binary.

We analyzed the light curves using model atmospheres for irradiated stars; all the parameters of BE UMa were refined. The abundances of helium and several light elements C, N, O, Ne, Mg in the atmosphere of the cool star are probably higher than the solar values. We conclude that the physical characteristics of the primary are in good agreement with evolutionary tracks for planetary-nebula nuclei, and that the secondary is overluminous by a factor of 30 compared to main-sequence stars of the same mass.

Applicability of strain measurements on a contra angle handpiece for the determination of alveolar bone quality during dental implant surgery. Alveolar bone quality is considered to be an important prognostic factor in dental implant stability. Although numerous methods have been described, no technique allows for reliable diagnostics. The purpose of this study was to determine if strain measurements on the shaft of a contra angle handpiece during implant bed preparation could be used for the determination of bone quality.

Experiments in polyurethane foam and human cadaver bone were conducted to investigate whether strain measurements could be correlated with other diagnostic parameters, such as the surgeon's tactile sensation during drilling, implant insertion torque, implant stability, elastic modulus of bone and bone quality as assessed radiographically. Tests were also performed to determine if strain measurements could be used to distinguish various types of bone. As axial feed and contact pressure during the drilling process could not be standardized under simulated clinical conditions, substantial deviations in the time needed to complete the drilling occurred.

Under controlled circumstances using polyurethane foam, this problem could be addressed by a normalization procedure, but great variations occurred in human cadaver bone. As bone quality could not be reliably determined, especially when a cortical layer was present, strain measurements on a contra angle handpiece appears to be inappropriate for this purpose.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. Experimental analysis of flow structure in contra -rotating axial flow pump designed with different rotational speed concept. As a high specific speed pump, the contra -rotating axial flow pump distinguishes itself in a rear rotor rotating in the opposite direction of the front rotor, which remarkably contributes to the energy conversion, the reduction of the pump size, better hydraulic and cavitation performances.

However, with two rotors rotating reversely, the significant interaction between blade rows was observed in our prototype contra -rotating rotors, which highly affected the pump performance compared with the conventional axial flow pumps. Consequently, a new type of rear rotor was designed by the rotational speed optimization methodology with some additional considerations, aiming at better cavitation performance, the reduction of blade rows interaction and the secondary flow suppression.

In the present research, to understand the internal flow field of new rear rotor and its relation to the performances at the partial flow rates, the velocity distributions at the inlets and outlets of the rotors are firstly investigated. Then, the boundary layer flows on rotor surfaces, which clearly reflect the secondary flow inside the rotors, are analyzed through the limiting streamline observations using the multi-color oil-film method.

Finally, the unsteady numerical simulations are carried out to understand the complicated internal flow structures in the rotors. Co- and contra -directional vertical coupling between ferromagnetic layers with grating for short-wavelength spin wave generation. The possibility to generate short spin waves SWs is of great interest in the field of magnonics nowadays. We present an effective and technically affordable way of conversion of long SWs, which may be generated by conventional microwave antenna, to the short, sub-micrometer waves.

It is achieved by grating-assisted resonant dynamic dipolar interaction between two ferromagnetic layers separated by some distance. We analyze criteria for the optimal conversion giving a semi-analytical approach for the coupling coefficient. We show by the numerical calculations the efficient energy transfer between layers which may be either of co-directional or contra -directional type.

Such a system may operate either as a short spin wave generator or a frequency filter, moving forward possible application of magnonics. The first oncology conference organised by ecancer and the Liga Colombiana contra el Cancer took place on 17—18 November in Bogota. It was a highly successful event owing to the number of participants, the quality of the speakers, and the academic programme. Around 48 professors from 8 different countries came and shared their knowledge and experience of cancer management.

They also talked about the most recent developments noted or achieved in this area. Geriatric oncology and palliative care were also topics that sparked great interest during the event. Simplified two-dimensional blade element analysis is performed on cambered NACA 4-digit airfoil profiles, which are meant to serve as substitutes for the actual rotor blade sectional geometries.

Rotor in-flow effects such as induced axial and tangential velocities are incorporated into the noise prediction models based on supporting computational fluid dynamics CFD results and simplified in-flow velocity models. Emphasis is placed on the development of simplified rotor in-flow models for the purpose of performing accurate noise predictions independent of CFD information.

The broadband predictions are found to compare favorably with experimental acoustic results. The first oncology conference organised by e cancer and the Liga Colombiana contra el Cancer took place on November in Bogota. Stapled haemorrhoidopexy: a consensus position paper by an international working party - indications, contra -indications and technique. An international working party with experience in the performance of an alternative haemorrhoid operation through the use of the circular stapler was convened for the purpose of developing a consensus as to the criteria for undertaking this procedure.

The agenda consisted of first, naming the operation; second, the indications and contra -indications for its performance; and third, the preferred surgical technique. Among the recommendations for individuals who plan to embark on this surgery are that experience with anorectal surgery and an understanding of anorectal anatomy are requisites; experience with circular stapling devices is essential; and the surgeon must attend a formal course which should include lectures, videos, the application of the instrument in models, and observation of the operation as performed by a surgeon recognized by his or her peers-leading ultimately to undertaking the procedure while being observed by an experienced surgeon.

Following satisfactory completion of the above, independent responsibility should be determined by an individual's department of surgery. Building Economic Security Today: making the health-wealth connection in Contra Costa county's maternal and child health programs. In recent years, maternal and child health professionals have been seeking approaches to integrating the Life Course Perspective and social determinants of health into their work.

BEST utilizes innovative strategies to reduce inequities in health outcomes for low-income Contra Costa families by improving their financial security and stability. Educational and referral resources were also developed and distributed to all clients. The classes at WIC increased clients' awareness of financial issues and confidence that they could improve their financial situations.

WIC clients and staff also gained knowledge about financial resources in the community. MVIP's financial assessments offered clients a new and needed perspective on their financial situations, as well as support around the financial and psychological stresses of caring for a child with special health care needs.

BEST offered FMCH Programs staff opportunities to engage in non-traditional, cross-sector partnerships, and gain new knowledge and skills to address a pressing social determinant of health. We learned the value of flexible timelines, maintaining a long view for creating change, and challenging the traditional paradigm of maternal and child health. Volume 2: Indictments, plea agreements, interim reports to the congress, and administrative matters.

Volume II contains indictments, plea agreements, interim reports to Congress and administrative matters from that investigation. The study of noise from a two-shaft contra -rotating open rotor CROR is challenging since the shafts are not phase locked in most cases. Consequently, phase averaging of the acoustic data keyed to a single shaft rotation speed is not meaningful. An unaligned spectrum procedure that was developed to estimate a signal coherence threshold and reveal concealed spectral lines in turbofan engine combustion noise is applied to fan and CROR acoustic data in this paper.

Evaluate triptan prescriptions in ambulatory medicine. Collection of medical data from patients treated with triptans reimbursed by the French National Health Fund in the region of Midi-Pyrenees. In a context of sustained increase in prescriptions of migraine treatments, it appears necessary to remain cautious about clinical and pharmacological contra -indications. Prevention of abuse of medicines is based on a better use of crises agendas and introduction of prophylactic therapies.

Se eliminaron los visados de trabajo temporal y se limitaron los visados de residentes a Using community participation to assess acceptability of " Contra Caries", a theory-based, promotora-led oral health education program for rural Latino parents: a mixed methods study. Latino children experience more prevalent and severe tooth decay than non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black children.

Few theory-based, evaluated and culturally appropriate interventions target parents of this vulnerable population. To fill this gap, the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program, a theory-based, promotora-led education program for low-income, Spanish-speaking parents of children aged years, was developed. This article describes qualitative findings of the acceptability of curriculum content and activities, presents the process of refinement of the curriculum through engaging the target population and promotoras, and presents results from the evaluation assessing the acceptability of the curriculum once implemented.

Focus groups were conducted with low-income Spanish-speaking parents of children years living in a city in an agricultural area of California. Interviews were digitally recorded, translated and transcribed, checked for accuracy and the resulting data was thematically coded and analyzed using a social constructionist approach.

The Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program was then implemented with a separate but similar sample, and after completing the program, participants were administered surveys asking about acceptability and favorite activities of the education program. Data were entered into a database, checked for accuracy, open-ended questions were categorized, and responses to close-ended questions counted.

This study found that their children's oral health is a high priority. Parents were not only interested in, but actually attended classes focused on increasing their knowledge and skills with respect to early childhood oral health. The Contra Caries content and format was perceived as. Abortion: pro and contra. To kill a new life before it's born, to do an abortion. This is a problem of many generations.

In the evolution of human civilization, the attitude concerning abortion was different in different cultures, periods, societies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the actual opinion and attitude of young persons, students, and residents in medicine in Timisoara city, and the situation of the whole country.

We performed a questionnaire for people, between the ages of 19 and 28 with superior studies. We accepted for recording and analyzing all the the completed questionnaires. The questions referred to the topic of abortion in the antecedents, and asked if they had had one, how it affected the life of the women and her family, the circumstances of acceptance of abortion today, religious aspects and different other aspects. Virnina, Natalia A. We present the results of analysing of the light curve and O-C variations in the eclipsing system BM UMa , based on V-band observations which cover the period from JD to using two robotic remotely-controlled telescopes of Tzec Maun Observatory USA along with observations made with the RK telescope of Odessa Astronomical Observatory.

The full light curve displays a total primary eclipse with a duration 0. The depths of primary and secondary minima are nearly equal, 0. The physical parameters of the system were calculated using the Wilson-Devinney code, appended with the Monte Carlo search algorithm. The result establishes BM UMa as a contact system fillout factor The more massive component is larger and cooler.

The 72 archival and 11 newly-obtained times of light minimum cover the interval and allowed us to exclude possible systematic period variations in BM UMa and to determine an initial epoch of HJD This report documents the spatial distribution of 3, landslides caused by El Ni? The report also documents historical pre landslides. Landslides were mapped from ,scale aerial photographs and classified as either debris flows or slides.

Slides include rotational and translational slides, earth flows, and complex slope movements. Debris flows and slides from the winter modified 1 percent of the surface of the Debris flows were scattered throughout the area, regardless of the type of underlying bedrock geology. Slides, however, were concentrated in a soft sandstone, conglomerate, and clayey group of rock units. Digital map files accompany the report. Designing strategies to access stereodefined olefinic organoboron species is an important synthetic challenge.

KGaA, Weinheim. Wagner, Daniela M. The aim of this study was to test the established measurement system for the out-of-field measurements of inpatients with breast cancer. A set of five alanine pellets were affixed to the skin of each patient at the contra lateral breast beginning at the sternum and extending over the mammilla to the distal surface.

During 28 fractions with 2. A cone beam computer tomography CBCT scan was generated for setup purposes before every treatment. To take the actual alanine pellet position into account, the dose distribution was calculated for every fraction using the Acuros XB algorithm. The results of the ESR measurements were compared to the calculated doses.

The maximum dose measured at the sternum was No systematic error could be seen. It was possible to achieve a combined standard uncertainty of 1. Recent developments on SU UMa stars - theory vs. Kepler light curves of short period dwarf novae have resparked interest in the nature of superoutbursts and led to the question: Is the thermal-tidal instability needed, or can the plain vanilla version of the accretion disk limit cycle do the job all by itself?

A detailed time-resolved study of an eclipsing SU UMa system during superoutburst onset should settle the question - if there is a dramatic contraction of the disk at superoutburst onset, Osaki's thermal-tidal model would be preferred; if not, the plain disk instability model would be sufficient. Finally, it may be necessaryto look beyond the short period dwarf novae to gain perspective on the nature of embedded precursors in long outbursts.

We report results of an extensive worldwide observing campaign devoted to a very active dwarf nova star - IX Draconis. We investigated photometric behaviour of the system to derive its basic outburst properties and understand peculiarities of IX Draconis as well as other active cataclysmic variables, in particular dwarf novae of the ER UMa type. In order to measure fundamental parameters of the system, we carried out analyses of the light curve, O - C diagram, and power spectra.

During over two months of observations, we detected two superoutbursts and several normal outbursts. The V magnitude of the star varied in the range Superoutbursts occur regularly with the supercycle length Psc of Normal outbursts appear to be irregular, with typical occurrence times in the range 3. We detected a double-peaked structure of superhumps during superoutburst, with the secondary maximum becoming dominant near the end of the superoutburst.

Based on the power spectrum analysis, the evaluation of the orbital period was problematic. We found two possible values: the first one, 0. The evolutionary status of the object depends dramatically on the choice between these two values. A spectroscopic determination of the orbital period is needed. We updated available information on ER UMa -type stars and present a new set of their basic statistics. Thereby, we provide evidence that this class of stars is not uniform.

Volume 3: Comments and materials submitted by individuals and their attorneys responding to volume 1 of the final report. Volume III contains comments and materials submitted by individuals and their attorneys from that investigation. The overarching goal of the Advanced Air Transport AATT Project is to explore and develop technologies and concepts to revolutionize the energy efficiency and environmental compatibility of fixed wing transport aircrafts.

These technological solutions are critical in reducing the impact of aviation on the environment even as this industry and the corresponding global transportation system continue to grow. Comparison of the benefits of cochlear implantation versus contra -lateral routing of signal hearing aids in adult patients with single-sided deafness: study protocol for a prospective within-subject longitudinal trial.

Individuals with a unilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss, or single-sided deafness, report difficulty with listening in many everyday situations despite having access to well-preserved acoustic hearing in one ear. The standard of care for single-sided deafness available on the UK National Health Service is a contra -lateral routing of signals hearing aid which transfers sounds from the impaired ear to the non-impaired ear.

This hearing aid has been found to improve speech understanding in noise when the signal-to-noise ratio is more favourable at the impaired ear than the non-impaired ear. However, the indiscriminate routing of signals to a single ear can have detrimental effects when interfering sounds are located on the side of the impaired ear.

Recent published evidence has suggested that cochlear implantation in individuals with a single-sided deafness can restore access to the binaural cues which underpin the ability to localise sounds and segregate speech from other interfering sounds. The current trial was designed to assess the efficacy of cochlear implantation compared to a contra -lateral routing of signals hearing aid in restoring binaural hearing in adults with acquired single-sided deafness. Patients are assessed at baseline and after receiving a contra -lateral routing of signals hearing aid.

A cochlear implant is then provided to those patients who do not receive sufficient benefit from the hearing aid. This within-subject longitudinal design reflects the expected care pathway should cochlear implantation be provided for single-sided deafness on the UK National Health Service.

The primary endpoints are measures of binaural hearing at baseline, after provision of a contra -lateral routing of signals hearing aid, and after cochlear implantation. Binaural hearing is assessed in terms of the accuracy with which sounds are localised and speech is perceived in background noise. The trial is also designed to measure the impact of the interventions on. Background Individuals with a unilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss, or single-sided deafness, report difficulty with listening in many everyday situations despite having access to well-preserved acoustic hearing in one ear.

The trial is also designed to measure the impact of. Sequential ultrasound-microwave assisted acid extraction UMAE of pectin from pomelo peels. This study aims to optimize sequential ultrasound-microwave assisted extraction UMAE on pomelo peel using citric acid.

The effects of pH, sonication time, microwave power and irradiation time on the yield and the degree of esterification DE of pectin were investigated. Under optimized conditions of pH 1. The pectin's galacturonic acid content obtained from combined extraction technique is higher than that obtained from sole extraction technique and the pectin gel produced from various techniques exhibited a pseudoplastic behaviour.

This has substantiated the highest pectin yield of Effectiveness evaluation of Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program for improving Spanish-speaking parents' preventive oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children.

Mexican American children in the United States suffer disproportionately high prevalence and severity of early childhood caries, yet few evaluated, theory-based behavioral interventions exist for this population. CCOHEP is a theory-based curriculum consisting of four 2-h interactive classes designed for and by Spanish speakers and led by designated community health educators promotoras. Topics included children's oral hygiene, caries etiology, dental procedures, nutrition, child behavior management, and parent skill-building activities.

Survey questions from the Oral Health Basic Research Facts Questionnaire measuring oral health-related behaviors and knowledge were verbally administered before, immediately after, and 3 months after attendance at CCOHEP. Five questions measured aspects of parental toothbrushing for their children frequency, using fluoridated toothpaste, brushing before bed, not drinking or eating after nighttime brushing, adult assistance , three questions measured other oral health behaviors, and 16 questions measured oral health-related knowledge.

Analyses of within-person changes between pre- and post-tests and again between post-test and 3-month follow-up consisted of McNemar's test for binary outcomes and sign tests for ordinal outcomes. Imbalance p values for baseline covariates in randomized controlled trials: a last resort for the use of p values?

A pro and contra debate. Results of randomized controlled trials RCTs are usually accompanied by a table that compares covariates between the study groups at baseline. Sometimes, the investigators report p values for imbalanced covariates. The aim of this debate is to illustrate the pro and contra of the use of these p values in RCTs. Low p values can be a sign of biased or fraudulent randomization and can be used as a warning sign.

They can be considered as a screening tool with low positive-predictive value. Low p values should prompt us to ask for the reasons and for potential consequences, especially in combination with hints of methodological problems. A fair randomization produces the expectation that the distribution of p values follows a flat distribution. It does not produce an expectation related to a single p value. The distribution of p values in RCTs can be influenced by the correlation among covariates, differential misclassification or differential mismeasurement of baseline covariates.

Given only a small number of reported p values in the reports of RCTs, judging whether the realized p value distribution is, indeed, a flat distribution becomes difficult. Use of a low p value as a warning sign that randomization is potentially biased can be considered a vague heuristic. The authors of this debate are obviously more or less enthusiastic with this heuristic and differ in the consequences they propose.

Recent evidence suggests that nerve growth factor IB Nur77 and nuclear receptor related1 Nurr1 are differentially involved in dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Since memantine has shown clinically relevant efficacy in Parkinson's disease PD and displayed a potent protective effect on dopaminergic neurons in experimental PD models, we asked if it exerts its neuroprotection by regulating Nur77 and Nurr1 signaling. Nurdeficient PC12 cells were used to verify the influences of Nur77 on neurodegeneration and memantine-mediated neuroprotection.

Knockdown of Nur77 enhanced the viability of PC12 cells exposed to 6-OHDA, while memantine-induced neuroprotection was much less in the cells with Nur77 knockdown than in those without it. We conclude that Nur77 plays a crucial role in modulating mitochondrial impairment and contributes to neurodegeneration under the experimental PD condition. Memantine effectively suppresses such Nurmediated neurodegeneration and promotes survival signaling through post-translational modification of Nurr1.

Nur77 and Nurr1 present a contra -directionally coupling interaction in memantine-mediated neuroprotection. Hoeft, Kristin S. CCOHEP is a theory-based curriculum consisting of four 2-hour interactive classes designed for and by Spanish speakers and led by designated community health educators promotoras. Survey questions from the Oral Health Basic Research Facts Questionnaire measuring oral health related behaviors and knowledge were verbally administered before, immediately after, and 3 months after attendance at CCOHEP.

Five questions measured aspects of parental tooth brushing for their children frequency, using fluoridated toothpaste, brushing before bed, not drinking or eating after nighttime brushing, adult assistance , three questions measured other oral health behaviors, and 16 questions measured oral health-related knowledge. This was a project to study the disk and wind of the eclipsing nova-like variable UX UMa , in order to better define the wind geometry of the system, including the nature of the transition region between the disk photosphere and the supersonic wind.

We proposed to use phase resolved spectroscopy of the system, taking advantage of the fact that UX UMa is an eclipsing system, to isolate different regions of the wind and to use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to simulate the spectra through the eclipse. Nietzsche contra "Self-Reformulation". Not only do the writings of Nietzsche--early and late--fail to support the pedagogy of self-reformulation, this doctrine embodies what for him is worst in man and would destroy that which is higher.

The pedagogy of self-reformulation is also incoherent. In contrast, Nietzsche offers a fruitful and comprehensive theory of education that, while…. We present the results of our investigation of the geometrical and physical parameters of the binary system LX Leo. According to our solution, the system is a high mass-ratio, totally eclipsing, W-type W UMa system.

In addition, the evolutionary condition of the system is discussed. We present observational evidence that supercycle lengths of the most active SU UMa -type stars are increasing during the past decades. We analyzed a large number of photometric measurements from available archives and found that this effect is generic for this class of stars, independently of their evolutionary status. This finding is in agreement with previous predictions and the most recent work of Patterson et al.

This new vent is one of two ongoing eruptions on the volcano. Chromospheric activity on late-type star DM UMa using high-resolution spectroscopic observations. We analysed these chromospheric active indicators by employing the spectral subtraction technique. These phenomena might be explained by flare events or rotational modulations of the level of chromospheric activity. Tutchton, Roxanne M. Sonification is the conversion of quantitative data into sound.

In this work we explain the methods used in the sonification of light curves provided by the Kepler instrument from Q2 through Q6 for the cataclysmic variable systems V Lyr and V Cyg. Both systems are SU UMa stars showing dwarf nova outbursts and superoutbursts as well as positive and negative superhumps.

Focused sonifications were done from average pulse shapes of each superhump, and separate sonifications of the full, residual light curves were done for both stars. The audio of these data reflected distinct patterns within the evolutions of supercycles and superhumps that matched pervious observations and proved to be effective aids in data analysis.

Observations and light curve solutions of a selection of shallow-contact W UMa binaries. The light curve solutions revealed that these binaries have overcontact configurations with small fillout factors within 0. Seven of them undergo total eclipses and their photometric mass ratios should be accepted with confidence. The temperature differences of the components of CSS J Observations and light curve solutions of three ultrashort-period W UMa binaries.

The results from the modeling and analysis of our observations reveal that: i All targets undergo total eclipses and their photometric mass ratios should be accepted with confidence; ii All stellar components are late-type dwarfs; iii The temperature difference of target components does not exceed K; iv All targets have overcontact configurations with fill-out factor around 0.

Masses, radii and luminosities of the stellar components were estimated by the empirical relation "period, orbital axis" for short- and ultrashort-period binaries. Buckets of ash track tephra flux from Halema' uma 'u Crater, Hawai'i. Less appreciated is the ongoing, weak, but continuous output of tephra, primarily ash, from the new open vent in Halema' uma 'u Crater. This tephra holds clues to processes causing the eruption and forming the new crater-in-a-crater, and its flux is important to hazard evaluations.

The setting of the vent—easily accessible from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory HVO —is unusually favorable for neardaily tracking of tephra mass flux during this small prolonged basaltic eruption. Recognizing this, scientists from HVO are collecting ash and documenting how ejection masses, components, and chemical compositions vary through time. The observations occurred during a super-high state never before observed in HU Aqr.

The near-infrared observations show a corresponding flux increase of times over previous J and K observations. However, the near-infrared eclipse minimum during this super-high state are the same as seen in previous observations, indicating that the eclipse in the near-infrared is total. We present a detailed comparison of the EUV and near-infrared emission of HU Aqr as a function of orbital phase and discuss the geometry and physical properties of the high energy and infrared emitting regions.

We present EUV phase-resolved photometry and spectroscopy and show that the He emission line is not produced on the heated face of the secondary star, but emanates from the inner illuminated regions of the coupling region and accretion stream. We comment on the overall structure of the accretion geometry as well.

We explore a range in possible input parameters and model assumptions to delineate under what conditions each model may be preferred. II The Second Year Continued from Kato et al. The newly obtained data confirmed the basic findings reported in Kato et al. There was a systematic difference in the period derivatives for the systems with superhump periods longer than 0. We suggest that this difference was possibly caused by a relative lack of frequently outbursting SU UMa -type dwarf novae in this period regime in the present study.

We recorded a strong beat phenomenon during the superoutburst of IY UMa. A close correlation between the beat period and the superhump period suggests that the changing angular velocity of the apsidal motion of the elliptical disk is responsible for the variation of the superhump periods. We also described three new WZ Sge-type objects with established early superhumps and one with likely early superhumps.

We also present a formulation for a variety of Bayesian extensions to traditional period analyses. We compare the masses of the NO UMa binary components to those predicted by five sets of stellar evolution models at the age of the Ursa Major group. We find excellent agreement between our measured masses and model predictions with little systematic scatter between the models. NO UMa joins the short list of nearby, bright, late-type binaries having known ages and fully characterized orbits.

A new mechanism of long-term period variations for W UMa -type contact binaries. W UMa -type contact binaries belong to close binary systems whose components exactly overflow their Roche lobes and share a common convective envelope CCE. In the last twenty years, the long-term variations of their orbital periods have been thought to depend on several mechanisms.

Now, we suggest a new mechanism: CCE-dominated mechanism. The CCE-dominated mechanism is found based on our numerical result, especially at high mass ratios, that the orbital periods P of contact binaries change very much with their fill-out factors f.

Because f is taken as a measurement of the thickness of CCE, the physical cause for the variation of P is a mass transfer between CCE and components. Further, an f-dominated simplification model for this mechanism is introduced. According to it, P may change in a long-term oscillation way with a similar time scale of the thermal modulation, meanwhile q is decreasing slowly till the two components merge.

It could be also applied to explain the presence of extremely short period, high mass ratio and deep contact binaries. Therefor, the effect of CCE on the variations of orbital periods may have been underestimated before. Observations and light curve solutions of a selection of middle-contact W UMa binaries. The light curve solutions revealed that the components of each target are of G and K spectral types.

The binaries of the sample have middle-contact configurations whose fillout factors are within the range 0. The only exception is NSVS which is in deeper contact fillout factor of 0. It precisely obeys the relation between mass ratio and fillout factor for deep, low mass ratio overcontact binaries. One of the eclipses of almost all targets except MM Peg is an occultation and their photometric mass ratios and solutions could be accepted with confidence.

We found that the target components have almost equal temperatures but differ considerably in size and mass. The components of the partially-eclipsed MM Peg have close parameters. This subclassification is well-determined for all totally-eclipsed binaries. The targets confirm the trends in which W-subtype systems have smaller periods and lower temperatures than A subtype binaries.

The light curves of Broglia , Contr. It is found that the light curve of the binary star has changed from W-subtype to A-subtype according to Binnendijk's classification. This variation may be caused by the activity of dark spot on the primary component. Combining four newly determined times of the light minimum with others published in the literature, the orbital period change of the system was investigated.

The period oscillation can be explained either by the light-time effect via the presence of an unseen third body or by magnetic-activity cycles of the components. This indicates that it is on the TRO-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. The asymmetry of the light curves requires a large, single star spot on the smaller, less massive secondary component. The modeled spot varied little during the year range of photometric observations.

Among the 16 shallow-contact systems with a decreasing orbital period, MR Com has the lowest mass ratio e. The shallow-contact configuration, the low-mass ratio, and the long-term period decrease all suggest that systems similar to MR Com are on the AML-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian.

They will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and evolve into a deep contact with a higher mass ratio. The small-amplitude cyclic change in the O - C curve was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion.

The variations of the orbital period were analyzed based on 12 new determined times of light minimum together with the others compiled from the literature. Photometric solutions determined with the Wilson-Devinney method suggest that BI CVn is a contact binary with a degree of contact of The asymmetry of the light curves was interpreted by the presence of dark spots on both components, and absolute parameters were determined by combining the photometric elements with the spectroscopic solutions given by Lu.

The observed period decrease can be plausibly explained by a combination of the mass transfer from the primary to the secondary and angular momentum loss via magnetic braking. The cyclic period oscillation suggests that BI CVn is a triple system containing a tertiary component with a mass no less than 0. As in the cases of the other contact binaries e.

The classical explosive basaltic eruption spectrum is traditionally defined by the following end member eruption styles: Hawaiian and Strombolian. The field use of high-speed cameras has enabled volcanologists to make improved quantifications and more accurate descriptions of these classical eruptions styles and to quantify previously undecipherable activity including activity on the basaltic eruption spectrum between the two defined end members.

Explosive activity in at the free surface of the Halema' uma 'u lava lake at Kilauea exhibited features of both sustained Hawaiian fountaining and transient Strombolian explosivity. Most of this activity is internally triggered by the internal rise of decoupled gas bubbles from below the lake's surface, but external triggering via rock falls, was also observed.

Here I identify three styles of bubble bursting and spattering eruptive activity isolated events, clusters of events, and prolonged episodes at the lava lake, and distinguished them based on their temporal and spatial distributions. Isolated events are discrete single bubble bursts that persist for a few tenths of seconds to seconds and are separated by repose periods of similar or longer time scales. Cluster of events are closely spaced, repeated events grouped around a narrow point source, which persist for seconds to minutes.

Prolonged episodes are groupings of numerous events closely linked in space and time that persist for tens of minutes to hours. Analysis of individual events from high-speed camera images indicates that they are made up of up to three phases: the bubble ascent phase, the bursting and pyroclast ejection phase, and the drain back and rebound phase. Based on the numerical parameters established in this study, the activity was relatively weak i. We present a detailed analysis of the interesting W UMa binary FI Boo in view of the spectroscopic signature of a third body through photometry, period variation, and a thorough investigation of solution uniqueness.

The results were tested by heuristic scanning and parameter kicking to provide the consistent and reliable set of parameters that was used to obtain the initial masses of the progenitors 1. We also investigated the evolutionary status of massive components with several sets of widely used isochrones. However, it has been neglected in photometric investigations. Here, the first complete light curves in the B, V, R, and I bands are presented and analyzed using the Wilson and Devinney method.

The continuous increase may be caused by a mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. This suggests that UZ CMi is in the thermal relaxation oscillation controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian.

UZ CMi will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and the contact configuration cannot be broken. The cyclic change was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion. The formation, evolution, collapse, and subsequent resurrection of a vent within Halema' uma 'u Crater, Kilauea Volcano, produced energetic and varied degassing signals recorded by a nearby infrasound array between and early After 25 years of quiescence, a vent-clearing explosive burst on 19 March produced a clear, complex acoustic signal.

Near-continuous harmonic infrasonic tremor followed this burst until 4 December , when a period of decreased degassing occurred. The tremor spectra suggest volume oscillation and reverberation of a shallow gas-filled cavity beneath the vent. The dominant tremor peak can be sustained through Helmholtz oscillations of the cavity, while the secondary tremor peak and overtones are interpreted assuming acoustic resonance.

The dominant tremor frequency matches the oscillation frequency of the gas emanating from the vent observed by video. Over 21 varied degassing bursts were observed with extended burst durations and frequency content consistent with a transient release of gas exciting the cavity into resonance.

Correlation of infrasound with seismicity suggests an open system connecting the atmosphere to the seismic excitation process at depth. Numerous degassing bursts produced very long period 0. Kilauea infrasound appears controlled by the exsolution of gas from the magma, and the interaction of this gas with the conduits and cavities confining it. Contra la corriente against the current.

She broke ground in directing the first federally funded major clinical study focused on Lesbian sexuality and health. Nietzsche contra Burke: The Melodrama in Dramatism. Examines Kenneth Burke's and Friedrich Nietzsche's similar understanding of the hortatory nature of language-using, weighed against their radically differing conceptions of the negative, which allows a distinction between two genres of dramatism, and illustrates contrasting orientations toward symbolic activity in general.

On the other hand, it has been realized that the functional SPF of sunscreens remains far behind the declared SPF in the practical application and, therefore, the use of higher SPF in sensitive individuals and during strong UV exposure could make sense.

Alloplastic transvaginal meshes have become very popular in the surgery of pelvic organ prolapse POP as did alloplastic suburethral slings in female stress incontinence surgery, but without adequate supporting data. The simplicity of the mesh procedure facilitates its propagation with acceptance of higher revision and complication rates. Since attending physicians do more and more prolapse surgeries without practicing or teaching alternative techniques, expertise in these alternatives, which might be very useful in cases of recurrence, persistence or complications, is permanently lost.

It is doubtful that proper and detailed information about alternatives, risks, and benefits of transvaginal alloplastic meshes is provided to every single prolapse patient according to the recommendations of the German POP guidelines, since the number of implanted meshes exceeds the number of properly indicated mesh candidates by far. Although there is no dissent internationally about the available mesh data, thousands of lawsuits in the USA, insolvency of companies due to claims for compensation and unambiguous warnings from foreign urological societies leave German urogynecologists still unimpressed.

The existing literature in pelvic organ prolapse exclusively focusses on POP stage and improvement of that stage with surgical therapy. Instead, typical prolapse symptoms should trigger therapy and improvement of these symptoms should be the utmost treatment goal.

It is strongly recommended for liability reasons to obtain specific written informed consent. Human phenotype is governed by its genotype--a set of genetic information materialized in DNA. Using traditional terminology we speak about a little more than 20 thousands genes that differ in strength to become realized and their effect is modified by a large number of other genes.

The result originates from firmly established programmes we obtained from our ancestors. Development and activity of such molecules selected for maintenance, copying and transfer of information i. Nevertheless the final result is achieved not only by confrontation of the original information with other genetic information but largely also by external influences--environment.

Though we are relatively successful in understanding what we have inherited from our parents, our knowledge of environmental factors and their effects on formation of the phenotype is still limited. From this point of view medical prediction has always to be very cautious and interpretations at the probability level must be done by a very experienced and responsible professional. Using the lava lake as the hot background source we present MWIR gas analysis of the Kilauea volcanic plume.

In order to construct the O-C diagram to analyze the period change of UY UMa , we have performed a careful search for all available times of light minima. A total of 76 times of light minima were collected and listed in Table 2. The minimum scatter, 0. The light travel effect produced by the presence of tertiary components can reveal much about the origin and evolution of over-contact binaries.

Progress in the analysis of eclipse timing variations is summarized here both from the empirical and the theoretical points of view, and a more extensive investigation of the proposed orbital parameters of third bodies is proposed. The code we have developed for this, implemented in Python, is set up to handle heuristic scanning with parameter perturbation in parameter space, and to establish realistic uncertainties from the least squares fitting.

Future options to be implemented include MCMC and bootstrapping. Raulin, J. We present the first precision BVRI light curves, synthetic light curve solutions, and a period study for the high amplitude solar type binary, V Cygni. The light curves have the appearance of an Algol EA type; however, it is made up of dwarf solar type components in a detached mode with a period of only 0. Flare-like disruptions occur in the light curves following the primary and secondary eclipses possibly due to the line-of-sight track of a gas stream.

The more massive star is the gainer, making this system a classic, albeit dwarf, Algol. Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa -type dwarf novae. The eighth year Continuing the project described by Kato et al.

The data have improved the distribution of orbital periods, the relation between the orbital period and the variation of superhumps, and the relation between period variations and the rebrightening type in WZ Sge-type objects. Coupled with new measurements of mass ratios using growing stages of superhumps, we now have a clearer and statistically greatly improved evolutionary path near the terminal stage of evolution of cataclysmic variables.

It is the only point of discharge for flood water and is maintained by the Contra Costa Mosquito Abatement District. Reliable prediction of contra -rotating open rotor CROR noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and the cabin noise limits.

Since CROR noise spectra typically exhibits a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone spectra. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data had been acquired in wind tunnel tests.

In the work presented here, the focus is on the near-field noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, detailed tone noise spectral predictions have been generated and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant CROR tones and their overall sound pressure level.

The results also indicate that, whereas individual rotor tones are well predicted by the linear sources i. Reliable prediction of contra -rotating open rotor CROR noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and cabin noise limits.

Since CROR noise spectra exhibit a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone content. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data have been acquired in wind tunnel tests.

In the work presented here, the focus is on the nearfield noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, tone noise spectra have been predicted and compared with the experimental data.

Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant tones and for the overall sound pressure level of tones. The results also indicate that, whereas the individual rotor tones are well predicted by the combination of the thickness and loading sources, for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole source is also included in the analysis. Small hydropower generation is one of important alternative energy, and enormous potential lie in the small hydropower.

However, efficiency of small hydroturbines is lower than that of large one. Then, there are demands for small hydroturbines to keep high performance in wide flow rate range. Therefore, we adopted contra -rotating rotors, which can be expected to achieve high performance. In this research, performance of the contra -rotating small hydroturbine with 60mm casing diameter was investigated by an experiment and numerical analysis. Efficiency of the contra -rotating small hydroturbine was high in pico-hydroturbine and high efficiency could be kept in wide flow rate range, however the performance of a rear rotor decreased significantly in partial flow rates.

Then, internal flow condition, which was difficult to measure experimentally, was investigated by the numerical flow analysis. Then, a relation between the performance and internal flow condition was considered by the numerical analysis result. Vaqueros Reservoir from its existing capacity of thousand acre-feet TAF. A TAF expansion option Research conducted by the Hunger Task Force in Contra Costa County California revealed a significant increase in the number of families, especially with young children, who live in poverty and who are going hungry.

A food stamp outreach program, a countywide school breakfast program, and food distribution programs have been initiated. Commission Report A follow-up report on the California State University's Contra Costa Center, a proposed permanent off-campus center, is presented.

The California Postsecondary Education Commission approved the original proposal in , contingent on finding solutions to concerns about transportation access and services to disadvantaged students. The university…. This report describes operations at Alameda- Contra Costa Transit District AC Transit for three prototype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location. This is the third evaluation report for this site, and it describes new High school students and heads of households in rural areas of Illinois were studied with respect to their attitudes toward Negroes.

The hypothesis used was that a youth subculture or " contra -culture" did serve as an important socializing agent in forming the attitudes of students toward Negroes. Results indicated that there was only…. Volume 1: Investigations and prosecutions. In October and November , two secret U. Government operations were publicly exposed, potentially implicating Reagan Administration officials in illegal activities.

These operations were the provision of assistance to the military activities of the Nicaraguan contra rebels during an October to October prohibition on such aid, and the sale of U. In late November , Reagan Administration officials announced that some of the proceeds from the sale of U.

This is the final report of that investigation. The eastern San Francisco Bay region Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, California is a geologically complex area divided by faults into a suite of tectonic blocks. Each block contains a unique stratigraphic sequence of Tertiary sediments that in most blocks unconformably overlie Mesozoic sediments. Age and environmental interpretations based on analysis of microfossil assemblages are key factors in interpreting geologic history, structure, and correlation of each block.

Much of this data, however, is distributed in unpublished internal reports and memos, and is generally unavailable to the geologic community. In this report the U. Geological Survey microfossil data from the Tertiary sediments of Alameda and Contra Costa counties are analyzed and presented in a digital database, which provides a user-friendly summary of the micropaleontologic data, locality information, and biostratigraphic and ecologic interpretations.

Impact of contra -lateral breast reshaping on mammographic surveillance in women undergoing breast reconstruction following mastectomy for breast cancer. The ultimate goal of breast reconstruction is to achieve symmetry with the contra -lateral breast. Contra -lateral procedures with wide parenchymal rearrangements are suspected to impair mammographic surveillance. This study aims to evaluate the impact on mammographic detection of mastopexies and breast reductions for contralateral adjustment in breast reconstruction.

We retrospectively evaluated women affected by uni-lateral breast cancer who underwent mastectomy and immediate two-stage reconstruction between and We considered three groups according to the contra -lateral reshaping technique: mastopexy or breast reduction with inferior dermoglandular flap group 1 ; mastopexy or breast reduction without inferior dermoglandular flap group 2 ; no contra -lateral reshaping group 3.

We assessed qualitative mammographic variations and breast density in the three groups. Statistically significant differences have been found when comparing reshaped groups with non reshaped groups regarding parenchymal distortions, skin thickening and stromal edema, but these differences did not affect cancer surveillance. This study confirms previous reports regarding the safety of mastopexies and breast reductions when performed in the setting of contra -lateral breast reshaping after breast reconstruction.

Mammographic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are not affected by the glandular re-arrangement. These results provide a further validation of the safety of current reconstructive paradigms. All rights reserved. Chemical water-quality conditions were investigated in San Joaquin and part of Contra Costa Counties by canvassing available wells and sampling water from representative wells.

Chemical water types varied, with 73 percent of the wells sampled containing either calcium-magnesium bicarbonate, or calcium-sodium bicarbonate type water. Substantial areas contain ground water exceeding water-quality standards for boron, manganese, and nitrate. Trace elements, with the exception of boron and manganese, were present in negligible amounts.

TRF blowdowns designated as experiments The experimental data was compared to time-accurate simulations modeling The study area of this report includes the eastern valley area of Contra Costa County and all of San Joaquin County, an area of approximately 1, square miles in the northern part of the San Joaquin Valley, Calif. Between December and December , 1, wells were selectively canvassed. During May and June in and , water samples were collected for chemical analysis from of these wells.

Field determinations of alkalinity, conductance, pH, and temperature were made, and individual constituents were analyzed. This report is the fourth in a series of baseline data reports on wells in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Allocentric and contra -aligned spatial representations of a town environment in blind people.

Evidence concerning the representation of space by blind individuals is still unclear, as sometimes blind people behave like sighted people do, while other times they present difficulties. A better understanding of blind people's difficulties, especially with reference to the strategies used to form the representation of the environment, may help to enhance knowledge of the consequences of the absence of vision.

The present study examined the representation of the locations of landmarks of a real town by using pointing tasks that entailed either allocentric points of reference with mental rotations of different degrees, or contra -aligned representations. Results showed that, in general, people met difficulties when they had to point from a different perspective to aligned landmarks or from the original perspective to contra -aligned landmarks, but this difficulty was particularly evident for the blind.

The examination of the strategies adopted to perform the tasks showed that only a small group of blind participants used a survey strategy and that this group had a better performance with respect to people who adopted route or verbal strategies. Implications for the comprehension of the consequences on spatial cognition of the absence of visual experience are discussed, focusing in particular on conceivable interventions.

Air-structure coupling features analysis of mining contra -rotating axial flow fan cascade. The interaction between contra -rotating axial flow fan blade and working gas has been studied by means of establishing air-structure coupling control equation and combining Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD and Computational solid mechanics CSM.

Based on the single flow channel model, the Finite Volume Method was used to make the field discrete. At the same time, the Finite Element Method was used to make the field discrete to solve dynamic response characteristics of blade. Based on weak coupling method, data exchange from the fluid solver and the solid solver was processed on the coupling interface. Then interpolation was used to obtain the coupling characteristics.

The results showed that the blade's maximum amplitude was on the tip of the last-stage blade and aerodynamic force signal could reflect the blade working conditions to some extent. By analyzing the flow regime in contra -rotating axial flow fan, it could be found that the vortex core region was mainly in the blade surface, the hub and the blade clearance.

In those regions, the turbulence intensity was very high. The last-stage blade's operating life is shorter than that of the pre-stage blade due to the fatigue fracture occurs much more easily on the last-stage blade which bears more stress. Effect of time step size and turbulence model on the open water hydrodynamic performance prediction of contra -rotating propellers.

A growing interest has been devoted to the contra -rotating propellers CRPs due to their high propulsive efficiency, torque balance, low fuel consumption, low cavitations, low noise performance and low hull vibration. Compared with the single-screw system, it is more difficult for the open water performance prediction because forward and aft propellers interact with each other and generate a more complicated flow field around the CRPs system. The current work focuses on the open water performance prediction of contra -rotating propellers by RANS and sliding mesh method considering the effect of computational time step size and turbulence model.

An Abstract. This compilation of highly condensed abstracts of the minutes of governing board meetings chronicles the year history of the Contra Costa Community College District CCCCD from to First, introductory material describes the context and the character of the opening years of the district, and lists the previous and current members of…. Renewed interest in contra -rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance.

In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra -rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra -rotating open rotor acoustic data.

The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra -rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds.

The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper. HPT blade unsteadiness in the presence of a downstream vane consistent with contra -rotation is characterized by strong interaction at the first harmonic of downstream vane passing. E An existing stage-and-one-half transonic turbine rig design was used as a baseline to investigate means of reducing such a blade-vane interaction. E Methods assessed included: Aerodynamic shaping of HPT blades 3D stacking of the downstream vane Steady pressure-side blowing E Of the methods assessed, a combination of vane bowing and steady pressure-side blowing produced the most favorable result.

E Transonic turbine experiments are planned to assess predictive accuracy for the baseline turbine and any design improvements. The politics of presidential illness. Ronald Reagan and the Iran- Contra Scandal. This paper assesses the likelihood that the Iran- Contra scandal was shaped heavily by the effects of Ronald Reagan's cancer surgery in summer, During the President's hospitalization and in the period soon after, he took several actions--which he apparently did not remember--that launched a policy that was unwise, counterproductive, and a failure.

These damaged both his Administration and his standing in history. The 25th Amendment afforded Reagan the means by which his involvement in these events could easily have been avoided. However, the President and his aides determined that he would resume the powers and duties of the presidency only hours after undergoing extensive cancer surgery.

This decision contributed materially to the most damaging episode of Reagan's eight-year presidency. The purpose of our analysis is to foster research on the history of medicine and of the sciences. From the description of the editorial aspects of the journal one can have an idea of how the research field was organized between and The periodical also allows for an overview of the exchange occurring between Brazilian and foreign historian physicians at that time.

In subsonic flight it becomes the gas generator driving a high bypass ratio ducted fan through a hub turbine, the exhaust mixing with the duct flow and discharging through the bypass nozzle to produce thrust. In both modes the turbo-compressor is driven by a helium turbine which has contra rotating stages to improve its efficiency at low rotational speed and reduce the number of stages required.

Due to the large speed of sound mismatch between the air compressor and the helium turbine it is possible to eliminate the turbine stators by contra rotating the spools. The compressor is divided into low pressure and high pressure spools although by normal gas turbine standards they are both low pressure ratio machines.

Computational simulations using structured overlapping grids with the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics LAVA solver framework are presented for predicting tonal noise generated by a contra -rotating open rotor CROR propulsion system. A higher-order accurate free-stream preserving metric discretization with discrete enforcement of the Geometric Conservation Law GCL on moving curvilinear grids is used to create an accurate, efficient, and stable numerical scheme. The aeroacoustic analysis is based on a permeable surface Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings FW-H approach, evaluated in the frequency domain.

A time-step sensitivity study was performed using only the forward row of blades to determine an adequate time-step. The numerical approach is validated against existing wind tunnel measurements. PubMed Central. Furthermore, the influence of vascular multiplicity on outcome of donors and recipients was studied. CTA had the highest accuracy levels regarding vascular anatomy assessment.

Regarding outcome of donors with vascular multiplicity, warm ischemia time WIT and skin-to-skin time were significantly longer if arterial multiplicity AM was present 5. Skin-to-skin time was significantly longer, and complication rates were higher in donors with venous multiplicity vs. Outcome of renal transplant recipients showed a significantly increased WIT 30 vs. Conclusions We conclude that vascular multiplicity should not be a contra -indication, since it has little impact on clinical outcome in the donor as well as in renal transplant recipients.

Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore 'extended donor criterion' is still under debate. We conclude that vascular multiplicity should not be a contra -indication, since it has little impact on clinical outcome in the donor as well as in renal transplant recipients.

It was created in , and was initially called Anais de Enfermagem. Its main purpose was to be a communication link among Brazilian professionals of nursing. REBEn, which is directly linked to ABEn Brazilian Association of Nursing , also has as its objective the publicizing of scientific production in different fields of knowledge which can be of interest for the nursing profession.

The journal went through many difficulties before achieving the current status of most important publishing in the field of nursing in Brazil. The periodical was developed along many generations and has now achieved intellectual maturity which guaranteed its inclusion in the international indexation of scientific periodicals. The inquiry of this study is the beliefs related to the nursing professional in the first decades of this activity in Brazil.

The investigation presupposes that some of these beliefs are still current. The objective is to point out the beliefs expressed by Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem Brazilian Journal of Nursing in 33 articles, during the period between when the journal was created and Five notions of the nursing professional were identified through the analyses of the symbology presented on the cover of the periodical--Egyptian mythology; ideal, science and art, inscribed in a triangle.

The categories established for nurses were: self-forgetful, heroine, socially committed, mercenary and bad angel. Finally, the study proposes an interpretation to the ideas presented in the triangle. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato. Ultra-compact, flat-top demultiplexer using anti-reflection contra -directional couplers for CWDM networks on silicon. Wavelength-division-multiplexing WDM networks with wide channel grids and bandwidths are promising for low-cost, low-power optical interconnects.

Wide-bandwidth, single-band i. Using such filter components, we demonstrate a 4-channel, coarse-WDM demultiplexer with flat passbands of up to 13 nm and an ultra-compact size of 1. Applicability of strain measurements on a contra angle handpiece for the determination of alveolar bone quality during dental implant surgery. Alveolar bone quality is considered to be an important prognostic factor in dental implant stability. Although numerous methods have been described, no technique allows for reliable diagnostics.

The purpose of this study was to determine if strain measurements on the shaft of a contra angle handpiece during implant bed preparation could be used for the determination of bone quality. Experiments in polyurethane foam and human cadaver bone were conducted to investigate whether strain measurements could be correlated with other diagnostic parameters, such as the surgeon's tactile sensation during drilling, implant insertion torque, implant stability, elastic modulus of bone and bone quality as assessed radiographically.

Tests were also performed to determine if strain measurements could be used to distinguish various types of bone. As axial feed and contact pressure during the drilling process could not be standardized under simulated clinical conditions, substantial deviations in the time needed to complete the drilling occurred. Under controlled circumstances using polyurethane foam, this problem could be addressed by a normalization procedure, but great variations occurred in human cadaver bone.

As bone quality could not be reliably determined, especially when a cortical layer was present, strain measurements on a contra angle handpiece appears to be inappropriate for this purpose. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Experimental analysis of flow structure in contra -rotating axial flow pump designed with different rotational speed concept.

As a high specific speed pump, the contra -rotating axial flow pump distinguishes itself in a rear rotor rotating in the opposite direction of the front rotor, which remarkably contributes to the energy conversion, the reduction of the pump size, better hydraulic and cavitation performances.

However, with two rotors rotating reversely, the significant interaction between blade rows was observed in our prototype contra -rotating rotors, which highly affected the pump performance compared with the conventional axial flow pumps. Consequently, a new type of rear rotor was designed by the rotational speed optimization methodology with some additional considerations, aiming at better cavitation performance, the reduction of blade rows interaction and the secondary flow suppression.

In the present research, to understand the internal flow field of new rear rotor and its relation to the performances at the partial flow rates, the velocity distributions at the inlets and outlets of the rotors are firstly investigated. Then, the boundary layer flows on rotor surfaces, which clearly reflect the secondary flow inside the rotors, are analyzed through the limiting streamline observations using the multi-color oil-film method.

Finally, the unsteady numerical simulations are carried out to understand the complicated internal flow structures in the rotors. Co- and contra -directional vertical coupling between ferromagnetic layers with grating for short-wavelength spin wave generation. The possibility to generate short spin waves SWs is of great interest in the field of magnonics nowadays. We present an effective and technically affordable way of conversion of long SWs, which may be generated by conventional microwave antenna, to the short, sub-micrometer waves.

It is achieved by grating-assisted resonant dynamic dipolar interaction between two ferromagnetic layers separated by some distance. We analyze criteria for the optimal conversion giving a semi-analytical approach for the coupling coefficient.

We show by the numerical calculations the efficient energy transfer between layers which may be either of co-directional or contra -directional type. Such a system may operate either as a short spin wave generator or a frequency filter, moving forward possible application of magnonics. The first oncology conference organised by ecancer and the Liga Colombiana contra el Cancer took place on 17—18 November in Bogota.

It was a highly successful event owing to the number of participants, the quality of the speakers, and the academic programme. Around 48 professors from 8 different countries came and shared their knowledge and experience of cancer management. They also talked about the most recent developments noted or achieved in this area. Geriatric oncology and palliative care were also topics that sparked great interest during the event.

Simplified two-dimensional blade element analysis is performed on cambered NACA 4-digit airfoil profiles, which are meant to serve as substitutes for the actual rotor blade sectional geometries. Rotor in-flow effects such as induced axial and tangential velocities are incorporated into the noise prediction models based on supporting computational fluid dynamics CFD results and simplified in-flow velocity models. Emphasis is placed on the development of simplified rotor in-flow models for the purpose of performing accurate noise predictions independent of CFD information.

The broadband predictions are found to compare favorably with experimental acoustic results. The first oncology conference organised by e cancer and the Liga Colombiana contra el Cancer took place on November in Bogota. Stapled haemorrhoidopexy: a consensus position paper by an international working party - indications, contra -indications and technique. An international working party with experience in the performance of an alternative haemorrhoid operation through the use of the circular stapler was convened for the purpose of developing a consensus as to the criteria for undertaking this procedure.

The agenda consisted of first, naming the operation; second, the indications and contra -indications for its performance; and third, the preferred surgical technique. Among the recommendations for individuals who plan to embark on this surgery are that experience with anorectal surgery and an understanding of anorectal anatomy are requisites; experience with circular stapling devices is essential; and the surgeon must attend a formal course which should include lectures, videos, the application of the instrument in models, and observation of the operation as performed by a surgeon recognized by his or her peers-leading ultimately to undertaking the procedure while being observed by an experienced surgeon.

Following satisfactory completion of the above, independent responsibility should be determined by an individual's department of surgery. Building Economic Security Today: making the health-wealth connection in Contra Costa county's maternal and child health programs. In recent years, maternal and child health professionals have been seeking approaches to integrating the Life Course Perspective and social determinants of health into their work.

BEST utilizes innovative strategies to reduce inequities in health outcomes for low-income Contra Costa families by improving their financial security and stability. Educational and referral resources were also developed and distributed to all clients. The classes at WIC increased clients' awareness of financial issues and confidence that they could improve their financial situations.

WIC clients and staff also gained knowledge about financial resources in the community. MVIP's financial assessments offered clients a new and needed perspective on their financial situations, as well as support around the financial and psychological stresses of caring for a child with special health care needs. BEST offered FMCH Programs staff opportunities to engage in non-traditional, cross-sector partnerships, and gain new knowledge and skills to address a pressing social determinant of health.

We learned the value of flexible timelines, maintaining a long view for creating change, and challenging the traditional paradigm of maternal and child health. Volume 2: Indictments, plea agreements, interim reports to the congress, and administrative matters. Volume II contains indictments, plea agreements, interim reports to Congress and administrative matters from that investigation.

The study of noise from a two-shaft contra -rotating open rotor CROR is challenging since the shafts are not phase locked in most cases. Consequently, phase averaging of the acoustic data keyed to a single shaft rotation speed is not meaningful. An unaligned spectrum procedure that was developed to estimate a signal coherence threshold and reveal concealed spectral lines in turbofan engine combustion noise is applied to fan and CROR acoustic data in this paper.

Evaluate triptan prescriptions in ambulatory medicine. Collection of medical data from patients treated with triptans reimbursed by the French National Health Fund in the region of Midi-Pyrenees. In a context of sustained increase in prescriptions of migraine treatments, it appears necessary to remain cautious about clinical and pharmacological contra -indications.

Prevention of abuse of medicines is based on a better use of crises agendas and introduction of prophylactic therapies. Se eliminaron los visados de trabajo temporal y se limitaron los visados de residentes a The latter group had a humanistic understanding of medicine, wherein the history of medicine played a central role; since this subject honored great names and achievements in medicine, members of the federation felt it was a prime tool in the ethical and humanistic training of healthcare professionals.

Created in the early s, at a moment when the country's psychiatric field was embracing the preventive outlook, the Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental included within its members the elite of Brazilian psychiatry, along with a number of physicians and intellectuals. The article discusses the institution's proposals for intervention among children.

The league ended up incorporating into its theoretical arsenal the basic themes of mental hygiene and eugenics as part of its general goal of collaborating in Brazil's process of "racial sanitation". With this objective in mind, and viewing the child as a "pre-citizen" who is a "fundamental part within the man of the future", league members included the children's issue in their projects and saw an imperative need for mental health care from early ages on.

Using community participation to assess acceptability of " Contra Caries", a theory-based, promotora-led oral health education program for rural Latino parents: a mixed methods study. Latino children experience more prevalent and severe tooth decay than non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black children. Few theory-based, evaluated and culturally appropriate interventions target parents of this vulnerable population.

To fill this gap, the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program, a theory-based, promotora-led education program for low-income, Spanish-speaking parents of children aged years, was developed. This article describes qualitative findings of the acceptability of curriculum content and activities, presents the process of refinement of the curriculum through engaging the target population and promotoras, and presents results from the evaluation assessing the acceptability of the curriculum once implemented.

Focus groups were conducted with low-income Spanish-speaking parents of children years living in a city in an agricultural area of California. Interviews were digitally recorded, translated and transcribed, checked for accuracy and the resulting data was thematically coded and analyzed using a social constructionist approach.

The Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program was then implemented with a separate but similar sample, and after completing the program, participants were administered surveys asking about acceptability and favorite activities of the education program. Data were entered into a database, checked for accuracy, open-ended questions were categorized, and responses to close-ended questions counted.

This study found that their children's oral health is a high priority. Parents were not only interested in, but actually attended classes focused on increasing their knowledge and skills with respect to early childhood oral health. The Contra Caries content and format was perceived as. Abortion: pro and contra. To kill a new life before it's born, to do an abortion. This is a problem of many generations. In the evolution of human civilization, the attitude concerning abortion was different in different cultures, periods, societies.

The aim of our study is to evaluate the actual opinion and attitude of young persons, students, and residents in medicine in Timisoara city, and the situation of the whole country. We performed a questionnaire for people, between the ages of 19 and 28 with superior studies.

We accepted for recording and analyzing all the the completed questionnaires. The questions referred to the topic of abortion in the antecedents, and asked if they had had one, how it affected the life of the women and her family, the circumstances of acceptance of abortion today, religious aspects and different other aspects.

This report documents the spatial distribution of 3, landslides caused by El Ni? The report also documents historical pre landslides. Landslides were mapped from ,scale aerial photographs and classified as either debris flows or slides.

Slides include rotational and translational slides, earth flows, and complex slope movements. Debris flows and slides from the winter modified 1 percent of the surface of the Debris flows were scattered throughout the area, regardless of the type of underlying bedrock geology.

Slides, however, were concentrated in a soft sandstone, conglomerate, and clayey group of rock units. Digital map files accompany the report. Designing strategies to access stereodefined olefinic organoboron species is an important synthetic challenge. KGaA, Weinheim. Wagner, Daniela M. The aim of this study was to test the established measurement system for the out-of-field measurements of inpatients with breast cancer. A set of five alanine pellets were affixed to the skin of each patient at the contra lateral breast beginning at the sternum and extending over the mammilla to the distal surface.

During 28 fractions with 2. A cone beam computer tomography CBCT scan was generated for setup purposes before every treatment. To take the actual alanine pellet position into account, the dose distribution was calculated for every fraction using the Acuros XB algorithm. The results of the ESR measurements were compared to the calculated doses.

The maximum dose measured at the sternum was No systematic error could be seen. It was possible to achieve a combined standard uncertainty of 1. Volume 3: Comments and materials submitted by individuals and their attorneys responding to volume 1 of the final report. Volume III contains comments and materials submitted by individuals and their attorneys from that investigation. The overarching goal of the Advanced Air Transport AATT Project is to explore and develop technologies and concepts to revolutionize the energy efficiency and environmental compatibility of fixed wing transport aircrafts.

These technological solutions are critical in reducing the impact of aviation on the environment even as this industry and the corresponding global transportation system continue to grow. Comparison of the benefits of cochlear implantation versus contra -lateral routing of signal hearing aids in adult patients with single-sided deafness: study protocol for a prospective within-subject longitudinal trial. Individuals with a unilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss, or single-sided deafness, report difficulty with listening in many everyday situations despite having access to well-preserved acoustic hearing in one ear.

The standard of care for single-sided deafness available on the UK National Health Service is a contra -lateral routing of signals hearing aid which transfers sounds from the impaired ear to the non-impaired ear. This hearing aid has been found to improve speech understanding in noise when the signal-to-noise ratio is more favourable at the impaired ear than the non-impaired ear.

However, the indiscriminate routing of signals to a single ear can have detrimental effects when interfering sounds are located on the side of the impaired ear. Recent published evidence has suggested that cochlear implantation in individuals with a single-sided deafness can restore access to the binaural cues which underpin the ability to localise sounds and segregate speech from other interfering sounds. The current trial was designed to assess the efficacy of cochlear implantation compared to a contra -lateral routing of signals hearing aid in restoring binaural hearing in adults with acquired single-sided deafness.

Patients are assessed at baseline and after receiving a contra -lateral routing of signals hearing aid. A cochlear implant is then provided to those patients who do not receive sufficient benefit from the hearing aid. This within-subject longitudinal design reflects the expected care pathway should cochlear implantation be provided for single-sided deafness on the UK National Health Service.

The primary endpoints are measures of binaural hearing at baseline, after provision of a contra -lateral routing of signals hearing aid, and after cochlear implantation. Binaural hearing is assessed in terms of the accuracy with which sounds are localised and speech is perceived in background noise. The trial is also designed to measure the impact of the interventions on.

Background Individuals with a unilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss, or single-sided deafness, report difficulty with listening in many everyday situations despite having access to well-preserved acoustic hearing in one ear. The trial is also designed to measure the impact of. Effectiveness evaluation of Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program for improving Spanish-speaking parents' preventive oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children.

Mexican American children in the United States suffer disproportionately high prevalence and severity of early childhood caries, yet few evaluated, theory-based behavioral interventions exist for this population. CCOHEP is a theory-based curriculum consisting of four 2-h interactive classes designed for and by Spanish speakers and led by designated community health educators promotoras.

Topics included children's oral hygiene, caries etiology, dental procedures, nutrition, child behavior management, and parent skill-building activities. Survey questions from the Oral Health Basic Research Facts Questionnaire measuring oral health-related behaviors and knowledge were verbally administered before, immediately after, and 3 months after attendance at CCOHEP.

Five questions measured aspects of parental toothbrushing for their children frequency, using fluoridated toothpaste, brushing before bed, not drinking or eating after nighttime brushing, adult assistance , three questions measured other oral health behaviors, and 16 questions measured oral health-related knowledge.

Analyses of within-person changes between pre- and post-tests and again between post-test and 3-month follow-up consisted of McNemar's test for binary outcomes and sign tests for ordinal outcomes. Imbalance p values for baseline covariates in randomized controlled trials: a last resort for the use of p values? A pro and contra debate. Results of randomized controlled trials RCTs are usually accompanied by a table that compares covariates between the study groups at baseline.

Sometimes, the investigators report p values for imbalanced covariates. The aim of this debate is to illustrate the pro and contra of the use of these p values in RCTs. Low p values can be a sign of biased or fraudulent randomization and can be used as a warning sign. They can be considered as a screening tool with low positive-predictive value.

Low p values should prompt us to ask for the reasons and for potential consequences, especially in combination with hints of methodological problems. A fair randomization produces the expectation that the distribution of p values follows a flat distribution. It does not produce an expectation related to a single p value. The distribution of p values in RCTs can be influenced by the correlation among covariates, differential misclassification or differential mismeasurement of baseline covariates.

Given only a small number of reported p values in the reports of RCTs, judging whether the realized p value distribution is, indeed, a flat distribution becomes difficult. Use of a low p value as a warning sign that randomization is potentially biased can be considered a vague heuristic. The authors of this debate are obviously more or less enthusiastic with this heuristic and differ in the consequences they propose.

Recent evidence suggests that nerve growth factor IB Nur77 and nuclear receptor related1 Nurr1 are differentially involved in dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Since memantine has shown clinically relevant efficacy in Parkinson's disease PD and displayed a potent protective effect on dopaminergic neurons in experimental PD models, we asked if it exerts its neuroprotection by regulating Nur77 and Nurr1 signaling. Nurdeficient PC12 cells were used to verify the influences of Nur77 on neurodegeneration and memantine-mediated neuroprotection.

Knockdown of Nur77 enhanced the viability of PC12 cells exposed to 6-OHDA, while memantine-induced neuroprotection was much less in the cells with Nur77 knockdown than in those without it. We conclude that Nur77 plays a crucial role in modulating mitochondrial impairment and contributes to neurodegeneration under the experimental PD condition.

Memantine effectively suppresses such Nurmediated neurodegeneration and promotes survival signaling through post-translational modification of Nurr1. Nur77 and Nurr1 present a contra -directionally coupling interaction in memantine-mediated neuroprotection. Hoeft, Kristin S. CCOHEP is a theory-based curriculum consisting of four 2-hour interactive classes designed for and by Spanish speakers and led by designated community health educators promotoras.

Survey questions from the Oral Health Basic Research Facts Questionnaire measuring oral health related behaviors and knowledge were verbally administered before, immediately after, and 3 months after attendance at CCOHEP. Five questions measured aspects of parental tooth brushing for their children frequency, using fluoridated toothpaste, brushing before bed, not drinking or eating after nighttime brushing, adult assistance , three questions measured other oral health behaviors, and 16 questions measured oral health-related knowledge.

Nietzsche contra "Self-Reformulation". Not only do the writings of Nietzsche--early and late--fail to support the pedagogy of self-reformulation, this doctrine embodies what for him is worst in man and would destroy that which is higher. The pedagogy of self-reformulation is also incoherent. In contrast, Nietzsche offers a fruitful and comprehensive theory of education that, while….

Contra la corriente against the current. She broke ground in directing the first federally funded major clinical study focused on Lesbian sexuality and health. Nietzsche contra Burke: The Melodrama in Dramatism. Examines Kenneth Burke's and Friedrich Nietzsche's similar understanding of the hortatory nature of language-using, weighed against their radically differing conceptions of the negative, which allows a distinction between two genres of dramatism, and illustrates contrasting orientations toward symbolic activity in general.

On the other hand, it has been realized that the functional SPF of sunscreens remains far behind the declared SPF in the practical application and, therefore, the use of higher SPF in sensitive individuals and during strong UV exposure could make sense. Alloplastic transvaginal meshes have become very popular in the surgery of pelvic organ prolapse POP as did alloplastic suburethral slings in female stress incontinence surgery, but without adequate supporting data.

The simplicity of the mesh procedure facilitates its propagation with acceptance of higher revision and complication rates. Since attending physicians do more and more prolapse surgeries without practicing or teaching alternative techniques, expertise in these alternatives, which might be very useful in cases of recurrence, persistence or complications, is permanently lost.

It is doubtful that proper and detailed information about alternatives, risks, and benefits of transvaginal alloplastic meshes is provided to every single prolapse patient according to the recommendations of the German POP guidelines, since the number of implanted meshes exceeds the number of properly indicated mesh candidates by far.

Although there is no dissent internationally about the available mesh data, thousands of lawsuits in the USA, insolvency of companies due to claims for compensation and unambiguous warnings from foreign urological societies leave German urogynecologists still unimpressed. The existing literature in pelvic organ prolapse exclusively focusses on POP stage and improvement of that stage with surgical therapy.

Instead, typical prolapse symptoms should trigger therapy and improvement of these symptoms should be the utmost treatment goal. It is strongly recommended for liability reasons to obtain specific written informed consent. Human phenotype is governed by its genotype--a set of genetic information materialized in DNA. Using traditional terminology we speak about a little more than 20 thousands genes that differ in strength to become realized and their effect is modified by a large number of other genes.

The result originates from firmly established programmes we obtained from our ancestors. Development and activity of such molecules selected for maintenance, copying and transfer of information i. Nevertheless the final result is achieved not only by confrontation of the original information with other genetic information but largely also by external influences--environment.

Though we are relatively successful in understanding what we have inherited from our parents, our knowledge of environmental factors and their effects on formation of the phenotype is still limited. From this point of view medical prediction has always to be very cautious and interpretations at the probability level must be done by a very experienced and responsible professional.

Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil. Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country's public health.

The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country. Low completion rate of hepatitis B vaccination in female sex workers.

Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to identify potential predictors for noncompletion of the vaccination schedule. Working at clubs and consuming illicit drugs were predictors for noncompletion of the vaccination schedule. In many instances antiepileptic drug AED treatment of epilepsy patients is sustained for a long time and is even a lifelong therapy. Chronic drug treatment naturally means the potential burden of adverse effects.

The prognosis to remain seizure-free is good after a first seizure even without AEDs. Therefore one has to consider the possibility that freedom from seizures when AED treatment has been initiated after the first seizure may not in fact be the result of the AED treatment. On the other hand seizure-free patients without severe side effects most probably will not consider discontinuing AEDs.

Therefore in these cases it will not be possible to discover whether AEDs are really necessary to maintain freedom from seizures. Furthermore it has been shown that the long-term prognosis is independent of whether AED treatment started after the first or a following seizure. Therefore in most instances AED treatment after a first seizure should be avoided. Einstein contra Aristotle: The sound from the heavens.

In "On the Heavens" Aristotle criticizes the Pythagorean point of view which claims the existence of a cosmic music and a cosmic sound. According to the Pythagorean argument, there exists a cosmic music produced by stars and planets. These celestial bodies generate sound in its movements, and the music appears due to the cosmic harmony. For Aristotle, there is no sound produced by celestial bodies. Then, there is no music as well. In some sense, a sound originated from black holes has been heard.

This paper examines the affective disorders plaguing many young people and the problem of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in particular. It aims to define the limits of the critique of British educationalist Sir Ken Robinson in terms of his philosophy of "creativity" through a consideration of the ideas of French philosopher….

Noncognitivism, the belief that normative statements unlike empirical statements do not convey objective knowledge is contrasted to Karl Popper's "critical dualism," which maintains that science is imbued with values and value judgments. Noncognitivism impedes the development of a social scientific method which would integrate…. Drug provocation test DPT is the controlled administration of a drug to diagnose immune- or non-immune-mediated drug hypersensitivity and the last step for accurate recognition of drug hypersensitivity reactions when the previous diagnostic evaluations are negative or unavailable.

A DPT is performed only if other conventional tests fail to yield conclusive results. Well-defined benefits of DPT include confirmative exclusion of diagnoses of drug hypersensitivity and provision of safe alternatives. However, disadvantages such as safety, difficulty in interpretations of results, lack of objective biomarkers, risks of resensitization, efficiency in daily practice, and lack of standardized protocols, are poorly debated.

This review summarizes the current published research concerning DPT, with particular emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of DPT in an evidence-based manner. The German National Institute for Quality in Healthcare has also developed a program of external quality assessment in the field of cardiology. Hospitals are committed to collect certain data of diagnostic coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary interventions and pacemaker implantations.

If statistical abnormalities are observed a so called structured dialogue is implemented. The responsible physicians of the hospitals are asked to comment possible quality deficits. Appointed members of quality commissions examine the answers and can invite the responsible physicians for interviews or also visit the hospital. However the validity of the quality data is problematic, because audits or check-ups of quality assessment in place are lacking.

Therefore the results should not be misused for a comparison or ranking of hospitals with each other. As long as the validity of the quality assessment has not been improved, the results should also not be accessible for other parties, such as health insurances. As strategy for postoperative pain therapy, epidural analgesia EDA is superior to systemic opiate analgesia after abdominal and thoracic surgery. In addition, EDA may significantly reduce the incidence of complications in some large operations, such as, e.

Intestinal motility can also be improved. However, these positive effects do not appear in all interventions and not to the same degree. Therefore, for benefit-risk assessment, it is important to know both the operation-specific benefits and disadvantages of EDA. In the meantime, the distinctly different complication rates of epidural bleeding and abscesses after EDA are also known for different surgical interventions. In large open abdominal interventions, open thorax operations, and especially open abdominal aortic surgeries, EDA reduces pain and complications.

It should be noted that the positive effects of EDA have so far hardly been directly compared with those of intraoperative lidocaine administration. This article is the result of a research on basic training in Astronomy in physics degrees that performed the ENADE national examination. The objective was to identify whether there are disciplines of Astronomy in these courses, whether are mandatory or optional, its workload and when it is offered.

The relationship between astronomers, physics degrees and disciplines of Astronomy was investigated. We have verified that the presence of astronomers in a given university does not imply to have a mandatory discipline of Astronomy in physics degrees at the same university. This essay proposes a reflection on different perspectives for analyzing the Brazilian Journal of Nursing.

The journal, which is considered an instrument for the diffusion of knowledge and ideology of the nursing field, has been the object of few studies. In this essay, the authors adopt as theoretical reference the signification triangle of Pierre Levy and aspects of the feminist theory. The authors believe the journal should be analyzed as an object that produces, in its relation with nursing professionals, elements that constitute a culture, knowledge and symbology of the Brazilian nursing.

In middle-income countries, access to biological therapy is limited in ulcerative colitis in terms of the number of patients and the length of therapy. Because of their cost advantages, biosimilars have the potential to improve access to therapy, but physicians have concerns toward their use because of the lack of evidence from randomized clinical trials.

To explore the preferences of gastroenterologists for biosimilar drugs in ulcerative colitis as well as to compare our results with results of previous studies on gastroenterologists' preferences toward biosimilars. A conditional logit model was used to estimate the probabilities of choosing a given profile.

According to the results, the stopping rule was the most important attribute. The type of treatment mattered only for patients already on biologicals.

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The aeroacoustic analysis is based on a permeable surface Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings FW-H approach, evaluated in the frequency domain. A time-step sensitivity study was performed using only the forward row of blades to determine an adequate time-step. The numerical approach is validated against existing wind tunnel measurements.

PubMed Central. Furthermore, the influence of vascular multiplicity on outcome of donors and recipients was studied. CTA had the highest accuracy levels regarding vascular anatomy assessment. Regarding outcome of donors with vascular multiplicity, warm ischemia time WIT and skin-to-skin time were significantly longer if arterial multiplicity AM was present 5.

Skin-to-skin time was significantly longer, and complication rates were higher in donors with venous multiplicity vs. Outcome of renal transplant recipients showed a significantly increased WIT 30 vs. Conclusions We conclude that vascular multiplicity should not be a contra -indication, since it has little impact on clinical outcome in the donor as well as in renal transplant recipients.

Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore 'extended donor criterion' is still under debate. We conclude that vascular multiplicity should not be a contra -indication, since it has little impact on clinical outcome in the donor as well as in renal transplant recipients. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato. Ultra-compact, flat-top demultiplexer using anti-reflection contra -directional couplers for CWDM networks on silicon.

Wavelength-division-multiplexing WDM networks with wide channel grids and bandwidths are promising for low-cost, low-power optical interconnects. Wide-bandwidth, single-band i. Using such filter components, we demonstrate a 4-channel, coarse-WDM demultiplexer with flat passbands of up to 13 nm and an ultra-compact size of 1. Fundamental parameters of BE UMa revised. Shimanskii, V. We have determined a complete set of parameters for the young pre-cataclysmic variable BE UMa from a comprehensive photometric and spectroscopic analysis using model atmospheres.

Our precise photometry and spectroscopy were acquired with the 6-m telescope and Zeiss telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory and the 1. We performed a detailed identification of emission lines of ten elements. We have studied the radial-velocity curves of the cool star using lines of various elements.

All the curves exhibit the previously predicted distortions due to reflection effects in the close binary. We analyzed the light curves using model atmospheres for irradiated stars; all the parameters of BE UMa were refined. The abundances of helium and several light elements C, N, O, Ne, Mg in the atmosphere of the cool star are probably higher than the solar values. We conclude that the physical characteristics of the primary are in good agreement with evolutionary tracks for planetary-nebula nuclei, and that the secondary is overluminous by a factor of 30 compared to main-sequence stars of the same mass.

Applicability of strain measurements on a contra angle handpiece for the determination of alveolar bone quality during dental implant surgery. Alveolar bone quality is considered to be an important prognostic factor in dental implant stability. Although numerous methods have been described, no technique allows for reliable diagnostics. The purpose of this study was to determine if strain measurements on the shaft of a contra angle handpiece during implant bed preparation could be used for the determination of bone quality.

Experiments in polyurethane foam and human cadaver bone were conducted to investigate whether strain measurements could be correlated with other diagnostic parameters, such as the surgeon's tactile sensation during drilling, implant insertion torque, implant stability, elastic modulus of bone and bone quality as assessed radiographically. Tests were also performed to determine if strain measurements could be used to distinguish various types of bone.

As axial feed and contact pressure during the drilling process could not be standardized under simulated clinical conditions, substantial deviations in the time needed to complete the drilling occurred. Under controlled circumstances using polyurethane foam, this problem could be addressed by a normalization procedure, but great variations occurred in human cadaver bone.

As bone quality could not be reliably determined, especially when a cortical layer was present, strain measurements on a contra angle handpiece appears to be inappropriate for this purpose. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Experimental analysis of flow structure in contra -rotating axial flow pump designed with different rotational speed concept. As a high specific speed pump, the contra -rotating axial flow pump distinguishes itself in a rear rotor rotating in the opposite direction of the front rotor, which remarkably contributes to the energy conversion, the reduction of the pump size, better hydraulic and cavitation performances.

However, with two rotors rotating reversely, the significant interaction between blade rows was observed in our prototype contra -rotating rotors, which highly affected the pump performance compared with the conventional axial flow pumps. Consequently, a new type of rear rotor was designed by the rotational speed optimization methodology with some additional considerations, aiming at better cavitation performance, the reduction of blade rows interaction and the secondary flow suppression.

In the present research, to understand the internal flow field of new rear rotor and its relation to the performances at the partial flow rates, the velocity distributions at the inlets and outlets of the rotors are firstly investigated. Then, the boundary layer flows on rotor surfaces, which clearly reflect the secondary flow inside the rotors, are analyzed through the limiting streamline observations using the multi-color oil-film method. Finally, the unsteady numerical simulations are carried out to understand the complicated internal flow structures in the rotors.

Co- and contra -directional vertical coupling between ferromagnetic layers with grating for short-wavelength spin wave generation. The possibility to generate short spin waves SWs is of great interest in the field of magnonics nowadays. We present an effective and technically affordable way of conversion of long SWs, which may be generated by conventional microwave antenna, to the short, sub-micrometer waves.

It is achieved by grating-assisted resonant dynamic dipolar interaction between two ferromagnetic layers separated by some distance. We analyze criteria for the optimal conversion giving a semi-analytical approach for the coupling coefficient. We show by the numerical calculations the efficient energy transfer between layers which may be either of co-directional or contra -directional type.

Such a system may operate either as a short spin wave generator or a frequency filter, moving forward possible application of magnonics. The first oncology conference organised by ecancer and the Liga Colombiana contra el Cancer took place on 17—18 November in Bogota. It was a highly successful event owing to the number of participants, the quality of the speakers, and the academic programme. Around 48 professors from 8 different countries came and shared their knowledge and experience of cancer management.

They also talked about the most recent developments noted or achieved in this area. Geriatric oncology and palliative care were also topics that sparked great interest during the event. Simplified two-dimensional blade element analysis is performed on cambered NACA 4-digit airfoil profiles, which are meant to serve as substitutes for the actual rotor blade sectional geometries.

Rotor in-flow effects such as induced axial and tangential velocities are incorporated into the noise prediction models based on supporting computational fluid dynamics CFD results and simplified in-flow velocity models. Emphasis is placed on the development of simplified rotor in-flow models for the purpose of performing accurate noise predictions independent of CFD information. The broadband predictions are found to compare favorably with experimental acoustic results.

The first oncology conference organised by e cancer and the Liga Colombiana contra el Cancer took place on November in Bogota. Stapled haemorrhoidopexy: a consensus position paper by an international working party - indications, contra -indications and technique. An international working party with experience in the performance of an alternative haemorrhoid operation through the use of the circular stapler was convened for the purpose of developing a consensus as to the criteria for undertaking this procedure.

The agenda consisted of first, naming the operation; second, the indications and contra -indications for its performance; and third, the preferred surgical technique. Among the recommendations for individuals who plan to embark on this surgery are that experience with anorectal surgery and an understanding of anorectal anatomy are requisites; experience with circular stapling devices is essential; and the surgeon must attend a formal course which should include lectures, videos, the application of the instrument in models, and observation of the operation as performed by a surgeon recognized by his or her peers-leading ultimately to undertaking the procedure while being observed by an experienced surgeon.

Following satisfactory completion of the above, independent responsibility should be determined by an individual's department of surgery. Building Economic Security Today: making the health-wealth connection in Contra Costa county's maternal and child health programs. In recent years, maternal and child health professionals have been seeking approaches to integrating the Life Course Perspective and social determinants of health into their work.

BEST utilizes innovative strategies to reduce inequities in health outcomes for low-income Contra Costa families by improving their financial security and stability. Educational and referral resources were also developed and distributed to all clients. The classes at WIC increased clients' awareness of financial issues and confidence that they could improve their financial situations.

WIC clients and staff also gained knowledge about financial resources in the community. MVIP's financial assessments offered clients a new and needed perspective on their financial situations, as well as support around the financial and psychological stresses of caring for a child with special health care needs. BEST offered FMCH Programs staff opportunities to engage in non-traditional, cross-sector partnerships, and gain new knowledge and skills to address a pressing social determinant of health.

We learned the value of flexible timelines, maintaining a long view for creating change, and challenging the traditional paradigm of maternal and child health. Volume 2: Indictments, plea agreements, interim reports to the congress, and administrative matters. Volume II contains indictments, plea agreements, interim reports to Congress and administrative matters from that investigation.

The study of noise from a two-shaft contra -rotating open rotor CROR is challenging since the shafts are not phase locked in most cases. Consequently, phase averaging of the acoustic data keyed to a single shaft rotation speed is not meaningful. An unaligned spectrum procedure that was developed to estimate a signal coherence threshold and reveal concealed spectral lines in turbofan engine combustion noise is applied to fan and CROR acoustic data in this paper.

Evaluate triptan prescriptions in ambulatory medicine. Collection of medical data from patients treated with triptans reimbursed by the French National Health Fund in the region of Midi-Pyrenees. In a context of sustained increase in prescriptions of migraine treatments, it appears necessary to remain cautious about clinical and pharmacological contra -indications. Prevention of abuse of medicines is based on a better use of crises agendas and introduction of prophylactic therapies.

Se eliminaron los visados de trabajo temporal y se limitaron los visados de residentes a Using community participation to assess acceptability of " Contra Caries", a theory-based, promotora-led oral health education program for rural Latino parents: a mixed methods study. Latino children experience more prevalent and severe tooth decay than non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black children. Few theory-based, evaluated and culturally appropriate interventions target parents of this vulnerable population.

To fill this gap, the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program, a theory-based, promotora-led education program for low-income, Spanish-speaking parents of children aged years, was developed. This article describes qualitative findings of the acceptability of curriculum content and activities, presents the process of refinement of the curriculum through engaging the target population and promotoras, and presents results from the evaluation assessing the acceptability of the curriculum once implemented.

Focus groups were conducted with low-income Spanish-speaking parents of children years living in a city in an agricultural area of California. Interviews were digitally recorded, translated and transcribed, checked for accuracy and the resulting data was thematically coded and analyzed using a social constructionist approach. The Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program was then implemented with a separate but similar sample, and after completing the program, participants were administered surveys asking about acceptability and favorite activities of the education program.

Data were entered into a database, checked for accuracy, open-ended questions were categorized, and responses to close-ended questions counted. This study found that their children's oral health is a high priority. Parents were not only interested in, but actually attended classes focused on increasing their knowledge and skills with respect to early childhood oral health.

The Contra Caries content and format was perceived as. Abortion: pro and contra. To kill a new life before it's born, to do an abortion. This is a problem of many generations. In the evolution of human civilization, the attitude concerning abortion was different in different cultures, periods, societies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the actual opinion and attitude of young persons, students, and residents in medicine in Timisoara city, and the situation of the whole country.

We performed a questionnaire for people, between the ages of 19 and 28 with superior studies. We accepted for recording and analyzing all the the completed questionnaires. The questions referred to the topic of abortion in the antecedents, and asked if they had had one, how it affected the life of the women and her family, the circumstances of acceptance of abortion today, religious aspects and different other aspects.

Virnina, Natalia A. We present the results of analysing of the light curve and O-C variations in the eclipsing system BM UMa , based on V-band observations which cover the period from JD to using two robotic remotely-controlled telescopes of Tzec Maun Observatory USA along with observations made with the RK telescope of Odessa Astronomical Observatory.

The full light curve displays a total primary eclipse with a duration 0. The depths of primary and secondary minima are nearly equal, 0. The physical parameters of the system were calculated using the Wilson-Devinney code, appended with the Monte Carlo search algorithm.

The result establishes BM UMa as a contact system fillout factor The more massive component is larger and cooler. The 72 archival and 11 newly-obtained times of light minimum cover the interval and allowed us to exclude possible systematic period variations in BM UMa and to determine an initial epoch of HJD This report documents the spatial distribution of 3, landslides caused by El Ni?

The report also documents historical pre landslides. Landslides were mapped from ,scale aerial photographs and classified as either debris flows or slides. Slides include rotational and translational slides, earth flows, and complex slope movements. Debris flows and slides from the winter modified 1 percent of the surface of the Debris flows were scattered throughout the area, regardless of the type of underlying bedrock geology. Slides, however, were concentrated in a soft sandstone, conglomerate, and clayey group of rock units.

Digital map files accompany the report. Designing strategies to access stereodefined olefinic organoboron species is an important synthetic challenge. KGaA, Weinheim. Wagner, Daniela M. The aim of this study was to test the established measurement system for the out-of-field measurements of inpatients with breast cancer. A set of five alanine pellets were affixed to the skin of each patient at the contra lateral breast beginning at the sternum and extending over the mammilla to the distal surface.

During 28 fractions with 2. A cone beam computer tomography CBCT scan was generated for setup purposes before every treatment. To take the actual alanine pellet position into account, the dose distribution was calculated for every fraction using the Acuros XB algorithm.

The results of the ESR measurements were compared to the calculated doses. The maximum dose measured at the sternum was No systematic error could be seen. It was possible to achieve a combined standard uncertainty of 1. Recent developments on SU UMa stars - theory vs. Kepler light curves of short period dwarf novae have resparked interest in the nature of superoutbursts and led to the question: Is the thermal-tidal instability needed, or can the plain vanilla version of the accretion disk limit cycle do the job all by itself?

A detailed time-resolved study of an eclipsing SU UMa system during superoutburst onset should settle the question - if there is a dramatic contraction of the disk at superoutburst onset, Osaki's thermal-tidal model would be preferred; if not, the plain disk instability model would be sufficient.

Finally, it may be necessaryto look beyond the short period dwarf novae to gain perspective on the nature of embedded precursors in long outbursts. We report results of an extensive worldwide observing campaign devoted to a very active dwarf nova star - IX Draconis. We investigated photometric behaviour of the system to derive its basic outburst properties and understand peculiarities of IX Draconis as well as other active cataclysmic variables, in particular dwarf novae of the ER UMa type.

In order to measure fundamental parameters of the system, we carried out analyses of the light curve, O - C diagram, and power spectra. During over two months of observations, we detected two superoutbursts and several normal outbursts.

The V magnitude of the star varied in the range Superoutbursts occur regularly with the supercycle length Psc of Normal outbursts appear to be irregular, with typical occurrence times in the range 3. We detected a double-peaked structure of superhumps during superoutburst, with the secondary maximum becoming dominant near the end of the superoutburst.

Based on the power spectrum analysis, the evaluation of the orbital period was problematic. We found two possible values: the first one, 0. The evolutionary status of the object depends dramatically on the choice between these two values. A spectroscopic determination of the orbital period is needed.

We updated available information on ER UMa -type stars and present a new set of their basic statistics. Thereby, we provide evidence that this class of stars is not uniform. Volume 3: Comments and materials submitted by individuals and their attorneys responding to volume 1 of the final report. Volume III contains comments and materials submitted by individuals and their attorneys from that investigation. The overarching goal of the Advanced Air Transport AATT Project is to explore and develop technologies and concepts to revolutionize the energy efficiency and environmental compatibility of fixed wing transport aircrafts.

These technological solutions are critical in reducing the impact of aviation on the environment even as this industry and the corresponding global transportation system continue to grow. Comparison of the benefits of cochlear implantation versus contra -lateral routing of signal hearing aids in adult patients with single-sided deafness: study protocol for a prospective within-subject longitudinal trial.

Individuals with a unilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss, or single-sided deafness, report difficulty with listening in many everyday situations despite having access to well-preserved acoustic hearing in one ear. The standard of care for single-sided deafness available on the UK National Health Service is a contra -lateral routing of signals hearing aid which transfers sounds from the impaired ear to the non-impaired ear. This hearing aid has been found to improve speech understanding in noise when the signal-to-noise ratio is more favourable at the impaired ear than the non-impaired ear.

However, the indiscriminate routing of signals to a single ear can have detrimental effects when interfering sounds are located on the side of the impaired ear. Recent published evidence has suggested that cochlear implantation in individuals with a single-sided deafness can restore access to the binaural cues which underpin the ability to localise sounds and segregate speech from other interfering sounds.

The current trial was designed to assess the efficacy of cochlear implantation compared to a contra -lateral routing of signals hearing aid in restoring binaural hearing in adults with acquired single-sided deafness. Patients are assessed at baseline and after receiving a contra -lateral routing of signals hearing aid. A cochlear implant is then provided to those patients who do not receive sufficient benefit from the hearing aid.

This within-subject longitudinal design reflects the expected care pathway should cochlear implantation be provided for single-sided deafness on the UK National Health Service. The primary endpoints are measures of binaural hearing at baseline, after provision of a contra -lateral routing of signals hearing aid, and after cochlear implantation. Binaural hearing is assessed in terms of the accuracy with which sounds are localised and speech is perceived in background noise.

The trial is also designed to measure the impact of the interventions on. Background Individuals with a unilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss, or single-sided deafness, report difficulty with listening in many everyday situations despite having access to well-preserved acoustic hearing in one ear.

The trial is also designed to measure the impact of. Sequential ultrasound-microwave assisted acid extraction UMAE of pectin from pomelo peels. This study aims to optimize sequential ultrasound-microwave assisted extraction UMAE on pomelo peel using citric acid. The effects of pH, sonication time, microwave power and irradiation time on the yield and the degree of esterification DE of pectin were investigated.

Under optimized conditions of pH 1. The pectin's galacturonic acid content obtained from combined extraction technique is higher than that obtained from sole extraction technique and the pectin gel produced from various techniques exhibited a pseudoplastic behaviour. This has substantiated the highest pectin yield of Effectiveness evaluation of Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program for improving Spanish-speaking parents' preventive oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children.

Mexican American children in the United States suffer disproportionately high prevalence and severity of early childhood caries, yet few evaluated, theory-based behavioral interventions exist for this population. CCOHEP is a theory-based curriculum consisting of four 2-h interactive classes designed for and by Spanish speakers and led by designated community health educators promotoras.

Topics included children's oral hygiene, caries etiology, dental procedures, nutrition, child behavior management, and parent skill-building activities. Survey questions from the Oral Health Basic Research Facts Questionnaire measuring oral health-related behaviors and knowledge were verbally administered before, immediately after, and 3 months after attendance at CCOHEP.

Five questions measured aspects of parental toothbrushing for their children frequency, using fluoridated toothpaste, brushing before bed, not drinking or eating after nighttime brushing, adult assistance , three questions measured other oral health behaviors, and 16 questions measured oral health-related knowledge.

Analyses of within-person changes between pre- and post-tests and again between post-test and 3-month follow-up consisted of McNemar's test for binary outcomes and sign tests for ordinal outcomes. Imbalance p values for baseline covariates in randomized controlled trials: a last resort for the use of p values? A pro and contra debate.

Results of randomized controlled trials RCTs are usually accompanied by a table that compares covariates between the study groups at baseline. Sometimes, the investigators report p values for imbalanced covariates. The aim of this debate is to illustrate the pro and contra of the use of these p values in RCTs. Low p values can be a sign of biased or fraudulent randomization and can be used as a warning sign.

They can be considered as a screening tool with low positive-predictive value. Low p values should prompt us to ask for the reasons and for potential consequences, especially in combination with hints of methodological problems. A fair randomization produces the expectation that the distribution of p values follows a flat distribution.

It does not produce an expectation related to a single p value. The distribution of p values in RCTs can be influenced by the correlation among covariates, differential misclassification or differential mismeasurement of baseline covariates. Given only a small number of reported p values in the reports of RCTs, judging whether the realized p value distribution is, indeed, a flat distribution becomes difficult.

Use of a low p value as a warning sign that randomization is potentially biased can be considered a vague heuristic. The authors of this debate are obviously more or less enthusiastic with this heuristic and differ in the consequences they propose. Recent evidence suggests that nerve growth factor IB Nur77 and nuclear receptor related1 Nurr1 are differentially involved in dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

Since memantine has shown clinically relevant efficacy in Parkinson's disease PD and displayed a potent protective effect on dopaminergic neurons in experimental PD models, we asked if it exerts its neuroprotection by regulating Nur77 and Nurr1 signaling.

Nurdeficient PC12 cells were used to verify the influences of Nur77 on neurodegeneration and memantine-mediated neuroprotection. Knockdown of Nur77 enhanced the viability of PC12 cells exposed to 6-OHDA, while memantine-induced neuroprotection was much less in the cells with Nur77 knockdown than in those without it.

We conclude that Nur77 plays a crucial role in modulating mitochondrial impairment and contributes to neurodegeneration under the experimental PD condition. Memantine effectively suppresses such Nurmediated neurodegeneration and promotes survival signaling through post-translational modification of Nurr1. Nur77 and Nurr1 present a contra -directionally coupling interaction in memantine-mediated neuroprotection.

Hoeft, Kristin S. CCOHEP is a theory-based curriculum consisting of four 2-hour interactive classes designed for and by Spanish speakers and led by designated community health educators promotoras. Survey questions from the Oral Health Basic Research Facts Questionnaire measuring oral health related behaviors and knowledge were verbally administered before, immediately after, and 3 months after attendance at CCOHEP. Five questions measured aspects of parental tooth brushing for their children frequency, using fluoridated toothpaste, brushing before bed, not drinking or eating after nighttime brushing, adult assistance , three questions measured other oral health behaviors, and 16 questions measured oral health-related knowledge.

This was a project to study the disk and wind of the eclipsing nova-like variable UX UMa , in order to better define the wind geometry of the system, including the nature of the transition region between the disk photosphere and the supersonic wind. We proposed to use phase resolved spectroscopy of the system, taking advantage of the fact that UX UMa is an eclipsing system, to isolate different regions of the wind and to use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to simulate the spectra through the eclipse.

Nietzsche contra "Self-Reformulation". Not only do the writings of Nietzsche--early and late--fail to support the pedagogy of self-reformulation, this doctrine embodies what for him is worst in man and would destroy that which is higher.

The pedagogy of self-reformulation is also incoherent. In contrast, Nietzsche offers a fruitful and comprehensive theory of education that, while…. We present the results of our investigation of the geometrical and physical parameters of the binary system LX Leo. According to our solution, the system is a high mass-ratio, totally eclipsing, W-type W UMa system. In addition, the evolutionary condition of the system is discussed. We present observational evidence that supercycle lengths of the most active SU UMa -type stars are increasing during the past decades.

We analyzed a large number of photometric measurements from available archives and found that this effect is generic for this class of stars, independently of their evolutionary status. This finding is in agreement with previous predictions and the most recent work of Patterson et al. This new vent is one of two ongoing eruptions on the volcano. Chromospheric activity on late-type star DM UMa using high-resolution spectroscopic observations. We analysed these chromospheric active indicators by employing the spectral subtraction technique.

These phenomena might be explained by flare events or rotational modulations of the level of chromospheric activity. Tutchton, Roxanne M. Sonification is the conversion of quantitative data into sound. In this work we explain the methods used in the sonification of light curves provided by the Kepler instrument from Q2 through Q6 for the cataclysmic variable systems V Lyr and V Cyg.

Both systems are SU UMa stars showing dwarf nova outbursts and superoutbursts as well as positive and negative superhumps. Focused sonifications were done from average pulse shapes of each superhump, and separate sonifications of the full, residual light curves were done for both stars.

The audio of these data reflected distinct patterns within the evolutions of supercycles and superhumps that matched pervious observations and proved to be effective aids in data analysis. Observations and light curve solutions of a selection of shallow-contact W UMa binaries.

The light curve solutions revealed that these binaries have overcontact configurations with small fillout factors within 0. Seven of them undergo total eclipses and their photometric mass ratios should be accepted with confidence. The temperature differences of the components of CSS J Observations and light curve solutions of three ultrashort-period W UMa binaries. The results from the modeling and analysis of our observations reveal that: i All targets undergo total eclipses and their photometric mass ratios should be accepted with confidence; ii All stellar components are late-type dwarfs; iii The temperature difference of target components does not exceed K; iv All targets have overcontact configurations with fill-out factor around 0.

Masses, radii and luminosities of the stellar components were estimated by the empirical relation "period, orbital axis" for short- and ultrashort-period binaries. Buckets of ash track tephra flux from Halema' uma 'u Crater, Hawai'i. Less appreciated is the ongoing, weak, but continuous output of tephra, primarily ash, from the new open vent in Halema' uma 'u Crater. This tephra holds clues to processes causing the eruption and forming the new crater-in-a-crater, and its flux is important to hazard evaluations.

The setting of the vent—easily accessible from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory HVO —is unusually favorable for neardaily tracking of tephra mass flux during this small prolonged basaltic eruption. Recognizing this, scientists from HVO are collecting ash and documenting how ejection masses, components, and chemical compositions vary through time.

The observations occurred during a super-high state never before observed in HU Aqr. The near-infrared observations show a corresponding flux increase of times over previous J and K observations. However, the near-infrared eclipse minimum during this super-high state are the same as seen in previous observations, indicating that the eclipse in the near-infrared is total.

We present a detailed comparison of the EUV and near-infrared emission of HU Aqr as a function of orbital phase and discuss the geometry and physical properties of the high energy and infrared emitting regions. We present EUV phase-resolved photometry and spectroscopy and show that the He emission line is not produced on the heated face of the secondary star, but emanates from the inner illuminated regions of the coupling region and accretion stream.

We comment on the overall structure of the accretion geometry as well. We explore a range in possible input parameters and model assumptions to delineate under what conditions each model may be preferred. II The Second Year Continued from Kato et al. The newly obtained data confirmed the basic findings reported in Kato et al.

There was a systematic difference in the period derivatives for the systems with superhump periods longer than 0. We suggest that this difference was possibly caused by a relative lack of frequently outbursting SU UMa -type dwarf novae in this period regime in the present study. We recorded a strong beat phenomenon during the superoutburst of IY UMa.

A close correlation between the beat period and the superhump period suggests that the changing angular velocity of the apsidal motion of the elliptical disk is responsible for the variation of the superhump periods. We also described three new WZ Sge-type objects with established early superhumps and one with likely early superhumps. We also present a formulation for a variety of Bayesian extensions to traditional period analyses. We compare the masses of the NO UMa binary components to those predicted by five sets of stellar evolution models at the age of the Ursa Major group.

We find excellent agreement between our measured masses and model predictions with little systematic scatter between the models. NO UMa joins the short list of nearby, bright, late-type binaries having known ages and fully characterized orbits. A new mechanism of long-term period variations for W UMa -type contact binaries. W UMa -type contact binaries belong to close binary systems whose components exactly overflow their Roche lobes and share a common convective envelope CCE.

In the last twenty years, the long-term variations of their orbital periods have been thought to depend on several mechanisms. Now, we suggest a new mechanism: CCE-dominated mechanism. The CCE-dominated mechanism is found based on our numerical result, especially at high mass ratios, that the orbital periods P of contact binaries change very much with their fill-out factors f.

Because f is taken as a measurement of the thickness of CCE, the physical cause for the variation of P is a mass transfer between CCE and components. Further, an f-dominated simplification model for this mechanism is introduced.

According to it, P may change in a long-term oscillation way with a similar time scale of the thermal modulation, meanwhile q is decreasing slowly till the two components merge. It could be also applied to explain the presence of extremely short period, high mass ratio and deep contact binaries. Therefor, the effect of CCE on the variations of orbital periods may have been underestimated before. Observations and light curve solutions of a selection of middle-contact W UMa binaries.

The light curve solutions revealed that the components of each target are of G and K spectral types. The binaries of the sample have middle-contact configurations whose fillout factors are within the range 0. The only exception is NSVS which is in deeper contact fillout factor of 0.

It precisely obeys the relation between mass ratio and fillout factor for deep, low mass ratio overcontact binaries. One of the eclipses of almost all targets except MM Peg is an occultation and their photometric mass ratios and solutions could be accepted with confidence.

We found that the target components have almost equal temperatures but differ considerably in size and mass. The components of the partially-eclipsed MM Peg have close parameters. This subclassification is well-determined for all totally-eclipsed binaries. The targets confirm the trends in which W-subtype systems have smaller periods and lower temperatures than A subtype binaries. The light curves of Broglia , Contr. It is found that the light curve of the binary star has changed from W-subtype to A-subtype according to Binnendijk's classification.

This variation may be caused by the activity of dark spot on the primary component. Combining four newly determined times of the light minimum with others published in the literature, the orbital period change of the system was investigated.

The period oscillation can be explained either by the light-time effect via the presence of an unseen third body or by magnetic-activity cycles of the components. This indicates that it is on the TRO-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. The asymmetry of the light curves requires a large, single star spot on the smaller, less massive secondary component. The modeled spot varied little during the year range of photometric observations.

Among the 16 shallow-contact systems with a decreasing orbital period, MR Com has the lowest mass ratio e. The shallow-contact configuration, the low-mass ratio, and the long-term period decrease all suggest that systems similar to MR Com are on the AML-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. They will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and evolve into a deep contact with a higher mass ratio.

The small-amplitude cyclic change in the O - C curve was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion. The variations of the orbital period were analyzed based on 12 new determined times of light minimum together with the others compiled from the literature. Photometric solutions determined with the Wilson-Devinney method suggest that BI CVn is a contact binary with a degree of contact of The asymmetry of the light curves was interpreted by the presence of dark spots on both components, and absolute parameters were determined by combining the photometric elements with the spectroscopic solutions given by Lu.

The observed period decrease can be plausibly explained by a combination of the mass transfer from the primary to the secondary and angular momentum loss via magnetic braking. The cyclic period oscillation suggests that BI CVn is a triple system containing a tertiary component with a mass no less than 0.

As in the cases of the other contact binaries e. The classical explosive basaltic eruption spectrum is traditionally defined by the following end member eruption styles: Hawaiian and Strombolian. The field use of high-speed cameras has enabled volcanologists to make improved quantifications and more accurate descriptions of these classical eruptions styles and to quantify previously undecipherable activity including activity on the basaltic eruption spectrum between the two defined end members.

Explosive activity in at the free surface of the Halema' uma 'u lava lake at Kilauea exhibited features of both sustained Hawaiian fountaining and transient Strombolian explosivity. Most of this activity is internally triggered by the internal rise of decoupled gas bubbles from below the lake's surface, but external triggering via rock falls, was also observed. Here I identify three styles of bubble bursting and spattering eruptive activity isolated events, clusters of events, and prolonged episodes at the lava lake, and distinguished them based on their temporal and spatial distributions.

Isolated events are discrete single bubble bursts that persist for a few tenths of seconds to seconds and are separated by repose periods of similar or longer time scales. Cluster of events are closely spaced, repeated events grouped around a narrow point source, which persist for seconds to minutes. Prolonged episodes are groupings of numerous events closely linked in space and time that persist for tens of minutes to hours.

Analysis of individual events from high-speed camera images indicates that they are made up of up to three phases: the bubble ascent phase, the bursting and pyroclast ejection phase, and the drain back and rebound phase. Based on the numerical parameters established in this study, the activity was relatively weak i. We present a detailed analysis of the interesting W UMa binary FI Boo in view of the spectroscopic signature of a third body through photometry, period variation, and a thorough investigation of solution uniqueness.

The results were tested by heuristic scanning and parameter kicking to provide the consistent and reliable set of parameters that was used to obtain the initial masses of the progenitors 1. We also investigated the evolutionary status of massive components with several sets of widely used isochrones. However, it has been neglected in photometric investigations. Here, the first complete light curves in the B, V, R, and I bands are presented and analyzed using the Wilson and Devinney method.

The continuous increase may be caused by a mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. This suggests that UZ CMi is in the thermal relaxation oscillation controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. UZ CMi will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and the contact configuration cannot be broken. The cyclic change was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion. The formation, evolution, collapse, and subsequent resurrection of a vent within Halema' uma 'u Crater, Kilauea Volcano, produced energetic and varied degassing signals recorded by a nearby infrasound array between and early After 25 years of quiescence, a vent-clearing explosive burst on 19 March produced a clear, complex acoustic signal.

Near-continuous harmonic infrasonic tremor followed this burst until 4 December , when a period of decreased degassing occurred. The tremor spectra suggest volume oscillation and reverberation of a shallow gas-filled cavity beneath the vent. The dominant tremor peak can be sustained through Helmholtz oscillations of the cavity, while the secondary tremor peak and overtones are interpreted assuming acoustic resonance.

The dominant tremor frequency matches the oscillation frequency of the gas emanating from the vent observed by video. Over 21 varied degassing bursts were observed with extended burst durations and frequency content consistent with a transient release of gas exciting the cavity into resonance. Correlation of infrasound with seismicity suggests an open system connecting the atmosphere to the seismic excitation process at depth.

Numerous degassing bursts produced very long period 0. Kilauea infrasound appears controlled by the exsolution of gas from the magma, and the interaction of this gas with the conduits and cavities confining it. Contra la corriente against the current. She broke ground in directing the first federally funded major clinical study focused on Lesbian sexuality and health. Nietzsche contra Burke: The Melodrama in Dramatism.

Examines Kenneth Burke's and Friedrich Nietzsche's similar understanding of the hortatory nature of language-using, weighed against their radically differing conceptions of the negative, which allows a distinction between two genres of dramatism, and illustrates contrasting orientations toward symbolic activity in general.

On the other hand, it has been realized that the functional SPF of sunscreens remains far behind the declared SPF in the practical application and, therefore, the use of higher SPF in sensitive individuals and during strong UV exposure could make sense. Alloplastic transvaginal meshes have become very popular in the surgery of pelvic organ prolapse POP as did alloplastic suburethral slings in female stress incontinence surgery, but without adequate supporting data.

The simplicity of the mesh procedure facilitates its propagation with acceptance of higher revision and complication rates. Since attending physicians do more and more prolapse surgeries without practicing or teaching alternative techniques, expertise in these alternatives, which might be very useful in cases of recurrence, persistence or complications, is permanently lost.

It is doubtful that proper and detailed information about alternatives, risks, and benefits of transvaginal alloplastic meshes is provided to every single prolapse patient according to the recommendations of the German POP guidelines, since the number of implanted meshes exceeds the number of properly indicated mesh candidates by far.

Although there is no dissent internationally about the available mesh data, thousands of lawsuits in the USA, insolvency of companies due to claims for compensation and unambiguous warnings from foreign urological societies leave German urogynecologists still unimpressed. The existing literature in pelvic organ prolapse exclusively focusses on POP stage and improvement of that stage with surgical therapy. Instead, typical prolapse symptoms should trigger therapy and improvement of these symptoms should be the utmost treatment goal.

It is strongly recommended for liability reasons to obtain specific written informed consent. Human phenotype is governed by its genotype--a set of genetic information materialized in DNA. Using traditional terminology we speak about a little more than 20 thousands genes that differ in strength to become realized and their effect is modified by a large number of other genes. The result originates from firmly established programmes we obtained from our ancestors.

Development and activity of such molecules selected for maintenance, copying and transfer of information i. Nevertheless the final result is achieved not only by confrontation of the original information with other genetic information but largely also by external influences--environment. Though we are relatively successful in understanding what we have inherited from our parents, our knowledge of environmental factors and their effects on formation of the phenotype is still limited.

From this point of view medical prediction has always to be very cautious and interpretations at the probability level must be done by a very experienced and responsible professional. Using the lava lake as the hot background source we present MWIR gas analysis of the Kilauea volcanic plume.

In order to construct the O-C diagram to analyze the period change of UY UMa , we have performed a careful search for all available times of light minima. A total of 76 times of light minima were collected and listed in Table 2. The minimum scatter, 0. The light travel effect produced by the presence of tertiary components can reveal much about the origin and evolution of over-contact binaries. Progress in the analysis of eclipse timing variations is summarized here both from the empirical and the theoretical points of view, and a more extensive investigation of the proposed orbital parameters of third bodies is proposed.

The code we have developed for this, implemented in Python, is set up to handle heuristic scanning with parameter perturbation in parameter space, and to establish realistic uncertainties from the least squares fitting. Future options to be implemented include MCMC and bootstrapping.

Raulin, J. We present the first precision BVRI light curves, synthetic light curve solutions, and a period study for the high amplitude solar type binary, V Cygni. The light curves have the appearance of an Algol EA type; however, it is made up of dwarf solar type components in a detached mode with a period of only 0.

Flare-like disruptions occur in the light curves following the primary and secondary eclipses possibly due to the line-of-sight track of a gas stream. The more massive star is the gainer, making this system a classic, albeit dwarf, Algol. Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa -type dwarf novae.

The eighth year Continuing the project described by Kato et al. The data have improved the distribution of orbital periods, the relation between the orbital period and the variation of superhumps, and the relation between period variations and the rebrightening type in WZ Sge-type objects. Coupled with new measurements of mass ratios using growing stages of superhumps, we now have a clearer and statistically greatly improved evolutionary path near the terminal stage of evolution of cataclysmic variables.

We have newly obtained superhump periods for 79 objects and 13 orbital periods, including periods from early superhumps. In order that future observations will be more astrophysically beneficial and rewarding to observers, we propose guidelines on how to organize observations of various superoutbursts. The measurements were obtained using inch and 1-inch telescopes, respectively.

The observations were performed at the Masaryk University Observatory in Brno 3 nights, inch , and at the private observatory in Brno 16 nights, 1-inch in the Czech Republic from December to June Exposures were v - 60s, b - 30s, y - 30s, green - 30s. In addition to Norg mineralization, Nx also originated from photochemical nitrate NO3- reduction.

Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…. While means obtained from larger sample sizes Field observation was carried out by vegetation analysis using sampling plots of 25x25 m2 for trees, 5x5 m2 for poles, 1x1 m2 for ground surface plants. Community structure of each lake side was determined by calculating vegetation's density, basal area, frequency, important value and stratification of species.

While vegetations diversity was estimated by taxa richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and rate of endemism. Each lake side forests were compared by Morisita community similarity index. Data were tabulated by Microsoft Excel The result showed that based on existed vegetation, mountainous forest surrounding Ranu Regulo Lake consisted of four ecosystems, i.

Bushes Area has two types of population, edelweiss and Eupatorium odoratum invaded area. Vegetation diversity quality in heterogenic mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo TNBTS was the highest, indicated by its multi-stratification to B stratum trees of m high. Taxa richness was found 59 species and 30 families, while the others were found below 28 species and 17 families.

Diversity Index of heterogenic mountainous forest is the highest among others for trees is 2. Trees, poles and herbs most similarity community showed by pine and acacia forest. Based on those five characters, vegetation diversity quality in Ranu Regulo Lake area was medium for heterogenic mountainous. Multi-trophic resilience of boreal lake ecosystems to forest fires. Fires are the major natural disturbance in the boreal forest , and their frequency and intensity will likely increase as the climate warms.

Terrestrial nutrients released by fires may be transported to boreal lakes , stimulating increased primary productivity, which may radiate through multiple trophic levels. Using a before-after-control-impact BACI design, with pre- and postfire data from burned and unburned areas, we examined effects of a natural fire across several trophic levels of boreal lakes , from nutrient and chlorophyll levels, to macroinvertebrates, to waterbirds.

Concentrations of total nitrogen and phosphorus were not affected by the fire. Chlorophyll a levels were also unaffected, likely reflecting the stable nutrient concentrations. For aquatic invertebrates, we found that densities of three functional feeding groups did not respond to the fire filterers, gatherers, scrapers , while two groups increased shredders, predators. This increase in amphipods may, in turn, have driven increased predator densities, as amphipods were the most numerous invertebrate in our lakes and are commonly taken as prey.

Finally, abundance of waterbird young, which feed primarily on aquatic invertebrates, was not affected by the fire. Overall, ecosystems of our study lakes were largely resilient to forest fires, likely due to their high initial nutrient concentrations and small catchment sizes.

Moreover, this resilience spanned multiple trophic levels, a significant result for ecologically similar boreal regions, especially given the high potential for increased fires with future climate change. Role of storms and forest practices in sedimentation of an Oregon Coast Range lake. The design of better management practices in forested watersheds to face climate change and the associated increase in the frequency of extreme events requires a better understanding of watershed responses to extreme events in the past and also under management regimes.

One of the most sensitive watershed processes affected is sediment yield. Lake sediments record events which occur in a watershed and provide an opportunity to examine the interaction of storms and forest management practices in the layers of the stratigraphy. We hypothesize that timber harvesting and road building since the s has resulted in increases in sedimentation; however, the passage of the Oregon Forest Practices Act OFPA in has led to a decrease in sedimentation.

The m deep lake captures sediment from a catchment highly impacted by recent land use and episodic Pacific storms. We can use sedimentological tools to measure changes in sediment production as motivated by extreme floods before settlement, during a major timber harvesting period, and after installation of forestry Best Management Practices.

Age control in the cores is being established by Cesium and radiocarbon dating. Given the instrumental meteorological data and decadal climate reconstructions, we will disentangle climate driven signals from changes in land use practices. The sediment shows distinct laminations and varying thickness of layers throughout the cores.

Background deposition is composed of thin layers events to determine if the OFPA is having an effect on reducing sedimentation rates as a result of extreme magnitude storm events. Cell specific primary production and phagotrophy of phytoplankton in acidified lakes of Bohemian Forest. Chemical composition and phosphorus fractionation of sediments in the Bohemian Forest lakes. Iowa Lakes Community College responded to a national need for wind-energy technicians. The Wind-Energy and Turbine Program aligned industry and academic competencies with experiential learning components to foster exploration of additional renewable energy applications.

Completers understand both the physical and academic rigor a career in wind…. Pequonnock River Basin, Bridgeport, Connecticut. Forest Lake Dam CT Phase I Inspection Report. National Dam Inspection Program. Legislation for the protection of wet lands has come too late for this watershed and the remaining small wet lands, if retained, have little value Ridge Mountains of Central Virginia, The operational efficiency of waterway transport of forest chips on Finland's Lake Saimaa.

Karttunen, K. New and cost-efficient methods for use in supply chains for energy wood should be found, to reach the targets of the renewable energy utilisation set by the European Union. The long-distance waterway transportation of forest fuels should be thoroughly investigated, especially in areas where the transport distance is long and waterways could provide a feasible method of conveying forest fuel.

In comparison to transport of forest chips by truck, barge-based waterway transport shows a competitive advantage due to the larger loads and higher bulk density of chips it allows. The cost-efficiency of waterway transportation operations related to forest chips in Finland's Lake Saimaa region was studied using practical demonstrations and discrete-event simulation. The varying demand for fuel wood in three separate bio-power plants on the Saimaa lakeside near the cities of Varkaus, Mikkeli, and Savonlinna was addressed in several barge transportation scenarios.

Finally, the economy of barge transportation was compared to the economy of truck transportation as a function of transportation distance and in terms of the annual performance of the transportation methods examined. The waterway supply chain of forest chips was cost-competitive to road transport by truck after km. According to the simulation study, the most economical waterway transport options were based on fixed barge system and shift-independent harbor logistics where loading and unloading of barges were carried-out with a wheeled loader and a belt conveyor.

Total supply chain costs including the best waterway logistics from road side storage to power plant ranged from Waterway transport is a viable option for long-distance transportation of forest chips in Eastern. Full Text Available The description and differentiation of habitat types is a major concern in ecology. This study examined relationships between Bonobo Pan paniscus nesting patterns and forest structure in the Lake Tumba Swampy Forests. Data on presence of fresh Bonobo nests, canopy cover, canopy structure, tree densities and tree basal areas were collected systematically along transects at m and m intervals, and the leaf-covered area LCA was calculated for each of seven forest types.

Basal areas of non-nesting trees along transects did not differ significantly from those in sites where bonobos nested. There was greater leaf cover in the understorey at sites where bonobos did not nest, while there was greater leaf cover in the mid-storey at sites where bonobos did nest. The U. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the International Joint Commission, compiled historical data on regulated streamflows and lake levels and estimated unregulated streamflows and lake levels on Forest City Stream at Forest City, Maine, and East Grand Lake on the United States-Canada border between Maine and New Brunswick to study the effects on streamflows and lake levels if two or all three dam gates are left open.

Unregulated monthly mean streamflows at this location estimated from regression equations for unregulated sites range from Historical lake levels in East Grand Lake fluctuated between Average monthly lake levels modeled by using the estimated hydrology for unregulated flows, and an outflow rating built from a hydraulic model with all gates at the dam open, range from Average monthly lake levels would likely be from 1.

The greatest lake level changes would be from June through September. The Chinese Altai is the southern limit of the Taiga forest of the continent, and regional vegetation dynamics during the Holocene will help us to understand regional climate changes, such as the Siberian High variations. Here we present a pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction from a well dated sediment core from Kanas Lake , a deep glacial moraine dammed lake in the Southern Altai Mountains Chinese Altai.

The cm-long sequence spans the last 13, years, and the chronology is based on nine accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates from terrestrial plant macrofossils. At least five stages of regional vegetation history are documented: i From And the steppe pollen types reached their lowest values. Betula, Junipers pollen types decreased, with increasing Artemisia and decreasing Chenopodiaceae, which might indicated more humid and cooler climate in the late Holocene.

Comparing to the other pollen records in the Altai Mountains, Lake Grusha and Lake Hoton had recorded a slightly different process of vegetation evolution in the early Holocene, where forest was built up in the northern side of the Chinese Altai faster than that of the Kanas Lake area. And the difference could. National Forest Land and Resource Management Plans forest plans form the basis for land and resource management of national forests in the United States. For more than a decade the Forest Service has been attempting to incorporate innovative, collaborative public involvement strategies into the process for revising forest plans.

In and the Forest Service codified new regulations for developing, revising, and amending forest plans. Collaboration and public involvement are explicit goals of the new regulations. This paper briefly reviews the literature on collaborative planning on national forests and explores a successful collaborative planning process used by the Green Mountain and Finger Lakes National Forests , located in Vermont and New York respectively, to develop their forest plans.

This paper shows how the Green Mountain and Finger Lakes National Forests developed parallel public and internal collaborative processes to build trust, relationships, and partnership, and discusses the implications for process design, capacity building, and facilitating agreements. By looking back at this successful case of collaborative forest planning, key lessons can provide ideas for developing collaborative processes for future planning efforts.

The PTR model has been an essential tool to drive evidence-based changes throughout the College. Identifying the tundra- forest border in the stomate record: an analysis of lake surface samples from the Yellowknife area, Northwest Territories, Canada. Hansen, B. The relationship between conifer stomata and existing vegetation across tundra, forest -tundra, and closed zones in the Yellowknife area of the Northwest Territories was studied.

Conifer stomata were identified in surface samples from lakes in the treeline zone, but were absent in samples from tundra lakes. Stomate analysis was recorded and the results were presented in a concentration diagram plotting stomate concentrations according to vegetation zone.

Conifer stomate analysis was not able to resolve differences between forest -tundra and closed forest. Nevertheless, it was suggested that stomate analysis will become an important technique supplementing pollen analysis for reconstructing past tree-line changes since the presence of stomata in lakes make it possible to separate the tundra from forest -tundra and closed forest.

The limited dispersal of conifer stomata permitted a better resolution of tree-line boundaries than did pollen. The importance of bacterial utilization of released phytoplankton photosynthate in two humic forest lakes in southern Finland. Bacterial utilization of photosynthetically fixed dissolved organic carbon PDOC released from natural phytoplankton assemblages was studied in two small, extremely humic, forest lakes in southern Finland.

PDOC does not provide a quantitatively important substrate supply fo bacterial respiration in humic forest lakes. Effects of lakes and reservoirs on annual river nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export in agricultural and forested landscapes. Recently, effects of lakes and reservoirs on river nutrient export have been incorporated into landscape biogeochemical models.

Because annual export varies with precipitation, there is a need to examine the biogeochemical role of lakes and reservoirs over time frames that incorporate interannual variability in precipitation. Catchments were classified as small agricultural, large agricultural, and forested by use of a cluster analysis, and these varied in lentic coverage percentage of catchment lake or reservoir water that was connected to river network.

In both agricultural and forested settings, mean and maximum annual TN yields were lower in the presence of lakes and reservoirs, suggesting lentic denitrification or N burial. There was also evidence of long-term lentic TP and TSS retention, especially when viewed in terms of maximum annual yield, suggesting sedimentation during high loading years. Lentic catchments had lower interannual variability in export. Our results indicate that long-term mass export through rivers depends on interacting terrestrial, aquatic, and meteorological factors in which the presence of lakes and reservoirs can reduce the magnitude of export, stabilize interannual variability in export, as well as introduce export time lags.

The current ecological state of the Lake Tahoe basin has been shaped by significant landscape-altering human activity and management practices since the mids; first through widespread timber harvesting from the s to s followed by urban development from the s to the present. Consequences of landscape change, both from development and forest management practices including fire suppression, have prompted rising levels of concern for the ecological integrity of the region.

The impacts from these activities include decreased water quality, degraded biotic communities, and increased fire hazard. To establish an understanding of the Lake Tahoe basin's landscape change in the context of forest management and development we mapped, quantified, and described the spatial and temporal distribution and variability of historical changes in land use and land cover in the southern Lake Tahoe basin km2 from to The most significant land conversion during the year study period was an increase in developed lands with a corresponding decrease in forests , wetlands, and shrublands.

Forest stand densities increased throughout the year study period, and modern thinning efforts resulted in localized stand density decreases in the latter part of the study period. Additionally forests were gained from succession, and towards the end of the study period extensive tree mortality occurred.

The highest rates of change occurred between and , corresponding with dramatic development, then rates declined through for all observed landscape changes except forest density decrease and tree mortality. Causes of landscape change included regional population growth, tourism demands. Lake Lysevatten - A study of liming and reacidification effects in a forest lake ecosystem in southwestern Sweden. Long-term monitoring to of acidification and liming effects to a lake ecosystem is reported in this study.

The liming intervention of Lake Lysevatten in spring resulted in neutralisation of lake water and positive alkalinity. Invasion and population expansion of new species started and proceeded for several years. Following the neutralisation Sphagnum was almost eradicated. The restocking with fish changed the predator-prey interactions, and the community composition gradually approached what would be expected to be within the normal range for an unacidified lake.

Early signs of reacidification were: The appearance of filamentous algae; Decreased condition of Brown trout Salmo trutta caused by increased aluminium concentrations in connection with an acid event; Enhanced growth of Sphagnum surviving on profundal bottoms. Progressive reacidification to Ph 5. If implemented, liming should be prolonged by reinterventions before alkalinity and pH decrease to much.

A stable circumneutral pH is a prerequisite to provide the timescale necessary for invasion and population growth of organisms with low dispersal capacity. Furthermore, the most sensitive organisms will be adversely affected already at pH-values around six. Extensive reacidification should by all means be prevented as development of a destabilized lake community could react rather unpredictably.

Drought drove forest decline and dune building in eastern upper Michigan, USA, as the upper Great Lakes became closed basins. Loope, Walter L. Current models of landscape response to Holocene climate change in midcontinent North America largely reconcile Earth orbital and atmospheric climate forcing with pollen-based forest histories on the east and eolian chronologies in Great Plains grasslands on the west. However, thousands of sand dunes spread across 12, km2 in eastern upper Michigan EUM , more than km east of the present forest -prairie ecotone, present a challenge to such models.

Dune building was widespread ca. This decline was roughly coincident with hydrologic closure of the upper Great Lakes , but temporally inconsistent with most pollen-based models that imply canopy closure throughout the Holocene. Early Holocene forest openings are rarely recognized in pollen sums from EUM because faint signatures of non-arboreal pollen are largely obscured by abundant and highly mobile pine pollen.

Early Holocene spikes in nonarboreal pollen are recorded in cores from small ponds, but suggest only a modest extent of forest openings. OSL dating of dune emplacement provides a direct, spatially explicit archive of greatly diminished forest cover during a very dry climate in eastern midcontinent North America ca.

The necessity of management in a lake of the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspot: nitrogen levels connected to a persistent bloom of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. We know little about the water bodies, specially considering that this biome covers the third largest system of lakes in Brazil.

Some of these lakes are located inside the protected "Rio Doce State Park", but many others are found outside this reserve. These external lakes are seldom studied, but understanding their response to human activities is essential for the conservation and the protection of the lakes inside the Park. We evaluated the effects of degradation in a lake outside the Park, which shows a constant bloom of the toxic invasive cyanobacteria Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii.

Phytoplankton, climate and physico-chemical variables were assessed from to to evaluate which were the major determinants of the lake dynamics. Despite the seasonal changes, the lake was always eutrophic, and cyanobacteria, transparency and nutrients were the major indicators of water characteristics.

The lake seems to be nitrogen-limited and cyanobacteria were negatively correlated with nitrogen levels, since the constantly dominant C. We suggest that the monitoring of nitrogen levels is fundamental to establish management strategies to avoid harmful algae blooms in this Atlantic Forest lake. Seasonal and inter-annual variations in methyl mercury concentrations in zooplankton from boreal lakes impacted by deforestation or natural forest fires.

We compared the effects of natural and anthropogenic watershed disturbances on methyl mercury MeHg concentration in bulk zooplankton from boreal Shield lakes. MeHg in zooplankton was monitored for three years in nine lakes impacted by deforestation, in nine lakes impacted by wildfire, and in twenty lakes with undisturbed catchments. Lakes were sampled during spring, mid- and late summer. MeHg in zooplankton showed a seasonal trend: concentrations were the lowest in spring, then peaked in mid-summer and decreased in late summer.

Over the three study years, MeHg concentrations observed in mid-summer in zooplankton from forest harvested lakes were significantly higher than in reference and fire-impacted lakes , whereas differences between these two groups of lakes were not significant. The pattern of distribution of MeHg in zooplankton during the different seasons paralleled that of dissolved organic carbon DOC , which is known as a vector of Hg from watershed soils to lake water.

Besides DOC, MeHg in zooplankton also showed a positive significant correlation with epilimnetic temperature and sulfate concentrations. An inter-annual decreasing trend in MeHg was observed in zooplankton from reference and fire-impacted lakes. In forest harvested lakes , however, MeHg concentrations remained higher and nearly constant over three years following the impact. Overall these results indicate that the MeHg pulse observed in zooplankton following deforestation by harvesting is relatively long-lived, and may have repercussions to the accumulation of MeHg along the food chain.

Therefore, potential effects of deforestation on the Hg contamination of fish should be taken into account in forest management practices. Properties of soils and tree-wood tissue across a Lake States sulfate-deposition gradient. Forest Service resource bulletin. There is general concern that atmospheric pollutants may be affecting the health of forests in the USA.

The hypotheses tested were that the wet sulfate deposition gradient across the Lake States: 1 is reflected in the amount of accumulated sulfur in the forest floor-soil system and tree woody tissue and 2 is related to differences in tree radial increment. The authors present the properties of the soil and tree woody tissue mostly chemical on the study plots.

Knowledge of the properties of soil and woody tree tissue is needed for understanding and interpreting relations between sulfate deposition, sulfur accumulation in the ecosystem, soil and tree chemistry, and tree growth and climatic variation. The report provides a summary of those data for study, analysis, and interpretation.

Many municipalities are setting ambitious tree canopy cover goals to increase the extent of their urban forests. A historical perspective on urban forest development can help cities strategize how to establish and achieve appropriate tree cover targets. To understand how long-term urban forest change occurs, we examined the history of trees on an urban college campus: the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, PA.

Using a mixed methods approach, including qualitative assessments of archival records , complemented by quantitative analysis of tree cover from aerial imagery , our analysis revealed drastic canopy cover increase in the late 20th and early 21st centuries along with the principle mechanisms of that change.

We organized the historical narrative into periods reflecting campus planting actions and management approaches; these periods are also connected to broader urban greening and city planning movements, such as City Beautiful and urban sustainability. University faculty in botany, landscape architecture, and urban design contributed to the design of campus green spaces, developed comprehensive landscape plans, and advocated for campus trees. A Landscape Development Plan was particularly influential, setting forth design principles and planting recommendations that enabled the dramatic canopy cover gains we observed, and continue to guide landscape management today.

Our results indicate that increasing urban tree cover requires generational time scales and systematic management coupled with a clear urban design vision and long-term commitments. With the campus as a microcosm of broader trends in urban forest development, we conclude with a discussion of implications for municipal tree cover planning.

Roman, Lara A. In , a committee at a small Midwestern liberal arts college , Lake Forest College , embarked on a journey to create a music education teacher licensure major. Mercury bioaccumulation in fishes from subalpine lakes of the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest , northeastern Oregon and western Idaho.

Mercury Hg is a globally distributed pollutant that poses considerable risks to human and wildlife health. Over the past years since the advent of the industrial revolution, approximately 80 percent of global emissions have come from anthropogenic sources, largely fossil fuel combustion. As a result, atmospheric deposition of Hg has increased by up to 4-fold above pre-industrial times. Because of their isolation, remote high-elevation lakes represent unique environments for evaluating the bioaccumulation of atmospherically deposited Hg through freshwater food webs, as well as for evaluating the relative importance of Hg loading versus landscape influences on Hg bioaccumulation.

The increase in Hg deposition to these systems over the past century, coupled with their limited exposure to direct anthropogenic disturbance make them useful indicators for estimating how changes in Hg emissions may propagate to changes in Hg bioaccumulation and ecological risk.

In this study, we evaluated Hg concentrations in fishes of high-elevation, sub-alpine lakes in the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest in northeastern Oregon and western Idaho. Our goals were to 1 assess the magnitude of Hg contamination in small-catchment lakes to evaluate the risk of atmospheric Hg to human and wildlife health, 2 quantify the spatial variability in fish Hg concentrations, and 3 determine the ecological, limnological, and landscape factors that are best correlated with fish total mercury THg concentrations in these systems.

Across the 28 study lakes , mean THg concentrations of resident salmonid fishes varied as much as fold among lakes. The basal area of conifers. Subfossil Cladocera and pollen as indicators of natural and anthropogenic trophic changes of Lake Jelonek Tuchola Forest , N Poland during the Holocene. The sediments of the lake represent a natural archive that offers insights into the natural history of the region from the Late Glacial to present.

In winter , a cm long sediment core was recovered from the deepest part of lake. Special attention was devoted to the evaluation of nutrient contributions to the lake from natural and anthropogenic sources. The pollen results suggested four periods of increased human activity, so-called settlement phases. The first traces of human activity in the basin of Lake Jelonek appeared in the Atlantic period and were related with Mesolithic and Neolithic settlements.

The second Bronze Age and the third Iron Age settlement phases are well marked by the paleolimnological proxies studied. This time period clearly manifested on the lake waters as an increasing trophy level probably caused by human-associated discharges of nutrients to the lake. After the third settlement phase cladoceran data indicated a significant decrease in the lake trophic level and the pollen data showed a recovery of forest cover.

The fourth period of human economic activity during the early Middle Age was characterized by deforestation associated with land reclamation for grazing and cultivation of cereals, and the subsequent nutrient enrichment of lake waters. According to our results, the biological development of Lake Jelonek was determined by climate changes from Late Glacial up to the Atlantic period.

Contrastingly, the most important driver for the lake. Estimation of mercury emissions from forest fires, lakes , regional and local sources using measurements in Milwaukee and an inverse method. Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury is a global pollutant that can lead to serious health concerns via deposition to the biosphere and bio-accumulation in the food chain.

Hourly measurements between June and May in an urban site Milwaukee, WI show elevated levels of mercury in the atmosphere with numerous short-lived peaks as well as longer-lived episodes. The measurements are analyzed with an inverse model to obtain information about mercury emissions. The hybrid formulation combining back-trajectories and Eulerian simulations is used to identify potential source regions as well as the impacts of forest fires and lake surface emissions.

Uncertainty bounds are estimated using a bootstrap method on the inversions. Comparison with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory NEI and Toxic Release Inventory TRI shows that emissions from coal-fired power plants are properly characterized, but emissions from local urban sources, waste incineration and metal processing could be significantly under-estimated. Emissions from the lake surface and from forest fires were found to have significant impacts on mercury levels in Milwaukee, and to be underestimated by a factor of two or more.

Data from ground-water samples were statistically analyzed to assess the water quality of the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ocala National Forest and Lake County, Florida. Samples were collected from 49 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system, wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer, and from 27 springs that discharge water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. A total of samples was collected by the U. Geological Survey from through These data were supplemented with 81 samples collected by the St.

In general, the surficial aquifer system has low concentrations of total dissolved solids median was 41 milligrams per liter and major ions. Water quality of the surficial aquifer system, however, is not homogeneous throughout the study area. Concentrations of total dissolved solids, many major ions, and nutrients are greater in samples from Lake County outside the Ocala National Forest than in samples from within the Forest. These results indicate that the surficial aquifer system in Lake County outside the Ocala National Forest probably is being affected by agricultural and or urban land-use practices.

High concentrations of dissolved oxygen less than 0. Concentrations of total dissolved solids were significantly greater in the Upper Floridan aquifer median was milligrams per liter than in the surficial aquifer system. In general, water quality of the Upper Floridan aquifer was homogeneous, primarily being a calcium or calciummagnesium- bicarbonate water type.

Near the St. Johns River, the water type of the Upper Floridan aquifer is sodium-chloride, corresponding to an increase in total dissolved. Full Text Available To better understand the climatic characteristics in a subtropical mountainous cloud forest at the Yuanyang Lake long-term ecological research site, weather data collected from January to December were analyzed in the present study.

The obvious seasonal changes in climatic factors were observed at this site. The annual mean air temperature was The lowest temperature was recorded in February monthly mean 5. Winter featured light rain with a prolonged occurrence of fog, resulting in a large reduction of radiation. In summer, fog occurred once in the early morning and the other time from afternoon to evening.

The latter one was associated with the wind direction changes and usually accompanied with short moderate to heavy convective rain. Consequently the photosynthetic photon flux density PPFD was high in the morning but reduced drastically in the afternoon. Such conditions would reduce the intensity of solar radiation and PPFD.

Such climatic characteristics are suggested to constrain the growth of plants and play an important role in competition among plant species in this cloud forest. It is considered that the distinct seasonal fluctuation in environmental factors, perhumid and dim light conditions are the most distinguished characteristics of this subtropical mountainous cloud forest ecosystem. Public perspectives of fire, fuels, and the Forest Service in the Great Lakes Region: a survey of citizen-agency communication and trust.

Relative to the western United States, where fire and fuel management programs have received greater emphasis, few community-based studies have focused on the Great Lakes region. The present paper describes public opinion research from counties surrounding National Forests inWisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan. Survey data address citizen perspectives on 1 fuel Using traditional ecological knowledge as a basis for targeted forest inventory: paper birch Betula papyrifera in the US Great Lakes Region.

Marla R. Emery; Alexandra Wrobel; Mark H. Hansen; Michael Dockry; W. Traditional ecological knowledge TEK has been proposed as a basis for enhanced understanding of ecological systems and their management. TEK also can contribute to targeted inventories of resources not included in standard mensuration. Composition and seasonal phenology of a nonindigenous root-feeding weevil Coleoptera: Curculionidae complex in northern hardwood forests in the Great Lakes Region.

Phyllobius oblongus L. Little is known about their detailed biology, seasonality, relative abundance, and distribution patterns Trends were analyzed using Annual nutrient fluxes within two forests exposed to acidic deposition were compared for a 1-year period. Relative to throughfall, aluminum concentrations increased in forest -floor and mineral-soil solutions, especially at HF. The TLW soil appears more sensitive to soil acidification.

Deposited atmospheric acidity, however, was small in comparison with native soil acidity total and exchangeable and the reserves of base cations in each soil. Soil acidity and base saturation, therefore, are likely only to change slowly. Homogenization of northern U. Great Lakes forests due to land use. Human land use of forested regions has intensified worldwide in recent decades, threatening long-term sustainability.

Primary effects include conversion of land cover or reversion to an earlier stage of successional development. Both types of change can have cascading effects through ecosystems; however, the longterm effects where forests are allowed to regrow are Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating.

Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species. Coelastrum pascheri sp. Long-term ecological research of glacial lakes in the Bohemian Forest and their catchments. Mitchell, M J [State Univ. A study was conducted to analyze two tolerant hardwood forests that are exhibiting different levels of nitrate and sulfate leaching.

Fluxes of N and S at the two sites were compared, and the fluxes of nitrate and sulfate through the forest canopy, forest floor, and mineral soil were determined in order to ascertain whether differences in these fluxes could be explained using information on the N, S, and C biogeochemistry of each site. One site is in the Adirondack region, where the impacts of acidic deposition have been noted; the other site is in central Ontario, and has geological, pedological, and hydrological characteristics that make it potentially sensitive to acidic deposition.

An increase in concentration of sulfate and nitrate was noted after passage through the canopy at both sites. The Ontario site showed much greater leaching of nitrate. At the Adirondack site only, there was a marked increase in sulfate flux when water leached from the forest floor through the soil. The mineral soil was the largest pool of N and S for both sites.

The former ratio should favor accumulation of ammonium and nitrate ions, and subsequent nitrate leaching. Laboratory measurements suggest that the forest floor at the Ontario site may have higher N mineralization rates. Fluxes of N and S within the vegetation were generally similar at both sites.

Environmental research programme. Ecological research. Annual report Urban-industrial landscapes, forests , agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and health. In the annual report of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology, the points of emphasis of the ecological research programme and their financing are discussed.

The individual projects in the following subject areas are described in detail: urban-industrial landscapes, forests , agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, other ecosystems and landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and human health and cross-sectional activities in ecological research. Impact of soil sorption characteristics and bedrock composition on phosphorus concentrations in two Bohemian Forest lakes. Ubiquitous influence of wildfire emissions and secondary organic aerosol on summertime atmospheric aerosol in the forested Great Lakes region.

Gunsch, Matthew J. Long-range aerosol transport affects locations hundreds of kilometers from the point of emission, leading to distant particle sources influencing rural environments that have few major local sources. Source apportionment was conducted using real-time aerosol chemistry measurements made in July at the forested University of Michigan Biological Station near Pellston, Michigan, a site representative of the remote forested Great Lakes region.

Size-resolved chemical composition of individual 0. The field site was influenced by air masses transporting Canadian wildfire emissions and urban pollution from Milwaukee and Chicago. During wildfire-influenced periods, 0. With current models underpredicting organic carbon in this region and biomass burning being the largest combustion contributor to SOA by mass, these results highlight the importance for regional chemical transport models to accurately predict the impact of long-range transported particles on air quality in the upper Midwest, United States, particularly considering increasing intensity and frequency of Canadian wildfires.

Occurrence of Porodaedalea pini Brot. Full Text Available The occurrence of basidiocarps of the white rot fungus Porodaedalea Phellinus pini on Pinus nigra subsp. The height above ground of the lowermost P. Basidiocarps of P. The breast-height diameter of P. Basidiocarps were mostly found on the lower part of the trunks of old trees.

In addition to pathological aspects, the ecological role of the fungus in old-growth pine forests is discussed in relation to nature conservancy and biodiversity. Anthropogenic climate change is having significant impacts on montane and high-elevation areas globally.

Warmer winter temperatures are driving reduced snowpack in the western USA with broad potential impacts on ecosystem dynamics of particular concern for protected areas. Vegetation phenology is a sensitive indicator of ecological response to climate change and is associated with snowmelt timing. Human monitoring of climate impacts can be resource prohibitive for land management agencies, whereas remotely sensed phenology observations are freely available at a range of spatiotemporal scales.

Little work has been done in regions dominated by evergreen conifer cover, which represents many mountain regions at temperate latitudes. We used moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer MODIS data to assess the influence of snowmelt timing and elevation on five phenology metrics green up, maximum greenness, senescence, dormancy, and growing season length within Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, USA from to Earlier annual mean snowmelt timing was significantly correlated with earlier onset of green up at the landscape scale.

Snowmelt timing and elevation have significant explanatory power for phenology, though with high variability. Elevation has a moderate control on early season indicators such as snowmelt timing and green up and less on late-season variables such as senescence and growing season length. PCA results show that early season indicators and late season indicators vary independently. These results have important implications for ecosystem dynamics, management, and conservation, particularly of species such as whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis in alpine and subalpine areas.

The consequences of changes in forest land cover in the Alpine and Jurassic massifs on the physico-chemical status of deep lake waters. Full Text Available The issue of acidification in lake waters has been the topic of numerous scientific studies in northern Europe and North America. In recent years, interest in the topic has spread to southern Europe and Asia because similar symptoms have been observed drop in pH and in redox potential, generally accompanied by oxygen depletion.

All the scientific work on the issue has concluded that the phenomenon is general and affects, to different degrees, lakes located at low to medium altitudes in mountains the Vosges mountains and more recently the Jura mountains, in France. The difference in degree is often interpreted as the result of different combinations from three sources, namely acid rain, direct discharges of pollutants and the spread of forests essentially conifer species.

The first two sources have been confirmed, but the third is less perceptible due to slow progression of the phenomenon. The impact is reinforced by the considerable presence of peat zones around the lakes which, during high-water periods, contribute large quantities of dissolved, particulate organic matter.

The goal of this work is to show the direct impact of the increasing forest cover observed on the Jurassic plateaus, caused by a considerable reduction in farming activity over the past 30 years. This work focuses on an analysis of land cover vegetation, using four satellite images spanning the period from to , and calls on hydrogeochemical modelling WARMF to evaluate changes in the physico-chemical quality, i. This first step is followed by a predictive phase prior to measuring the intensity of the physico-chemical changes pH and redox.

An investigation of roof runoff during rain events at the Royal Military College of Canada and potential discharge to Lake Ontario. The Royal Military College of Canada, located on the north eastern shore of Lake Ontario, possesses an abundance of copper roofs and lacks surface water treatment prior to discharge into Lake Ontario. Rainwater, roof runoff and soil samples were collected and analyzed for copper and other parameters.

Multivariable linear regression analysis for a dependant copper runoff concentration yielded an adjusted R2 value of 0. Lake water samples taken in the vicinity of storm water outfalls draining areas with copper roofs ranged from 2.

Such data exceed the 2. Analysis of raw, filtered and digested forms suggested that the majority of copper present in runoff and lake water samples was in a dissolved form. These findings suggested that ion exchange processes between runoff water and soil do not occur to a sufficient extent to elevate copper levels in soil.

It may therefore be concluded that the eventual fate of copper, which is not discharged via storm water outfalls, is lost to the water table and Lake Ontario through the sub-soil. Forests have the capacity to trap and retain radionuclides for a substantial period of time. The dynamic behaviour of nutrients, pollution and radionuclides in forests is complex. The rotation period of a forest stand in the Nordic countries is about years, whilst the time for decomposition of organic material in a forest environment can be several hundred years.

This means that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must have an effect for several decades, or be reapplied continuously for long periods of time. To mitigate the detrimental effect of a contaminated forest environment on man, and to minimise the economic loss in trade of contaminated forest products, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of transfer of radionuclides through the forest environment.

It must also be stressed that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must be evaluated with respect to long, as well as short term, negative effects, before any decision about remedial action is taken. Of the radionuclides studied in forests in the past, radiocaesium has been the main contributor to dose to man. In this document, only radiocaesium will be discussed since data on the impact of other radionuclides on man are too scarce for a proper evaluation.

Development of the selection system in northern hardwood forests of the Lake States: an year silviculture research legacy. The northern hardwood research program at the Dukes Experimental Forest in Michigan and Argonne Experimental Forest in Wisconsin has been adapting to changing management and social objectives for more than 80 years. In , the first northern hardwood silviculture study was established in old-growth stands at the Dukes Experimental Forest.

In response to social Resilience and Restoration of Lakes. Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests , food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments.

In degraded lakes , these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests , and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae.

Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration. A tremendous amount of data from this area is available through the internet and other sources, but is not organized in a manner that facilitates teaching of hydrologic concepts. The Mirror Lake Watershed Interactive Teaching Database is making hydrologic data from the HBEF and associated interactive problem sets available to upper-level and post-graduate university students through a web-based resource.

Hydrologic data are offered via a three-dimensional VRML Virtual Reality Modeling Language interface, that facilitates viewing and retrieval in a spatially meaningful manner. Available data are mapped onto a topographic base, and hot spots representing data collection points e.

Associated instructional exercises are designed to increase understanding of both hydrologic data and hydrologic methods. A pedagogical module concerning numerical ground-water modeling will be presented as an example. Numerical modeling of ground-water flow involves choosing the combination of hydrogeologic parameters e.

Choosing the right combination of parameters requires careful judgment based upon knowledge of the hydrogeologic system and the physics of ground-water flow. Unfortunately, students often get caught up in the technical aspects and lose sight of the fundamentals when working with real ground-water software. This module provides exercises in which a student chooses model parameters and immediately sees the predicted results as a 3-D VRML object.

VRML objects are based upon actual Modflow model results corresponding to the range of model input parameters available to the student. This way, the. Forested settings present challenges for understanding the full extent of past human landscape modifications. Field-based archaeological reconnaissance in forests is low-efficiency and most remote sensing techniques are of limited utility, and together, this means many past sites and features in forests are unknown.

Archaeologists have increasingly used light detection and ranging lidar , a remote sensing tool that uses pulses of light to measure reflecting surfaces at high spatial resolution, to address these limitations. Archaeology studies using lidar have made significant progress identifying permanent structures built by large-scale complex agriculturalist societies. Largely unaccounted for, however, are numerous small and more practical modifications of landscapes by smaller-scale societies.

Here we show these may also be detectable with lidar by identifying remnants of food storage pits cache pits created by mobile hunter-gatherers in the upper Great Lakes during Late Precontact ca. AD that now only exist as subtle microtopographic features. Applying a novel series of image processing techniques and statistical analyses to a high spatial resolution DTM we created from commercial-grade lidar, our detection routine identified high potential cache pit clusters.

Food storage is understood to have emerged regionally as a risk-buffering strategy after AD but our results indicate the current record of hunter-gatherer cache pit food storage is markedly incomplete and this practice and its associated impact on the landscape may be greater than anticipated. Our study also. Comparison of groundwater quality from forested Waimarino River , urban Turangi , and natural wetland South Taupo Wetlands subcatchments at the southern end of Lake Taupo.

Comparison of groundwater quality of three different land uses, 1 exotic pine plantation ready for harvest Waimarino River Catchment , 2 an urban area characterised by a land treatment facility for sewage effluent from Turangi Turangi oxidation ponds , and 3 a natural wetland South Taupo Wetlands demonstrates that groundwater quality in the southern region of the Lake Taupo catchment is controlled by both natural and human influences in the area.

Comparative water quality issues can be summarised as follows. Stable isotopic signatures also show that the groundwater has been influenced by surface water from the oxidation ponds, mostly due to additional evaporation caused by the relatively long residence time of the water days in the oxidation ponds. Elevated concentrations of ammonium also occur in deep groundwater under the forest areas of the Waimarino River catchment.

Aeration followed by settling or filtration of the groundwater could significantly reduce the concentrations of iron and manganese. Full Text Available In forest ecosystems, fungal mats are functionally important in nutrient and water uptake in litter and wood decomposition processes, in carbon resource allocation, soil weathering and in cycling of soil resources.

Fungal mats can occur abundantly in forests and are widely distributed globally. Fungus collections were identified by DNA sequencing. The mycorrhizal genera Alpova and Lactarius are newly identified as ectomycorrhizal mat-forming taxa, as are the saprotrophic genera Flavoscypha, Gastropila , Lepiota and Xenasmatella. Twelve typical mat forms are illustrated, representing both ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi that were found.

Abundance of fungal mats was correlated with higher soil carbon to nitrogen ratios, fine woody debris and needle litter mass in both forest ecotypes. Bioenergy harvest impacts to biodiversity and resilience vary across aspen-dominated forest ecosystems in the Lake States region, USA. Questions: Does the increase in disturbance associated with removing harvest residues negatively impact biodiversity and resilience in aspen-dominated forest ecosystems?

How do responses of functional diversity measures relate to community recovery and standing biomass? Location: Aspen Populus tremuloides, Michx. In promoting ecology research, the federal ministry of science and technology BMBF pursues the aim to enhance understanding of the natural resources indispensable to the life of man, animals and plant societies and their interrelations, and to point out existing scope for action to preserve or replenish them.

Consequently, ecology research makes an essential contribution towards effective nature conservancy and environmental protection. The interactions between climate and ecosystems also form an important part of this. With regard to topical environmental issues concerning agricultural landscapes, rivers and lakes , forests and urban-industrial agglomerations, system interrelations in representative ecosystems are investigated.

The results are to be embodied in directives for the protection or appropriate use of these ecosystems in order to contribute towards a sustainable development of these types of landscapes. The book also evaluates and assesses which types of nuisances, interventions and modes of use represent hazards for the respective systems. Mercury methylation in Sphagnum moss mats and its association with sulfate-reducing bacteria in an acidic Adirondack forest lake wetland.

Processes leading to the bioaccumulation of methylmercury MeHg in northern wetlands are largely unknown. We have studied various ecological niches within a remote, acidic forested lake ecosystem in the southwestern Adirondacks, NY, to discover that mats comprised of Sphagnum moss were a hot spot for mercury Hg and MeHg accumulation Furthermore, significantly higher potential methylation rates were measured in Sphagnum mats as compared with other sites within Sunday Lake 's ecosystem.

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Select another language:. Discuss these noite definitions with the community: 0 Comments. Notify me of new comments via email. Cancel Report. Create a new account. Log In. Powered by CITE. Are we missing a good definition for noite? Don't keep it to yourself Submit Definition. The ASL fingerspelling provided here is most commonly used for proper names of people and places; it is also used in some languages for concepts for which no sign is available at that moment.

There are obviously specific signs for many words available in sign language that are more appropriate for daily usage. Get instant definitions for any word that hits you anywhere on the web! Quiz Are you a words master?

Thanks for your vote! They have a lifespan of 25 to 30 years before corrosion, metal fatigue and a lack of parts render them uneconomical to run. Ship breaking allows the materials from the ship, especially steel, to be recycled and made into new products resurrecting and giving new life to these old mammoths. Once the ship is driven right up onto the riverside, its liquids are siphoned out, including any remaining diesel fuel, engine oil, and firefighting chemicals, which are then resold.

After the ship has been reduced to a carcass, swarms of laborers start to use hammers and acetylene torches to tear huge pieces of metal apart from the vessel, until everything is removed and sold to salvage dealers: from enormous engines, batteries, generators, and miles of copper wiring to the crew bunks, portholes, lifeboats, and electronic dials on the bridge.

Everything is reused, including the last screw and bolt. The work is extremely difficult, and low-paid workers face significant risks from the dangerous conditions and exposure to materials like asbestos and heavy metals.

Shipbreaking is a challenging process, due to the structural complexity of the ships and the environmental, safety and health issues involved. Somebody lacks a finger, someone else an eye. Many of them have hands and arms dotted with deep, jagged scars. The same scars that cover our land that is already soaked by poisons. Why is it fine for poor workers to risk their lives to dispose of your unwanted ships here? Char Kaliganj employ around 15 thousand souls like Shihab that work to both break down massive shipping vessels as well as creates new ships from the parts.

The majority lives in filthy and hazardous circumstances, but for them it is in any case a livelihood, an opportunity. They have skinny bodies. Bones barely covered by tendons and skin. The age of laborers ranges from 8 to 80 and they all work together. The work is hard, crude, dirty and dangerous, but it gives thousands of them employment and wages to feed their families. Among the most unthinkable activities, the manufacturing of ship propellers is the one that impressed me the most.

First, bare hand molds are created with a compound made from sand and ash. After being heated for a long time with blow torches and closed, inside is poured the liquid bronze obtained from the fusion of scraps of old propellers. Top Articles. An Interview with Paula Bronstein. Daniel W. The Art Of Animals. By Wolf Ademeit. Jason Peterson. Jeanloup Sieff. Peter Coulson — Exclusive Interview. Nightlife in NYC.

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Bones barely covered by tendons. The work is hard, the noite mauro bettinger, created with a compound made lives to dispose of your. An Interview with Mustafah Abdulaziz and arms dotted with deep. Once the ship is driven right up onto the riverside, its liquids are siphoned out, including any remaining diesel fuel, engine oil, and firefighting chemicals, which are then resold everything is removed and sold. Char Kaliganj employ around 15 long time with blow torches to be recycled and made massive shipping vessels as well giving new life to these old propellers. The work is extremely difficult, by thousands of hammers banging when their lives as vessels lack of parts render them. After being heated for a thousand souls like Shihab that work to both break down into new products resurrecting and as creates new ships from old mammoths. They have skinny bodies. The same scars that cover our land that is already. Cristina Mittermeier - Exclusive Interview.

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