And 1 more. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Unfollow Follow Unblock. Other Affiliations:. The twentieth century brought a new cultural confidence in the social powers of invention — along with consumerism, world wars, globalization, The twentieth century brought a new cultural confidence in the social powers of invention — along with consumerism, world wars, globalization, and human-generated climate change.
This book traces how passive optimism and active promotion were linked to our growing trust in technological innovation. It pursues the evolving idea through engineering hubris, radical utopian movements, science fiction fanzines, policy-maker soundbites, corporate marketing, and consumer culture. It explores how evangelists of technological fixes have proselytized their faith and critically examines the examples and products of their followers. The new technological confidence mixed together beliefs that were simultaneously compelling and unsettling.
As motor vehicles, electricity supplies, and radio became part of modern life in the early decades of the century, it was hard to argue against the transformative effects and inevitability of such transitions. Like it or not, social consequences seemed to come inexorably with the Machine Age, the Space Age, and the Information Age.
This deterministic vision implied an ever more technological future with unavoidable social consequences. For many, innovative technologies promised appealing new lifestyles and powers. But for a narrower band of proponents — the first generation of technological fixers — wise engineering invention was touted as a guaranteed route to positive human benefits and societal progress.
Socially engaged engineers and designers argued that such improvements could be directed, hastened, and amplified. These engineering adventurers argued that modern societies could be guided only by rational designers. They contended that clever technological solutions could solve contemporary problems better than any traditional method, including economic initiatives, citizen education, political ideology, lifestyle changes, legal frameworks, and moral guidance.
Trust in technological fixes shaped a new generation of managers and lawmakers, engineers and educators, futurists and citizens — and continues to drive a new generation of techno-fixers today. This cultural wave, its promoters and detractors, have championed the promise and voiced concerns that we have inherited, still unresolved. This book tracks the hubristic influencers and weighs up the confidences and concerns associated with them: the dramatic potential for novel technologies to work alongside longer human traditions to meet our enduring ambitions — or to reshape society for the worse.
Environmental Ethics and Behavioural Change more. Environmental Ethics and Behavioural Change takes a practical approach to environmental ethics that focuses on its transformative potential for students, professionals, policy makers, activists, and concerned citizens. Proposed solutions Proposed solutions to issues such as climate change, resource depletion and accelerating extinctions have included economic and technological fixes, national and international regulations, social marketing, and the personal integration of green values in lifestyles.
This volume examines the ethical features of a range of communication strategies and technological, political and economic methods for promoting ecologically responsible practice in the face of these crises. The central concern of the book is environmental behavioural change: inspiring, informing and catalysing reflective change in the reader, and in their ability to influence others.
By making clear the forms of environmental ethics that exist, and what each implies in terms of individual and social change, the reader will be better able to formulate, commit to, articulate and promote a coherent position on how to understand and engage with environmental issues. Reflecting the multiple factors affecting our environment, Environmental Ethics and Behavioural Change adopts a multidisciplinary approach that draws from a range of academic specialisms.
It provides a clear introduction to the main ethical theories; explains how different constellations of principles that shape the main environmental philosophies and movements have developed over time; and, how these relate to contemporary political philosophical views.
Just as importantly, it explores the spectrum of current and proposed methods for addressing environmental sustainability; how they can be applied to contemporary social issues and professional practices; and, how these can be communicated effectively to stakeholders such as businesses, local communities, consumers and government.
These techniques range from principles supporting wise technological choices, the psychology of behavioural change, and the politics of individual, group and societal choices. Ethical theories outlined and discussed include utilitarianism, deontology and neo- Aristotelianism, and the spectrum of green philosophical paradigms include anthropocentric, ecocentric and biocentric value systems, deep ecologies and social ecologies. Examples and case studies are drawn from contemporary issues such as fracking, windfarms, geo-engineering, and transition towns; and the approaches to communication and behaviour change examined include strategies and tactics associated with technological fixes, free markets, ethical consumption, constitutional politics, community-based initiatives, symbolic actions and direct action; and tactics such as social marketing and practice theory.
Yet the book is more than a compendium of techniques: throughout, it stresses the ethical implications of environmental action, explaining why practitioners need to be sensitive to issues of power and inequality, autonomy and collective responsibility, in order to promote workable, resilient and morally defensible revisions of current social practices. Holograms: A Cultural History more. Holograms have been in the public eye for over a half-century, but their influences have deeper cultural roots.
No other visual experience is quite like interacting with holograms; no other cultural product melds the technological sublime No other visual experience is quite like interacting with holograms; no other cultural product melds the technological sublime with magic and optimism in quite the same way. As holograms have evolved, they have left their audiences alternately fascinated, bemused, inspired or indifferent. From expressions of high science to countercultural art to consumersecurity, holograms have represented modernity, magic and materialism.
Their most pervasive impact has been to galvanise hopeful technological dreams. Engineers, artists, hippies and hobbyists have played with, and dreamed about, holograms. This book explores how holograms found a place in distinct cultural settings. It is aimed at readers attracted to pop culture, visual studies and cultural history, scholars concerned with media history, fine art and material studies and, most of all, cross-disciplinary audiences intrigued about how this ubiquitous but still-mysterious visual medium grew up in our midst and became entangled in our culture.
This book explores the technical attractions and cultural uses of the hologram, how they were shaped by what came before them, and how they have matured to shape our notional futures. Today, holograms are in our pockets as identity documents and in our minds as gaming fantasies and faux hologram performers. Why arent they more often in front of our eyes? Why has its combination of attributes been perennially exhilarating and wondrous?
Although the hologram was a product of its times, it was also wrapped in long established cultural threads. Its impacts were conditioned by its antecedents and associations. This protective heritage helped make it impervious to technical disappointments, while ongoing innovation periodically revitalized its spectacular qualities.
This book traces the cultural roots of holograms to explore their influences and effects, assess their counteracting attractions and explain their persistence. That volume provided an in-depth account of the creators and concepts behind the subject of holography as a scientific concept, an engineering tool and a business, and was based on extensive archival research and interviews with the originators of the field. Addressing historians of science and technology, holographers and sociologists of expertise, it recounted the trials of creating a new science, a new industry and a new profession from this remarkable concept.
The present book shifts the focus outwards. I turn from the creators of holography to the consumers of holograms in distinct cultural settings. This complementary emphasis enrols fresh audiences, too: readers attracted to visual and cultural studies, scholars concerned with media history, fine art and material studies and, most of all, cross-disciplinary audiences intrigued about how this ubiquitous but still-mysterious visual medium grew up in our midst and became entangled in our culture.
Cosseted and cloistered by their governments, they worked to explore applications of Cosseted and cloistered by their governments, they worked to explore applications of atomic energy at a handful of national labs. This unique bottom-up history traces how the identities of these unusually voiceless experts - forming a uniquely state-managed discipline - were shaped in the context of pre-war nuclear physics, wartime industrial management, post-war politics and utopian energy programmes.
Even after their eventual emergence at universities and companies, nuclear workers carried the enduring legacy of their origins. Their shared experiences shaped not only their identities, but our collective memories of the late twentieth century. And as illustrated by the Fukushima accident seven decades after the Manhattan project began, this book explains why they are still seen conflictingly as selfless heroes or as mistrusted guardians of a malevolent genie.
Their origins can be traced to the discovery of the neutron and the cascade of concepts and applications triggered by it. First defined by the project to develop an atomic bomb, nuclear experts were further shaped by their post-war explorations of nuclear engineering and eventually emerged to public view with the promise of electrical power generation. But these children of the neutron grew unseen during their early years, nurtured by bountiful government funding and segregated by the concerns of the Cold War.
Their isolation shaped them. In technical cloisters in the USA, Britain, and Canada, the scientists, engineers, and skilled workers who had first collaborated during the war grew into divergent nuclear breeds. Their skills and working cultures owed much to their distinct political, cultural, and occupational contexts, and their experiences provided templates for countries that had not had their head start.
The result was a remarkable discipline distinguished by national experiences and goals but shaped enduringly by state intervention. Those origins have influenced public perceptions of these half-hidden specialists over the intervening decades. For some subjects, the transition between non-existence and universal recognition is relatively clear-cut and uncontentious.
They can be commemorated by anniversary banquets and founding fathers. But nuclear engineering was, and is, different. Like nearly all technical expertise, there was a time at which it did not exist at all. Yet while this discipline gained a foothold in some institutional domains—being recognized at some technical sites, taught at some universities, and accorded status by some other professional groups—its attributes, products, and experts were disputed in others.
This book explores the gestation, incubation, and emergence of the new nuclear experts, and how they established unstable public identities in three countries. The story focuses on how their special knowledge was recognized, challenged, categorized, and spread. The building of nuclear expertise—of concern to professionals, politicians, and public alike—has been a decisive factor in the practice and popular understandings of late twentieth century science, industry, and culture.
Shaped by governments and special working environments from the Manhattan Project to Fukushima, this interstitial subject and its specialists have followed a tortuous trajectory over three generations. Still unsettled and challenged, their experiences and border disputes reveal the cultural factors that shape knowledge into particular packages. History of Science: A Beginner's Guide more. Weaving together intellectual history, philosophy, and social studies, Sean Johnston offers a unique appraisal of the history of science and the nature of this evolving discipline.
Science is all-encompassing and new developments are Science is all-encompassing and new developments are usually mired in controversy; nevertheless, it is a driving force of the modern world. Based on its past, where might it lead us in the twenty-first century? Science itself has grown exponentially to involve more activity within living memory than through its previous history. Academics, government policy makers, businesses, public interest groups and scientists themselves increasingly recognize the crucial role these subjects have had in extending knowledge, driving economies, influencing opinion and shaping culture.
Science in the modern world is all-encompassing and contentious. We consume science in the films we watch, the electronic products we buy and the medications we choose. Science subtly determines our perceptions and powers, our lifestyles and longings. Aspects of what we recognize as science have been part of human cultures since prehistory, though. As these activities have impinged increasingly on the consciousness of scholars and the public, the history of science has attracted further attention and been applied to conflicting purposes.
For the British philosopher William Whewell, writing during the early nineteenth century, science and the people defined by his new term, scientists had long provided the key factor behind intellectual advancement. His History of the Inductive Sciences, published in , helped to launch a new discipline. From the Victorian era until the Great Depression, the history of science was marshaled to show the inevitability of material progress.
And for both American and Soviet philosophers after the Second World War, the trajectory of science in their nations represented the superiority of their respective political systems. But according to the counterculture ideals of the late s, the history of science revealed a long-standing linkage between scientific knowledge and military and corporate power.
Historians today recognize science as a human activity responsible in large part for the culture that we have inherited. This book introduces both the history of science and the nature of the evolving discipline, and explains why they matter in contemporary society. It seeks to provide a brief historical survey of science and its relationship to culture and, at the same time, to inculcate in its readers an awareness of the changing definition of science and sensitivity to its historical interpretation.
This traditionally has been a minefield for educators, with science students sometimes presuming that a history should reveal the progress or even moral improvement of humankind, and humanities students more often presuming tarnished or questionable ideals of what in the twentieth century became a pervasive cultural activity.
The tone of the book seeks to give a nuanced appraisal of the evolution of science and rational approaches to the natural world from prehistory to the present day, and its integration into the practices and goals of western societies over the past three centuries in particular.
At the same time — inevitably selective and limited in coverage — it explores the nature of academic knowledge by providing an overview of the evolving discipline of history of science. This short book seeks to chart those changing directions. Holography exploded on the scientific world in , but its slow fuse had been burning much longer. Over the next four decades, the echoes of that explosion reached scientists, engineers, artists and popular culture. Emerging from Emerging from classified military research, holography evolved to represent the power of post-war physics, an aesthetic union of art and science, the countercultural meanderings of holism, a cottage industry for waves of would-be entrepreneurs and a fertile plot device for science fiction.
New working cultures sprang up to mutate holography, redefining its products, reshaping its audiences and reconceiving its applications. The outcomes included ever more sublime holograms and exquisitely sensitive measuring techniques - but also priority disputes, prurience and poisonous business rivalries.
New subjects cross intellectual borders, and so do their explanations. This book draws on the history and philosophy of science and technology, social studies, politics and cultural history to trace the trajectory of holography. The result is an in-depth account of how new science emerges. Based on unprecedented interviews with pioneer holographers and extensive archival research, it reveals how science, technology, art and wider culture are entwined in the modern world.
This book tracks that explosion, from the near-silent burning of the slow fuse that lit it to the repercussions and fading embers that followed. The history of holography can be visualized as a sublime fireworks show in which there have been impressive bursts intermingled with unexpected fizzles and more than a few duds.
Yet holography has simultaneously been an iceberg-like subject, hidden and mysterious. Much of its early activity gestated in laboratories engaged in classified research, both in America and the Soviet Union; much, too, in guarded processing techniques and the secretive business practices of its major application, anti-counterfeiting; and, more recently, in Asia, where differences in language and business culture limited information flow to rumour or scientific meetings. And some aspects, such as holographic erotica, remain ever obscure.
Politics, culture, commercial secrecy, and even propriety have concealed the subject, making it peculiarly vulnerable to myths and misunderstandings. Both metaphors—of fireworks and icebergs—are inadequate, and capture only restricted perspectives of the subject. Over its first sixty years, holography has run hot and cold, a subject rich in episodes of parallel discovery, priority disputes, intellectual accomplishment, suspicion, local victories, and lost opportunities. Why attempt a history of what some still see as an immature subject?
One reason is because notions of maturity carry questionable assumptions. Holography is a young science that illustrates how new subjects come to be. It provides answers to questions such as, How does a scientific subject materialize? How does its content stabilize? How do those who practice it come to recognize themselves as a distinct group? And how do its definitions and products depend on their environments?
This is a study of how new science develops. Holography is an unusual and important example of post-war science constructed from divergent visions. It grew beyond its founding communities to generate conflicting interpretations of success. This visionary subject exemplifies how science, technology and wider culture are woven inextricably in the modern world. There is a rich thread of information to unravel, and the project is timely.
As a subject that has not enjoyed uncontentious success, archives of holography are few and historical information is ephemeral. And most of the early practitioners—known as holographers since about —were attracted to the field early in their careers.
Many are still alive, with memories, documents, and holograms. The same can be said of entire technical communities. This project has sought to capture the spirit, diversity and insights of some of those libraries. And yet this book inevitably chases shadows. I focus on the subject and its creators as much as on their remarkable products. What any text, film, or computer representation of the subject cannot do adequately is demonstrate the visual wonder of viewing a good hologram.
Like the enjoyment of a stage play, concert, or surprising magic trick, the appreciation of a hologram is a product of its time, context, and audience. It is both a permanent product and a fleeting perceptual experience. The few illustrations of holograms in this book are therefore intended as mere hints—unsatisfactory evocations—of that intense visual experience. Holograms represent the culmination of optical physics. The creation of those unsettling images is inherently a private activity hidden in dark, equipment-filled rooms but, in recent years, also a high-volume product manufactured increasingly by assembly-line processes.
This juxtaposition of the private and the public, the dimly perceived and the brightly-lit, the painstakingly created and cheaply produced, is an important feature of this modern technology. The communities and individuals that created holography—producing holograms, developing markets and becoming its consumers—each occupied separate spaces, invoked different understandings, and attached different meanings to their subject.
For that reason, readers, too, may find themselves attracted to particular parts of that history. The four sections of the book explore complementary aspects of creation. Their overall aim is to explain the emergence and evolution of the ideas, products, communities, and markets that collectively defined the new field of holography. Jenemann Foundation for the History of Scientific Instruments Judging the brightness and color of light has long been contentious. Alternately described as impossible and routine, it was beset by Alternately described as impossible and routine, it was beset by problems both technical and social.
How trustworthy could such measurements be? Was the best standard of intensity a gas lamp, an incandescent bulb, or a glowing pool of molten metal? And how much did the answers depend on the background of the specialist? A History of Light and Colour Measurement: Science in the Shadows is a history of the hidden workings of physical science-a technical endeavour embedded in a social context.
It argues that this "undisciplined" subject, straddling academia, commerce, and regulation, may be typical not only of 20th century science, but of its future. Attracting scientists, engineers, industrialists, and artists, the developing subject produced a new breed of practitioners having mixed provenance. The new measurers of light had to decide the shape not only of their specialism but of their careers: were they to be a part of physics, engineering, or psychology?
The physical scientists who dominated the subject into the early 20th century made their central aim the replacement of the problematic human eye with physical detectors of light. For psychologists between the wars, though, describing the complexity of color was more important than quantifying a handful of its dimensions. And after WWII, military designers shaped the subject of radiometry and subsumed photometry and colorimetry within it. Never attaining a professional cachet, these various specialists moved fluidly between science and technology; through government, industry, and administration.
It explores a seemingly simple question: How was the brightness of light—casually judged by everyone but seldom considered a part of science before the 20th century—transformed into a measurable and trustworthy quantity? Why did the description of colour become meaningful to artists, dyers, industrialists and a handful of scientists? Seeking answers requires the exploration of territory in the history, sociology and philosophy of science.
Light was made to count as a quantifiable entity at the same time as it came to count for something in human terms. Measuring the intensity of light was fraught with difficulties closely bound up with human physiology, contentious technologies and scientific sub-cultures. Explorations often begin with meanderings, tentative forays and more prolonged expeditions.
This one ranges over a period of years, and pursues social interactions at every scale. As the title hints, the subject was long on the periphery of recognized science. The illustrations in the book reinforce the reality of social marginalization, too: depictions of light-measurers are rare. Certainly their shrouded and blackened apparatus made photography awkward; but the reliance on human observers to make scientific measurements came to be an embarrassment to practitioners.
The practitioners remain shadowy, too, because of the low status of their occupation, commercial reticence and—somewhat later—military secrecy. The measurement of brightness came to be invested with several purposes. It gained sporadic attention through the 18th century.
By the turn of the century the illuminating engineering movement was becoming an organized, if eclectic, community promoting research into the measurement of light intensity. The early 20th century development of the subject was moulded by organization and institutionalization.
During its first two decades, new national and industrial laboratories in Britain, America and Germany were crucial in stabilizing practices and raising confidence in them. Through the inter-war period, committees and international commissions sought to standardize light and colour measurement and to promote research.
Such government- and industry-supported delegations, rather than academic institutions, were primarily responsible for the construction of the subject. Along with this social organization came a new cognitive framework: practitioners increasingly came to interpret the three topics of photometry visible light measurement , colorimetry the measurement of colour and radiometry the measurement of invisible radiations as aspects of a broader study.
From the s, the highly refined visual methods of observation were hurriedly replaced by physical means of light measurement, a process initially a matter of scientific fashion rather than demonstrated superiority. These non-human instruments embodied the new locus of light and colour, and the data they produced stabilized the definitions further. The rise of automated, mechanized measurement of light and colour introduced new communities to the subject.
New photoelectric techniques for measuring light intensity engendered new commercial instruments, a trend that accelerated in the s when photometry was taken up with mixed success for a wide range of industrial problems. Seeds sown in those years—namely commercialization and industrial application, the transition from visual to physical methods and the search for fundamental limitations in light measurement—gave the subject the form it was to retain over the next half-century. Nevertheless, changing usage mutated the subject.
Light proved to be a valuable quantity for military purposes during and after the Second World War. A wholly new body of specialists—military contractors—transformed its measurement, creating new theory, new technology, new standards and new units of measurement. Following this variety of players through their unfamiliar environments illuminates the often hidden territories of scientific change.
And two themes run throughout this account of the measurement of light and colour from its first hesitant emergence to its gradual construction as a scientific subject. The first traces changing attitudes concerning quantification. The mathematization of light was a contentious process that hinged on finding an acceptable relationship between the mutable response of the human eye and the more readily stabilized, but less encompassing, techniques of physical measurement.
The diffident acceptance of new techniques by different technical communities illuminates their value systems, interactions and socio-technical evolution. A second theme is the exploration of light measurement as a science peripheral to the concerns of many contemporary scientists and the historians who later studied them, and yet arguably typical of the scientific enterprise. The lack of attention attracted by this marginal subject belies its wide influence throughout 20th century science and technology.
By studying the range of interactions that shaped this seemingly diffuse subject, this book seeks to suggest the commonality of its evolutionary features with other subjects underpinning modern science. This richly connected region, belatedly gaining attention from historians and sociologists of science, has too long been in the shadows.
Chemical engineering - as a recognised skill in the workplace, as an academic discipline, and as an acknowledged profession - is scarcely a century old. Yet from a contested existence before the First World War, chemical engineering had Yet from a contested existence before the First World War, chemical engineering had become one of the 'big four' engineering professions in Britain, and a major contributor to Western economies, by the end of the twentieth century.
The subject had distinct national trajectories. In Britain - too long seen as shaped by American experiences - the emergence of recognised chemical engineers was the result of professional aspirations and contingency, and shaped by a shifting ecology of institutions, firms and government. Drawing upon extensive archival research, this book examines the evolution of technical practice, working environment and social interactions of chemical engineering.
It will be of considerable interest to historians, sociologists of the professions, and to practitioners themselves. Its multiple identities followed different national trajectories. In Britain — shaped by institutions, firms and governments — the emergence of recognised chemical engineers was the unique result of professional aspirations and contingency.
This book is not framed as an inward-looking or congratulatory institutional history. Nor does it attempt to catalogue the minutiae of every accomplishment, individual or committee ever associated with the Institution of Chemical Engineers. We have, instead, tried to paint with some precision the evolution of an important specialism against a rich backdrop of technical, economic and political events, and from an historical and sociological perspective.
This approach highlights the importance of scale, so central to the practice of chemical engineering: how a series of seemingly mundane decisions and singular episodes combined with long-term professional goals and enduring historical changes to create a peculiarly national variety of technical expert. But while avoiding both sentimentality and skepticism, it documents the remarkable rise of the profession due in no small part to the energetic actions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers.
The product of a particular time and place, he and more recently, she was moulded by a changing social and technical environment. The collection of attributes that characterise this species of specialist has evolved over a century, and continues to evolve today. For this reason, professional identity is an important theme of this book. Chemical engineers, and the specialism that they created, had an ephemeral identity for decades. From the transitory ghost of an idea shaped by a conjunction of interests, chemical engineering evolved into a concept buoyed up by growing consensus to compete with prevailing industrial cultures.
It took on an identity in Britain quite different from that in America and Western Europe. Because of this fractured and mutating representation, we cannot trace backwards our present or historical notions of chemical engineering before the late nineteenth century, any more than we can validly seek the origins of Art Deco in ancient Egypt.
Consequently, the book is organised chronologically to span twelve decades, although some chapters focus on specific aspects of this history. The purpose of this book is thus to provide a critical history and analysis of an idea and its consequences: the evolution to the end of the twentieth century of an identity associated with the occupation, discipline and especially the profession of chemical engineering in Britain, and the crucial role of the Institution of Chemical Engineers in that development.
The evolution of the profession is a topic unjustly neglected by historians and sociologists. Until fairly recently, most historical studies of chemical engineering have been written by former practitioners. The majority of these, in common with the few studies by professional historians, have focused on the emergence of the profession in the United States of America, where the subject had its most unproblematic success.
Such works understandably have tended to assume that the development of the intellectual foundations of the discipline in Britain was strongly influenced by American experiences. By contrast, the present study highlights the national differences in the cognitive content and scope of the subject. The history of this engineering specialism reveals a wealth of insights concerning the rise of the technical professions in Britain, their relevance in an industrialised economy and polity, the role of the universities in the emergence of academic disciplines, and changing definitions of the relationship between science and technology.
We therefore hope that it will be of interest to practising chemical engineers, historians, sociologists, and the science studies community. More Info: C. Divall and S. Origins in Fourier analysis, Albert Michelson's interference spectroscopy, and midth century physical optics, far infrared physics Origins in Fourier analysis, Albert Michelson's interference spectroscopy, and midth century physical optics, far infrared physics and astronomy are explored, as well as the lateth century exploitation by analytical chemists.
Papers history of science and technology. The postwar American scientific instrument industry more. This chapter deals with a subset of the American instrument industry, namely the measuring and monitoring instruments manufactured for scientific use. This demarcation according to customer and environment was mirrored in at least one further respect: the training of their users.
Definitions altered qualitatively after the Second World War in at least three further ways: a new genres of device altered the scope of the scientific instrument; b the contribution of State and military sponsorship of new forms of instrument became significant; and, c the postwar demand for specialist instruments increased rapidly, owing to wartime innovation, new applications and new customers.
I will explore the evolution of instrument manufacturing in this changing context of new technology, funding, development and markets. Alvin Weinberg and the promotion of the technological fix more. A longtime This paper traces the genesis and promotion of the concept by Weinberg and his contemporaries. It argues that, through it, the marginal politics and technological confidences of interwar scientists and technocrats were repositioned as mainstream notions closer to the heart of Big Science policy.
Vaunting the independent amateur: Scientific American and the representation of lay scientists more. SUMMARY This paper traces how media representations encouraged enthusiasts, youth, and skilled volunteers to participate actively in science and technology during the twentieth century. It assesses how distinctive discourses about It assesses how distinctive discourses about scientific amateurs positioned them with respect to professionals in shifting political and cultural environments.
In particular, the account assesses the seminal role of a periodical, Scientific American magazine, in shaping and championing an enduring vision of autonomous scientific enthusiasms. Between the s and s, editors Albert G. Ingalls and Clair L. Stong shepherded generations of adult 'amateur scientists'. Their columns and books popularized a vision of independent non-professional research that celebrated the frugal ingenuity and skills of inveterate tinkerers.
Some of these attributes have found more recent expression in present-day 'maker culture'. The topic consequently is relevant to the historiography of scientific practice, science popularization and science education. Its focus on independent non-professionals highlights political dimensions of agency and autonomy that have often been implicit for such historical and contemporary actors. The paper argues that the Scientific American template of adult scientific amateurism contrasted with other representations: those promoted by earlier periodicals and by a science education organization, Science Service, and by the national demands for recruiting scientific labour during and after the Second World War.
The evidence indicates that advocates of the alternative models had distinctive goals and adapted their narrative tactics to reach their intended audiences, which typically were conceived as young persons requiring instruction or mentoring. By contrast, the monthly Scientific American columns established a long-lived and stable image of the independent lay scientist. Doi: Crowd-sourced science: societal engagement, scientific authority and ethical practice more.
This paper discusses the implications for public participation in science opened by the sharing of information via electronic media. The ethical dimensions of information flow and control are linked to questions of autonomy, authority and The ethical dimensions of information flow and control are linked to questions of autonomy, authority and appropriate exploitation of knowledge.
It argues that, by lowering the boundaries that limit access and participation by wider active audiences, both scientific identity and practice are challenged in favor of extra-disciplinary and avocational communities such as scientific enthusiasts and lay experts. Reconfigurations of hierarchy, mediated by new channels of information flow, are increasingly visible at the interface between professional and non-professional practice.
Both participatory models are increasingly reliant on information exchange via social media, but may be implemented to support distinctly different societal goals and beneficiaries. Issue: 1 Volume: 26 Journal Name: J. The technological fix as social cure-all: origins and implications more. Inaugural lecture: Science, Technology and Society for our Century more. Inaugural lecture, 16 Apr , University of Glasgow The links between science and technology, on the one hand, and wider society, on the other, have been the focus of growing attention over the past two generations.
This inaugural Illustrated by career experiences as a participant and researcher in emerging fields, his session will highlight the advantages of an interdisciplinary approach for creating new knowledge and opportunities.
The lecture will describe how current research and postgraduate teaching seek to identify and tackle issues at the heart of our current century. Science Studies in a Liberal Arts Curriculum more. From the perspective of a British undergraduate student and many academics, this chapter may seem an anomaly. The idea of studying subjects related to science in an institution closely affiliated with a Faculty of Arts, and even the The idea of studying subjects related to science in an institution closely affiliated with a Faculty of Arts, and even the meaning of a 'liberal arts' education itself, may provoke blank stares or evoke mistrust.
The word 'Studies' in the title may also suggest unappealing connotations of a cobbled-together, posts palette of subjects designed to appeal to a fickle audience unable or unwilling to engage deeply enough with a discipline to make it their own.
While subjects such as Environmental Studies and Science Studies appeared in the s partly as a reaction to student criticisms of the irrelevance of traditional disciplines, these subjects can play a crucial role in the undergraduate curriculum of a flexible institution. And such subjects represent not merely a reaction, but also a positive action to create productive new academic perspectives. Rex Taylor and the University of Glasgow committees that sketched the original curriculum for Crichton, aware of these possibilities, based three of the initial five lectureships on Scottish, Environmental and Science Studies.
Before highlighting the potential of carefully crafted interdisciplinary studies of science, though, it is important to point out that their study at an institution such as the Crichton Campus has strong historical precedents, and is anything but an anomaly.
The artes liberales, taught in academic institutions of the Middle Ages, incorporated all scholastic knowledge that would be of benefit to a free man in his pursuit of further knowledge. When the University of Glasgow was founded in , the artes liberales combined training in philosophy and theology to prepare the student for studying science in the broadest sense of the word.
The medieval curriculum identified seven such arts, divisible into two groups. The first group comprised the sciences of logic, language and oratory in the form of dialectic, grammar and rhetoric, and was known as language studies, or the artes sermocinales. It was deemed to be an elementary threefold study, or trivium. Historiography of science: It's how you tell the story More Info: Chapter 7 extract, pp. Technological parables and iconic illustrations: American technocracy and the rhetoric of the technological fix more.
The account focuses on the expression of this technological faith, and how it was proselytized, from the era of high industrialism between the World Wars through, and beyond, the nuclear age. I argue that the packaging and promotion of these ideas relied on allegorical technological tales and readily-absorbed graphic imagery.
The style and conviction of the messages were echoed by establishment figures such as National Lab director Alvin Weinberg, who employed the techniques to convert mainstream and elite audiences through the end of the twentieth century. Holograms: the story of a word and its cultural uses more.
This is an overview of all existing partial lists of numbered minor planets LoMP. Each table stands for , minor planets, each cell for a specific partial list of 1, sequentially numbered bodies. The data is sourced from the Minor Planet Center. The following are lists of minor planets by physical properties, orbital properties, or discovery circumstances:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Catalog of all numbered asteroids and distant objects in the Solar System. The catalog of minor planets is published by the Minor Planet Center and contains more than half a million entries, including Pluto. Lemmon Srvy. For a more comprehensive list, see List of minor planet discoverers. For an overview, see Minor planet , Category:Lists of minor planets , and Category:Lists of asteroids.
Instead, LoMP-entries for members of these families display the number of the parent body, e. At least five of these bodies have a semi-major axis too large to be an outer main-belt asteroid, and an orbit too eccentric to be classified as a Jupiter trojan JPL classifies these bodies simply as "asteroids", while the MPC, which never distinguishes between inner, outer and middle MBAs, classifies them as "main-belt asteroids".
This is: 0. The conversion formula for a given albedo and abs. Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 October Asteroids: New Observations. Bibcode : IAUS.. August Physica Scripta. Bibcode : PhST.. Retrieved 16 January Retrieved 27 May In most cases, this is about 4 to 6 months a year.
Some notable minor planets are exceptions to this rule, such as Duende. Science News. Retrieved 6 April Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 22 October Retrieved 21 February Robert 18 August Johnston's Archive. Robert 10 October Bibcode : Icar.. Retrieved 25 June Group Family list. Minor planets navigator. List of minor planets 1 Ceres 2 Pallas. Small Solar System bodies. Designation Groups List Moon Meanings of names. Cosmic dust Meteoroids Space debris. Solar System. Modern impact events.
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We will be bred out of existence or killed. Iran and Syria are the only significant opponents of the Jew-logarchy. They are both allies of Russia, so they stand a chance at surviving for now. The Jews have two proxy armies: 1 Muslims and non-whites flooding into white nations in order to carry out white genocide; 2 the combined armed forces of the U. Hence the demonization of Russia and saber rattling at Syria and Iran.
Nor China. As Nasrallah said, recently, we have enough missiles to bring Israel into the Stone Age. Their great weakness is their tiny size. Our task will be creation of local and administrative blocs to break away and deny Washington ZOG the money they need to survive.
Presumably, they will be eagerly welcomed into advanced research facilities of all types-commercial and military. From there, the advance knowledge can be easily be transmitted back to Israel. So, Israel can benefit from the intelligence and research that someone else is paying and providing the facilities where it is developed. This resembles outsourcing, but of a different flavor, which is that Israel gets a return. This has been reported on many times.
They only difference is the degree. Unsuitable, untreated sewage ; which also covers the garbage women laughing in the background! You mention in passing Emma Barnett. Peter Aldag summed it up pretty well in in his book, Juden beherrschen England. The situation is much worse today, however, as Tobias and others repeatedly document at this site.
You know Andrew what about the Freemasons? They needed the goyim help and from this one cult and they got it all. Everything is built under the all seeing eye? Tables and chairs arranged perfectly et al? White Europeans, including my own families lineage have bought into the myth that Jews and Christians have the same fundamental values.
Christians believe in hell. Christian dogma preach good and evil. Christians believe in forgive and forget. Jews never forget. Christianity has its roots in Europe not Israel as Judaism has. I think this has given these two cultures very different temperaments which European White society find both frustrating and frightening.
Judaism has a history twice as long as Christianity and has melded into foreign cultures for centuries. This has given Judaism an advantage in interpersonal relations that others might interpret as covert narcissism. When White Europeans colonized Africa and the Americas does anyone really think the indigenous people welcomed this hegemony. White Europeans used Christianity as a means to an end now that neocolonism has given its last whimper and look with envy as Jewish settlements flourish.
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Barking at Boycott But the media have certainly been barking furiously at Geoffrey Boycott. With allies like Israel, who needs enemies? Little-known facts The silence about Ehud Sheleg and his knighthood proves that Jews have indeed placed themselves beyond scrutiny. Just look around. All of the social-institutions they control are in free fall. Because the 1 consequence of totalitarianism is instability. Control is destablizing. Their single-mindedness of purpose has them locked in a vicious cycle.
The result is the collapse of the social-instutions JSI controls. Andrew You know Andrew what about the Freemasons? I believe Henry Makow also has a good book out about this cult. Culture of Critique. Separation and Its Discontents. Close Learn more.
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The U. Commodity Futures Trading Commission warns that "some binary options Internet-based trading platforms may overstate the average return on investment by advertising a higher average return on investment than a customer should expect given the payout structure.
In the Black—Scholes model , the price of the option can be found by the formulas below. This pays out one unit of cash if the spot is above the strike at maturity. Its value now is given by. This pays out one unit of cash if the spot is below the strike at maturity. This pays out one unit of asset if the spot is above the strike at maturity. This pays out one unit of asset if the spot is below the strike at maturity. The price of a cash-or-nothing American binary put resp.
The above follows immediately from expressions for the Laplace transform of the distribution of the conditional first passage time of Brownian motion to a particular level. Similarly, paying out 1 unit of the foreign currency if the spot at maturity is above or below the strike is exactly like an asset-or nothing call and put respectively.
The Black—Scholes model relies on symmetry of distribution and ignores the skewness of the distribution of the asset. The skew matters because it affects the binary considerably more than the regular options. A binary call option is, at long expirations, similar to a tight call spread using two vanilla options. Thus, the value of a binary call is the negative of the derivative of the price of a vanilla call with respect to strike price:.
Skew is typically negative, so the value of a binary call is higher when taking skew into account. Since a binary call is a mathematical derivative of a vanilla call with respect to strike, the price of a binary call has the same shape as the delta of a vanilla call, and the delta of a binary call has the same shape as the gamma of a vanilla call. Many binary option "brokers" have been exposed as fraudulent operations.
Manipulation of price data to cause customers to lose is common. Withdrawals are regularly stalled or refused by such operations; if a client has good reason to expect a payment, the operator will simply stop taking their phone calls. On 23 March , The European Securities and Markets Authority , a European Union financial regulatory institution and European Supervisory Authority located in Paris, agreed to new temporary rules prohibiting the marketing, distribution or sale of binary options to retail clients.
In August , Belgium's Financial Services and Markets Authority banned binary options schemes, based on concerns about widespread fraud. No firms are registered in Canada to offer or sell binary options, so no binary options trading is currently allowed. Provincial regulators have proposed a complete ban on all binary options trading include a ban on online advertising for binary options trading sites.
The effect is that binary options platforms operating in Cyprus, where many of the platforms are now based, would have to be CySEC regulated within six months of the date of the announcement. In , CySEC prevailed over the disreputable binary options brokers and communicated intensively with traders in order to prevent the risks of using unregulated financial services.
CySEC also temporarily suspended the license of the Cedar Finance on December 19, , because the potential violations referenced appeared to seriously endanger the interests of the company's customers and the proper functioning of capital markets, as described in the official issued press release. CySEC also issued a warning against binary option broker PlanetOption at the end of the year and another warning against binary option broker LBinary on January 10, , pointing out that it was not regulated by the Commission and the Commission had not received any notification by any of its counterparts in other European countries to the effect of this firm being a regulated provider.
OptionBravo and ChargeXP were also financially penalized. The AMF stated that it would ban the advertising of certain highly speculative and risky financial contracts to private individuals by electronic means. The French regulator is determined to cooperate with the legal authorities to have illegal websites blocked. This ban was seen by industry watchers as having an impact on sponsored sports such as European football clubs.
In March binary options trading within Israel was banned by the Israel Securities Authority , on the grounds that such trading is essentially gambling and not a form of investment management. The ban was extended to overseas clients as well in October In The Times of Israel ran several articles on binary options fraud. The companies were also banned permanently from operating in the United States or selling to U. The CEO and six other employees were charged with fraud, providing unlicensed investment advice, and obstruction of justice.
On May 15, , Eliran Saada, the owner of Express Target Marketing , which has operated the binary options companies InsideOption and SecuredOptions, was arrested on suspicion of fraud, false accounting, forgery, extortion , and blackmail. In August Israeli police superintendent Rafi Biton said that the binary trading industry had "turned into a monster". He told the Israeli Knesset that criminal investigations had begun.
They arrested her for wire fraud and conspiracy to commit wire fraud. Smith was arrested for wire fraud due to his involvement as an employee of Binarybook. This required providers to obtain a category 3 Investment Services license and conform to MiFID's minimum capital requirements ; firms could previously operate from the jurisdiction with a valid Lottery and Gaming Authority license.
In April , New Zealand 's Financial Markets Authority FMA announced that all brokers that offer short-term investment instruments that settle within three days are required to obtain a license from the agency. The Isle of Man , a self-governing Crown dependency for which the UK is responsible, has issued licenses to companies offering binary options as "games of skill" licensed and regulated under fixed odds betting by the Isle of Man Gambling Supervision Commission GSC.
On October 19, , London police raided 20 binary options firms in London. Fraud within the market is rife, with many binary options providers using the names of famous and respectable people without their knowledge. In the United States, the Securities and Exchange Commission approved exchange-traded binary options in On the exchange binary options were called "fixed return options" FROs.
To reduce the threat of market manipulation of single stocks, FROs use a "settlement index" defined as a volume-weighted average of trades on the expiration day. Montanaro submitted a patent application for exchange-listed binary options using a volume-weighted settlement index in They do not participate in the trades.
On June 6, , the U. The two agencies said that they had received numerous complaints of fraud about binary options trading sites, "including refusal to credit customer accounts or reimburse funds to customers; identity theft ; and manipulation of software to generate losing trades".
Other binary options operations were violating requirements to register with regulators. In June , U. Regulators found the company used a "virtual office" in New York's Trump Tower in pursuit of its scheme, evading a ban on off-exchange binary option contracts. The company neither admitted nor denied the allegations. In February The Times of Israel reported that the FBI was conducting an active international investigation of binary option fraud, emphasizing its international nature, saying that the agency was "not limited to the USA".
The investigation is not limited to the binary options brokers, but is comprehensive and could include companies that provide services that allow the industry to operate. Credit card issuers will be informed of the fraudulent nature of much of the industry, which could possibly allow victims to receive a chargeback , or refund, of fraudulently obtained money.
On March 13, , the FBI reiterated its warning, declaring that the "perpetrators behind many of the binary options websites, primarily criminals located overseas, are only interested in one thing—taking your money".
They also provide a checklist on how to avoid being victimized. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Further information: Foreign exchange derivative. Further information: Securities fraud. Journal of Business , The volatility surface: a practitioner's guide Vol. Retrieved Retrieved 17 December Federal Bureau of Investigation. The Times of Israel. Retrieved February 15, Retrieved March 15, International Business Times AU.
Retrieved March 4, The Guardian. Retrieved 18 May Retrieved December 8, Retrieved October 24, This benefit means that the binary options trader can feel secure in knowing that their downside is limited to their initial trade size. While they can still profit if their market view turns out to be correct, they avoid having to worry about stop loss order slippage or losing their trading discipline.
Several types of Binary Options can now be traded online using a variety of binary options trading strategies. Basically, a trader will receive a payout on a long binary option if the market is higher than the strike price of an above binary at expiration, or under the strike of a below binary. Several types of Binary Optionscan now be traded online using a variety of binary options trading strategies.
Binary Options Trading Strategies. Trading with Binary Options.
If you need to make more complex queries, use the tips below to guide you. At its most basic, digital preservation comprises a series of risks, and strategies to mitigate them. And no matter the scale or type of collections, whether born-digital, digitized, or both, the same challenges and risks apply and similar strategies can be employed. This paper identifies a series of common challenges and potential strategies that can be put in place no matter the type or size of collection or collecting organization.
Digital Preservation is not new. While we might not have called it digital preservation at the time, the National Archives started accessioning and preserving born-digital records fifty years ago, in Over the past twenty-five years our community conversations about digital preservation became more common, but were initially focused almost entirely on technology: Which types of storage media were optimal? How many copies should we store?
What were the appropriate data and metadata models for storing those objects? How would we build and maintain the tools necessary to store copies of our collections [ 1 — 4 , 6 , 7 ]? We asked those questions because they seemed discrete and knowable, something we could analyze and answer and test against when we were developing hopefully relevant metrics for the attributes and responsibilities of a trusted digital repository and preservation program [ 8 , 9 ].
As the profession and the programs at our institutions became more mature, conversations shifted. What was necessary not only technologically, but also programmatically to ensure ongoing access to the collections we preserve? That panic, whether right or wrong, drew attention to the issues and resulted in additional public funding for a hoped-for collaborative, national infrastructure.
What were the staffing requirements? Did we really think that we could preserve everything, and when we collectively understood that we definitely could not, what were the selection criteria and collaborations required to ensure that we could preserve as much as possible?
What were the digital preservation operational and policy gaps [ 14 , 15 ]? And, when all was said and done, could digital preservation be affordable and sustainable [ 16 , 17 ]? What are some of the issues driving digital preservation today?
The first is Heterogeneity. There are literally thousands, perhaps tens of thousands, of variant versions of file formats going back to the mid-twentieth century, and the growth of formats will not stop. We cannot identify every legacy format with certainty: consider the. Shorthand for document, it was originally used by WordPerfect as the extension for their proprietary binary text format. In , Microsoft also chose. Other word processing programs also allowed users to select their own extensions, which meant that there are over thirty years of.
There have been over one dozen versions of core PDF - 1. PDF is associated with dozens of Adobe Acrobat releases dating back to the mids, stand-alone distiller software bundled into other applications, and varying levels of support for PDF creation and viewing in hundreds of other applications. Multiply this by every possible type of research and business activity for fifty to sixty years and you will understand the scope of the challenge.
The U. A combination of commercial current and vintage , open source, and forensic tools are needed to characterize the formats where possible, to view the files to confirm their content and describe them, and to transform the files into sustainable preservation formats and accessible public use versions [ 18 ]. In order to preserve those files, the first challenge is the ability to read the files from the media on which they are stored. How many of us still have files on 3. There are dozens of carrier formats - floppy disks, hard drives, CDs, DVDs, thumb drives, tapes, etc.
Both files and the infrastructures that create them introduce the second issue - increasing Complexity. Born-digital and digitized collections do not exist without context, which must be recorded and maintained. The context includes the provenance of the files, their original arrangement and intellectual relationships, preservation metadata, and descriptive metadata. Consider geospatial GIS data files, digital design files, databases, software, and web sites, all of which require all of their parts to accurately render their aggregated content.
In some cases, one cannot convert file formats or change the structure because content integrity and functionality will be altered - even just migrating the formats may lose vital functionality with which to interact with the content. The most difficult of all to move into the preservation lifecycle are items or objects which are created and stored inside systems. They may never be instantiated as discrete files in directories on machines, or may exist in a hybrid state where descriptive, technical, and structural metadata is in a system and some linked component files are elsewhere.
This is true of business systems such as personnel systems, case management tools, publishing or document management systems, or web content management systems. This introduces a level of risk where content must be exported from one environment to another and instantiated in one or more new formats, potentially introducing loss of the inherent essential characteristics of the items or their authenticity.
Unsurprisingly, another issue is Scale. As an example, there are thousands of researchers, students, and prominent individuals associated with any given university whose research and personal files will be collected by its archives alongside its corporate records.
This is on top of the more traditional library monograph and serial publications, whether physical or digital. As another exaple, the National Archives record collecting scope includes the more than four hundred departments, agencies, and sub-agencies in the federal government that are creating records, and the records of each Presidential administration and session of Congress. There is a massive amount of observational data and countless research datasets created as direct research products or data collection efforts that universities and other cultural heritage organizations must potentially retain and preserve due to federal and local research data preservation policies.
Another visible aspect of scale is that there are now huge numbers of files being created by every individual or observational instrument or digitization effort every day, and that some types of collections - audio, video, film, email - produce both huge files and huge numbers of files to preserve. They all require processing, sometimes just to appraise whether they will be preserved at all [ 19 , 20 ].
The third issue is that the Technology that is required for all of these efforts is changing nonstop. With heterogeneity comes a wide variety of ever-changing tools and workflows needed to view, process, describe, preserve, and provide access to digital collections. With scale also comes stress on networks and the limiters of moving files using web protocols when operating in the Cloud; most services, web servers, and browsers throttle the amount of bandwidth that can be consumed so no one process can dominate, and set limits on the size of files that can be moved, often to a small number of Gigabytes.
Larger file types are often broken into several smaller files to be moved, or are compressed in ways that can be risky to data integrity and authenticity when the files are unpacked. To work with digital collections of any size and scale, machines, whether physical or virtual, will require increasingly more storage and memory, faster and more processors, more storage, and higher bandwidth network connections. This will not decrease over time.
The last issue to consider is not technical - it is human. We are serving Multiple Communities and Goals. Just as there is no single community of creators, neither is there a uniform and unchanging designated community of users. And new communities will always emerge with new technologies; for example, other machines and web services may soon make up even more of the use of our collections through APIs and Linked-Data than human researchers.
But ultimately, it is people guiding and asking for the results of those machine processes. It is well-known to those who trained in collection development theory that we will never know which of our collections will prove to be the most useful to researchers in the future, or when that day will come, so we must be both collecting broadly and preserving what we can for that future time.
We will need to change our own organizations to meet the needs of our collections and our communities. What are some of the most successful digital preservation strategies? The digital preservation life cycle starts with the people creating the files, not when the files come to our organizations to preserve them, so, wherever possible, Guidance for Creators is extraordinarily valuable.
There is no such thing as the ability to completely enforce what is created or what is collected, because the work requires whatever the appropriate tools or formats are for the full range of business, personal, creative, or research endeavors. But guidance can address file management strategies as well as preferred and acceptable formats and minimum metadata for both the work and for acquisition and preservation. Inventory and count the files that you have on every box, every server, and every piece of media that make up the collections in all the places and systems where they reside.
These efforts are the necessary basics to work toward a necessary goal of consolidation into fewer storage and systems of record and, hopefully, into a single preservation environment. An Ongoing Risk Assessment is the next step after gaining initial control. Use that information to build a collection profile that identifies all the file formats in the collection.
You may not be able to characterize or validate the formats at a highly-granular level, such as Microsoft Works Database for Window 3. The hoped-for goal for the preservation plans is to always preserve the essential characteristics and content of the files to the fullest extent possible in every storage or format migration.
The ability to take preservation actions in accordance with preservation plans requires a Scalable and Flexible Infrastructure. One of the core premises of preservation storage is that multiple copies of files across different storage media and architectures, combined with geographic distribution, provides the greatest risk mitigation.
In the past we would have said one copy on spinning disk, one on a different type of media in the same or a different location, and a backup copy somewhere else, often on tape. With increasing numbers, variety, and the overall extent of files, local processing resources and on-premise storage will be increasingly difficult to scale up to cover multiple copies.
This is not to say that there are no inherent risks in the Cloud; you are trusting preservation services to a corporate or non-profit entity that could disappear at any time, and whose storage over which you may have little to no direct control. At scale, though, the tiered storage costs and replication are an attractive option. Whether on-premise, in the Cloud, or a hybrid, one point must always be made clear: backups are not archives.
Niederriter, Juliet T. Gopinath, and Mark E. Siemens Appl. Herman and T. Wiggins Appl. Sho Amano and Takayasu Mochizuki Appl. Laurence Korb, Bruce M. Gentry, S. Xingfu Li, and Cristina Flesia Appl. Enrico Nichelatti and Giulio Pozzi Appl.
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