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When signing a transaction on the offline computer, make sure that destination addresses are really correct. Malware on the online computer could swap out the address with an address belonging to the attacker. It could even partially brute-force the addresses so that a few of their characters match, so check the entire address.

The wallet software used for cold storage must support watch-only wallets and offline signing. Ideally the online wallet would be backed by a full node for the privacy, security and validation benefits. Cold storage requires on transferring master public keys and partially-signed transactions between the offline and online computers. There are several methods to do this:. The data can be stored on a USB flash drive and passed between the computers.

The advantages are speed and convenience. A disadvantage is that the USB interface still has an attack surface. Sophisiticated malware used in cyberwarface such as Stuxnet and agent. These kind of attacks may not be a concern if the aim is to secure smaller amounts. The SecureDrop platform for securely leaking documents to journalists also uses USB drives for secure communication.

The data can be encoded into QR codes and each computer can be equipped with a camera for scanning them. Advantages are speed and conveniance; QR codes are also believed to have a smaller attack surface than USB flash drives. A major disadvantage is that QR codes have size limits and so may not be able to encode larger bitcoin transactions, although the transactions could be split up into multiple chunks and recombined at the other end.

This method involves displaying the data on screen and either 1 typing it with the keyboard of the other computer or 2 writing it down on paper and then typing into the other computer. The advantage is that any security issues of USB interfaces or cameras are completely avoided. The disadvantage is speed as this method is very very slow; bitcoin transactions can be tens of kilobytes in size and each character would need to be carefully copied without mistakes.

This article only recommends using seed phrases possibly with encryption to store private key backups. Seed phrases written into metal or on paper support deterministic wallets and encryption. As seed phrases use natural language words, they have excellent error correction.

Words written in bad handwriting can often still be read. If one or two letters are missing or unreadable the word can often still be deduced. The word list that the seed phrase words are drawn from is carefully chosen so that the first four letters of each word are enough to uniquely identify it. Raw private keys written on a piece of paper:. Silver, gold, copper, brass, bronze, nickel, cobalt, would survive the housefire fire unmelted. Some Aluminium alloys can survive but you have to have the right ones.

Hal relished life, and he made the most of everything. Finney was also an avowed libertarian and well-known figure within the cypherpunks, another early '90s, mailing-list-centered group focused on empowering individuals with encryption, preserving privacy, and foiling surveillance. Finney created the first so-called "cypherpunk remailer," a piece of software that would receive encrypted email and bounce messages to their destinations to prevent anyone from identifying the sender.

He also became the first coder to work with Phil Zimmermann on Pretty Good Privacy or PGP, the first freely available strong crypto tool, and designed the software's "web-of-trust" model of verifying PGP users' identities. That same forward-looking spirit led Finney to embrace bitcoin before practically anyone other than its creator thought it might be a viable system, let alone a multi-billion dollar economy.

Finney spotted Satoshi Nakamoto's bitcoin whitepaper on a cryptography mailing list in and immediately began exchanging emails with him, eventually helping to debug its code, perform its first test transactions, and mine a substantial hoard of the cryptocurrency. I was more idealistic; I have always loved crypto, the mystery and the paradox of it," Finney wrote on the BitcoinTalk forum last year.

I was more positive. Finney's positivity extended to his personal interactions, too. Colleagues from as early as college say he was as kind and generous as he was brilliant. I wish I could be like him. Even Finney's ALS diagnosis in didn't slow his technological experimentation. As paralysis set in, he continued to contribute to bitcoin discussions and write code using software that translated his eye movements into text.

He even created software that allowed him to use his eyes to adjust his own mechanized wheelchair's position. When I visited Finney in his Santa Barbara home earlier this year, his eye control was beginning to fail, too, and he was mostly reduced to delivering yes-and-no answers to my questions based on eyebrow movements. Even then, he was extraordinarily kindhe spent the first 10 minutes of our conversation composing a sentence on his computer telling me not to feel bad that I had gotten caught in traffic and arrived 15 minutes late.

Finney never quite got rich from his early bitcoin involvement, according to Fran. Much of their savings went toward his health care as his condition deteriorated. They traded the majority of his bitcoins for dollars long before the currency's spike in value late last year. Initially, Fran Finney tells me, the family intended to spend that money to buy Finney a new computer interface that would use an electromyographic EMG switch to read electric signals from surface muscle, allowing him to better control his voice and writing software.

But the interface was incompatible with the few muscles Finney still controlled, leaving him locked in a body that increasingly prevented him from communicating at all. So instead, the bitcoin donations will now go toward Finney's cryonic procedures, along with a life insurance policy the Finneys have maintained for years to prepare for Alcor's substantial fee. Already, Fran says, the idea that her husband has been preserved in some sense comforts her. Around the time of his diagnosis, Finney said he found that his cryonics plan gave him some comfort, too.

But it turns out that in this kind of situation, it helps tremendously to have reasons for hope, and cryonics provides another avenue for a possibly favorable outcome.


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Gox was a bitcoin exchange based in ShibuyaTokyo, Japan.

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Sport spread betting companies uk These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. Of course, he didn't have a quantum computer, because bitcoins wiki frozen does. Actual participant numbers were much smaller: a few thousand for Bitcoin, a few hundred thousand for Folding home. In order to prop up the initial system, Bitcoin mining was designed to bribe early users with exponentially better rewards than latecomers could get for the same effort. A database structures its data into tables whereas a blockchain, like its name implies, structures its data into chunks blocks that are chained together. Archived from the original on 29 September
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Bitcoins wiki frozen Cold storage in the context of Bitcoin refers to storing Bitcoins offline and spending without the private keys controlling them ever being online. Although users can access details about bitcoins wiki frozen, they cannot access identifying information about the users making those transactions. On 25 FebruaryMt. On 20 Februarywith all withdrawals still halted, Mt. A blockchain is a gigantic database that records every transaction ever made for everyone to see — including your grandma; [71] [15] [16] paper money transactions do not suffer from this flaw. Bitcoin actually uses integer calculations, so that number's fudged, but it's still the largest by a ridiculous margin.
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Release 0. It introduced a consensus library which gave programmers easy access to the rules governing consensus on the network. In version 0. In July , the CheckSequenceVerify soft fork activated. In October , Bitcoin Core's 0. On 15 July , the controversial Segregated Witness [SegWit] software upgrade was approved "locked-in".

Segwit was intended to support the Lightning Network as well as improve scalability. China banned trading in bitcoin, with first steps taken in September , and a complete ban that started on 1 February In September , an anonymous party discovered and reported an invalid-block denial-of-server vulnerability to developers of Bitcoin Core, Bitcoin ABC and Bitcoin Unlimited.

Further analysis by bitcoin developers showed the issue could also allow the creation of blocks violating the 21 million coin limit and CVE - was assigned and the issue resolved. Bitcoin prices were negatively affected by several hacks or thefts from cryptocurrency exchanges, including thefts from Coincheck in January , Bithumb in June, and Bancor in July.

According to CoinMetrics and Forbes , on 11 March , bitcoins were sold by owners who held them for only thirty days. This compared to 4, bitcoins that had laid dormant for a year or more, indicating that the vast majority of the bitcoin volatility on that day was from recent buyers. In February , the Canton of Zug in Switzerland will start to accept tax payments in bitcoin.

The unit of account of the bitcoin system is a bitcoin. The bitcoin blockchain is a public ledger that records bitcoin transactions. A network of communicating nodes running bitcoin software maintains the blockchain.

Network nodes can validate transactions, add them to their copy of the ledger, and then broadcast these ledger additions to other nodes. To achieve independent verification of the chain of ownership each network node stores its own copy of the blockchain. This allows bitcoin software to determine when a particular bitcoin was spent, which is needed to prevent double-spending.

A conventional ledger records the transfers of actual bills or promissory notes that exist apart from it, but the blockchain is the only place that bitcoins can be said to exist in the form of unspent outputs of transactions.

Transactions are defined using a Forth -like scripting language. When a user sends bitcoins, the user designates each address and the amount of bitcoin being sent to that address in an output. To prevent double spending, each input must refer to a previous unspent output in the blockchain. Since transactions can have multiple outputs, users can send bitcoins to multiple recipients in one transaction.

As in a cash transaction, the sum of inputs coins used to pay can exceed the intended sum of payments. In such a case, an additional output is used, returning the change back to the payer. Though transaction fees are optional, miners can choose which transactions to process and prioritize those that pay higher fees.

The size of transactions is dependent on the number of inputs used to create the transaction, and the number of outputs. In the blockchain, bitcoins are registered to bitcoin addresses. Creating a bitcoin address requires nothing more than picking a random valid private key and computing the corresponding bitcoin address. This computation can be done in a split second. But the reverse, computing the private key of a given bitcoin address, is practically unfeasible.

Moreover, the number of valid private keys is so vast that it is extremely unlikely someone will compute a key-pair that is already in use and has funds. The vast number of valid private keys makes it unfeasible that brute force could be used to compromise a private key. To be able to spend their bitcoins, the owner must know the corresponding private key and digitally sign the transaction.

The network verifies the signature using the public key ; the private key is never revealed. If the private key is lost, the bitcoin network will not recognize any other evidence of ownership; [34] the coins are then unusable, and effectively lost. To ensure the security of bitcoins, the private key must be kept secret. Regarding ownership distribution, as of 16 March , 0. Mining is a record-keeping service done through the use of computer processing power.

To be accepted by the rest of the network, a new block must contain a proof-of-work PoW. Every 2, blocks approximately 14 days at roughly 10 min per block , the difficulty target is adjusted based on the network's recent performance, with the aim of keeping the average time between new blocks at ten minutes. In this way the system automatically adapts to the total amount of mining power on the network.

The proof-of-work system, alongside the chaining of blocks, makes modifications of the blockchain extremely hard, as an attacker must modify all subsequent blocks in order for the modifications of one block to be accepted. The successful miner finding the new block is allowed by the rest of the network to reward themselves with newly created bitcoins and transaction fees. To claim the reward, a special transaction called a coinbase is included with the processed payments.

The bitcoin protocol specifies that the reward for adding a block will be halved every , blocks approximately every four years. Eventually, the reward will decrease to zero, and the limit of 21 million bitcoins [g] will be reached c. New bitcoins are created roughly every ten minutes and the rate at which they are generated drops by half about every four years until all will be in circulation. Computing power is often bundled together or "pooled" to reduce variance in miner income.

Individual mining rigs often have to wait for long periods to confirm a block of transactions and receive payment. In a pool, all participating miners get paid every time a participating server solves a block. This payment depends on the amount of work an individual miner contributed to help find that block. A wallet stores the information necessary to transact bitcoins.

While wallets are often described as a place to hold [] or store bitcoins, due to the nature of the system, bitcoins are inseparable from the blockchain transaction ledger. A wallet is more correctly defined as something that "stores the digital credentials for your bitcoin holdings" and allows one to access and spend them. There are several modes which wallets can operate in. They have an inverse relationship with regards to trustlessness and computational requirements.

Third-party internet services called online wallets offer similar functionality but may be easier to use. In this case, credentials to access funds are stored with the online wallet provider rather than on the user's hardware. A malicious provider or a breach in server security may cause entrusted bitcoins to be stolen.

An example of such a security breach occurred with Mt. Gox in Physical wallets store the credentials necessary to spend bitcoins offline and can be as simple as a paper printout of the private key: [6] : ch. A paper wallet is created with a keypair generated on a computer with no internet connection ; the private key is written or printed onto the paper [h] and then erased from the computer. The paper wallet can then be stored in a safe physical location for later retrieval.

Bitcoins stored using a paper wallet are said to be in cold storage. Physical wallets can also take the form of metal token coins [] with a private key accessible under a security hologram in a recess struck on the reverse side. Another type of physical wallet called a hardware wallet keeps credentials offline while facilitating transactions. Hardware wallets never expose their private keys, keeping bitcoins in cold storage even when used with computers that may be compromised by malware.

The first wallet program, simply named Bitcoin , and sometimes referred to as the Satoshi client , was released in by Satoshi Nakamoto as open-source software. Bitcoin Core is, perhaps, the best known implementation or client. On 1 August , Bitcoin Cash was created as result of a hard fork. On 24 October another hard fork, Bitcoin Gold , was created.

Bitcoin Gold changes the proof-of-work algorithm used in mining, as the developers felt that mining had become too specialized. Bitcoin is decentralized thus: [7]. Researchers have pointed out at a "trend towards centralization". Although bitcoin can be sent directly from user to user, in practice intermediaries are widely used. The pool has voluntarily capped their hashing power at According to researchers, other parts of the ecosystem are also "controlled by a small set of entities", notably the maintenance of the client software, online wallets and simplified payment verification SPV clients.

Bitcoin is pseudonymous , meaning that funds are not tied to real-world entities but rather bitcoin addresses. Owners of bitcoin addresses are not explicitly identified, but all transactions on the blockchain are public. In addition, transactions can be linked to individuals and companies through "idioms of use" e.

Wallets and similar software technically handle all bitcoins as equivalent, establishing the basic level of fungibility. Researchers have pointed out that the history of each bitcoin is registered and publicly available in the blockchain ledger, and that some users may refuse to accept bitcoins coming from controversial transactions, which would harm bitcoin's fungibility.

Gox froze accounts of users who deposited bitcoins that were known to have just been stolen. The blocks in the blockchain were originally limited to 32 megabytes in size. The block size limit of one megabyte was introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto in Eventually the block size limit of one megabyte created problems for transaction processing, such as increasing transaction fees and delayed processing of transactions.

Satoshi Nakamoto stated in his white paper that: "The root problem with conventional currencies is all the trust that's required to make it work. The central bank must be trusted not to debase the currency, but the history of fiat currencies is full of breaches of that trust. According to the European Central Bank , the decentralization of money offered by bitcoin has its theoretical roots in the Austrian school of economics , especially with Friedrich von Hayek in his book Denationalisation of Money: The Argument Refined , [] in which Hayek advocates a complete free market in the production, distribution and management of money to end the monopoly of central banks.

According to The New York Times , libertarians and anarchists were attracted to the idea. Early bitcoin supporter Roger Ver said: "At first, almost everyone who got involved did so for philosophical reasons. We saw bitcoin as a great idea, as a way to separate money from the state. Nigel Dodd argues in The Social Life of Bitcoin that the essence of the bitcoin ideology is to remove money from social, as well as governmental, control.

The declaration includes a message of crypto-anarchism with the words: "Bitcoin is inherently anti-establishment, anti-system, and anti-state. Bitcoin undermines governments and disrupts institutions because bitcoin is fundamentally humanitarian. David Golumbia says that the ideas influencing bitcoin advocates emerge from right-wing extremist movements such as the Liberty Lobby and the John Birch Society and their anti-Central Bank rhetoric, or, more recently, Ron Paul and Tea Party -style libertarianism.

It takes control back from central authorities. It's revolutionary. A study of Google Trends data found correlations between bitcoin-related searches and ones related to computer programming and illegal activity, but not libertarianism or investment topics. Bitcoin is a digital asset designed to work in peer-to-peer transactions as a currency.

Economists define money as serving the following three purposes: a store of value , a medium of exchange , and a unit of account. Shiller writes that bitcoin has potential as a unit of account for measuring the relative value of goods, as with Chile's Unidad de Fomento , but that "Bitcoin in its present form [ According to research by Cambridge University , between 2.

The number of users has grown significantly since , when there were ,—1. The overwhelming majority of bitcoin transactions take place on a cryptocurrency exchange , rather than being used in transactions with merchants. Prices are not usually quoted in units of bitcoin and many trades involve one, or sometimes two, conversions into conventional currencies.

In and bitcoin's acceptance among major online retailers included only three of the top U. Bitcoin is "not actually usable" for retail transactions because of high costs and the inability to process chargebacks , according to Nicholas Weaver, a researcher quoted by Bloomberg. High price volatility and transaction fees make paying for small retail purchases with bitcoin impractical, according to economist Kim Grauer.

However, bitcoin continues to be used for large-item purchases on sites such as Overstock. Bitcoins can be bought on digital currency exchanges. Per researchers, "there is little sign of bitcoin use" in international remittances despite high fees charged by banks and Western Union who compete in this market. In , the National Australia Bank closed accounts of businesses with ties to bitcoin, [] and HSBC refused to serve a hedge fund with links to bitcoin.

On 10 December , the Chicago Board Options Exchange started trading bitcoin futures, [] followed by the Chicago Mercantile Exchange , which started trading bitcoin futures on 17 December The request was motivated by oil company's goal to pay its suppliers.

The Winklevoss twins have purchased bitcoin. Other methods of investment are bitcoin funds. The first regulated bitcoin fund was established in Jersey in July and approved by the Jersey Financial Services Commission. Forbes named bitcoin the best investment of According to bitinfocharts. In August , MicroStrategy invested in Bitcoin. The price of bitcoins has gone through cycles of appreciation and depreciation referred to by some as bubbles and busts.

According to Mark T. Unusual for an asset, bitcoin weekend trading during December was higher than for weekdays. Because of bitcoin's decentralized nature and its trading on online exchanges located in many countries, regulation of bitcoin has been difficult.

However, the use of bitcoin can be criminalized, and shutting down exchanges and the peer-to-peer economy in a given country would constitute a de facto ban. Regulations and bans that apply to bitcoin probably extend to similar cryptocurrency systems. In October , the Islamic Republic News Agency announced pending regulations that would require bitcoin miners in Iran to sell bitcoin to the Central Bank of Iran , and the central bank would use it for imports.

The U. Commodity Futures Trading Commission has issued four "Customer Advisories" for bitcoin and related investments. Securities and Exchange Commission warned that investments involving bitcoin might have high rates of fraud, and that investors might be solicited on social media sites. The European Banking Authority issued a warning in focusing on the lack of regulation of bitcoin, the chance that exchanges would be hacked, the volatility of bitcoin's price, and general fraud.

An official investigation into bitcoin traders was reported in May Justice Department launched an investigation into possible price manipulation, including the techniques of spoofing and wash trades. Following the first delivery date in January , the CME requested extensive detailed trading information but several of the exchanges refused to provide it and later provided only limited data.

The Commodity Futures Trading Commission then subpoenaed the data from the exchanges. State and provincial securities regulators, coordinated through the North American Securities Administrators Association , are investigating "bitcoin scams" and ICOs in 40 jurisdictions. Academic research published in the Journal of Monetary Economics concluded that price manipulation occurred during the Mt Gox bitcoin theft and that the market remains vulnerable to manipulation.

Research by John M. Griffin and Amin Shams in suggests that trading associated with increases in the amount of the Tether cryptocurrency and associated trading at the Bitfinex exchange account for about half of the price increase in bitcoin in late The Bank for International Settlements summarized several criticisms of bitcoin in Chapter V of their annual report.

The criticisms include the lack of stability in bitcoin's price, the high energy consumption, high and variable transactions costs, the poor security and fraud at cryptocurrency exchanges, vulnerability to debasement from forking , and the influence of miners. In , The Economist described these criticisms as unfair, since bitcoin had been relatively stable during that year, and the shady image may have compelled users to overlook the capabilities of the blockchain technology.

Bitcoin, along with other cryptocurrencies, has been described as an economic bubble by at least eight Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences laureates at various times, including Robert Shiller on 1 March , [] Joseph Stiglitz on 29 November , [] and Richard Thaler on 21 December Bitcoin has been criticized for the amount of electricity consumed by mining.

As of [update] , The Economist estimated that even if all miners used modern facilities, the combined electricity consumption would be In July BBC reported bitcoin consumes about 7 gigawatts, 0. To lower the costs, bitcoin miners have set up in places like Iceland where geothermal energy is cheap and cooling Arctic air is free. Concerns about bitcoin's environmental impact relate bitcoin's energy consumption to carbon emissions.

The results of recent studies analyzing bitcoin's carbon footprint vary. Journalists, economists, investors, and the central bank of Estonia have voiced concerns that bitcoin is a Ponzi scheme. Bitcoin is vulnerable to theft through phishing , scamming , and hacking. The use of bitcoin by criminals has attracted the attention of financial regulators, legislative bodies, law enforcement, and the media.

Senate held a hearing on virtual currencies in November Several news outlets have asserted that the popularity of bitcoins hinges on the ability to use them to purchase illegal goods. In , researchers at the University of Kentucky found "robust evidence that computer programming enthusiasts and illegal activity drive interest in bitcoin, and find limited or no support for political and investment motives".

There were an estimated 24 million bitcoin users primarily using bitcoin for illegal activity. In , Abkhazia placed a ban on Bitcoin. Velde, Senior Economist at the Chicago Fed , described it as "an elegant solution to the problem of creating a digital currency". Louis , stated that bitcoin is a threat to the establishment, which he argues is a good thing for the Federal Reserve System and other central banks , because it prompts these institutions to operate sound policies.

PayPal President David A. Marcus calls bitcoin a "great place to put assets". Bitcoin Core is free and open-source software that serves as a bitcoin node the set of which form the bitcoin network and provides a bitcoin wallet which fully verifies payments. It is considered to be bitcoin's reference implementation. Bitcoin Core includes a transaction verification engine and connects to the bitcoin network as a full node. It does not facilitate the buying or selling of bitcoin. It allows users to generate QR codes to receive payment.

The software validates the entire blockchain , which includes all bitcoin transactions ever. This distributed ledger which has reached more than gigabytes in size as of Jan , must be downloaded or synchronized before full participation of the client may occur. It also provides access to testnet, a global testing environment that imitates the bitcoin main network using an alternative blockchain where valueless "test bitcoins" are used.

Regtest or Regression Test Mode creates a private blockchain which is used as a local testing environment. Checkpoints which have been hard coded into the client are used only to prevent Denial of Service attacks against nodes which are initially syncing the chain. For this reason the checkpoints included are only as of several years ago. This limited the maximum network capacity to about three transactions per second. A network alert system was included by Satoshi Nakamoto as a way of informing users of important news regarding bitcoin.

It had become obsolete as news on bitcoin is now widely disseminated. Bitcoin Core includes a scripting language inspired by Forth that can define transactions and specify parameters. Two stacks are used - main and alt. Looping is forbidden. Bitcoin Core uses OpenTimestamps to timestamp merge commits. The original creator of the bitcoin client has described their approach to the software's authorship as it being written first to prove to themselves that the concept of purely peer-to-peer electronic cash was valid and that a paper with solutions could be written.

The lead developer is Wladimir J. Andresen left the role of lead developer for bitcoin to work on the strategic development of its technology. In Charles Stross ' science fiction novel, Neptune's Brood , the universal interstellar payment system is known as "bitcoin" and operates using cryptography. Bitcoin was obscure back then, and I figured had just enough name recognition to be a useful term for an interstellar currency: it'd clue people in that it was a networked digital currency.

The documentary The Rise and Rise of Bitcoin portrays the diversity of motives behind the use of bitcoin by interviewing people who use it. These include a computer programmer and a drug dealer. It covers studies of cryptocurrencies and related technologies, and is published by the University of Pittsburgh. Authors are also asked to include a personal bitcoin address in the first page of their papers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Decentralized cryptocurrency.

Issuance will permanently halt c. Main article: History of bitcoin. Number of bitcoin transactions per month, semilogarithmic plot [97]. Number of unspent transaction outputs [98]. For broader coverage of this topic, see Blockchain. See also: Bitcoin network. The chips pictured have become obsolete due to increasing difficulty. Today, bitcoin mining companies dedicate facilities to housing and operating large amounts of high-performance mining hardware. For broader coverage of this topic, see Mining pool.

For broader coverage of this topic, see Cryptocurrency wallet. A paper wallet with a banknote -like design. Both the private key and the address are visible in text form and as 2D barcodes. A paper wallet with the address visible for adding or checking stored funds. The part of the page containing the private key is folded over and sealed. A brass token with a private key hidden beneath a tamper-evident security hologram.

A part of the address is visible through a transparent part of the hologram. A hardware wallet peripheral which processes bitcoin payments without exposing any credentials to the computer. See also: Fork blockchain and List of bitcoin forks. Main article: Bitcoin scalability problem. Further information: Crypto-anarchism. Main article: Economics of bitcoin.

Price, [j] semilogarithmic plot. Annual volatility [97]. Further information: Legality of bitcoin by country or territory. Further information: Cryptocurrency bubble and Economics of bitcoin. Further information: Cryptocurrency and security. The start screen under Fedora.

Business and economics portal Free and open-source software portal Internet portal Numismatics portal Money portal. The timestamp of the block is This block is unlike all other blocks in that it does not have a previous block to reference. The fact is that gold miners are rewarded for producing gold, while bitcoin miners are not rewarded for producing bitcoins; they are rewarded for their record-keeping services. Usually, the public key or bitcoin address is also printed, so that a holder of a paper wallet can check or add funds without exposing the private key to a device.

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Archived from the original on 23 March New York. Archived from the original on 10 December Retrieved 11 December Archived from the original on 29 November Retrieved 10 January Archived from the original on 30 July Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 14 November Bitcoin Magazine. Retrieved 7 November Bitcoin Core. Retrieved 25 October Retrieved 20 October Retrieved 26 January Archived from the original on 14 November Retrieved 16 April Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 10 July Yahoo Finance!.

Archived from the original on 28 January Retrieved 27 January Archived from the original on 19 January Retrieved 18 January Archived from the original on 11 July Archived from the original on 24 September Retrieved 24 September Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 5 November Archived from the original on 28 December Archived from the original on 16 December Vircurex is a cryptocurrency exchange from China.

The project was founded in Fully commercial organization. The Central office of the company is located in Beijing. The project began to enjoy special popularity not so long ago. Vircurex opened for trading in October It focuses on providing sophisticated trading mechanisms orders, stoporders, options, loans for Bitcoins and the most popular alt chains. A distinctive feature of this exchange is that here you can trade these currencies in any variations of pairs!

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Anna is brought to Hans and tells him that he has to kiss her in order to save her. The staff in the room quickly leave to give them some privacy. Anna sits in a chair, Hans leans in as if to kiss her and then suddenly his smile turns into a smear and says "Oh Anna, if only there was someone out there who loved you". As Anna looks at him in surprised confusement, Hans explains that as the youngest of 10 brothers, he had no chance at claiming his family's throne as he would be a young boy by then, so he went looking for a royal family he could marry into.

Unable to get to Elsa, he made Anna's acquaintance and played on her naivety since saying "you were so desperate for love, you were willing to marry me just like that". He intended to marry her before causing some form of "accident" for Elsa that would clear his path to the throne by taking over and making him the King of Arendelle.

However, with Anna now gravely hurt, he plans to simply let her frozen heart overcome her, then kill Elsa, ending the eternal winter. Anna, now very angry at Hans for treason and his evil plan, blatantly spits and says "You're no match for Elsa" with Hans replying that it is Anna that isn't a match against Elsa. He extinguishes the fire in the nearby fireplace before leaving her in the room. Anna collapses with shock, her hair now turned completely white. Hans goes to speak with the Duke of Weselton and several other dignitaries.

He feigns grief and claims that Elsa has killed Anna, but before she died he and Anna recited their wedding vows. In part due to the eternal winter chaos, this apparently is enough to give him full authority to declare Elsa guilty of treason and sentence her to death.

The palace guards go to Elsa's cell but are detained when a wall of the cell collapses. While they are held up, Elsa freezes her shackles to the point that they shatter, and then breaks through the wall to the outside. Meanwhile, far from Arendelle, Kristoff and Sven are walking away when Sven urges Kristoff to go back. Kristoff claims he has no need to, but as they look back at Arendelle, a mysterious swirling cloud of snow begins to engulf.

The two then take off towards the growing storm. Anna's curse becomes stronger with her death process nearly complete. When Olaf arrives, he finds Anna in the library on the ground and quickly dying. Olaf comes to Anna's rescue and starts a fire to warm Anna up.

Olaf then asks what happened with the true love's kiss from Hans, to which Anna reveals his treachery and Hans never loved her. Fearing he'll melt, Anna tells Olaf to leave. Not wanting to abandon his new best friend, Olaf stays by her side and nearly melts during this time. Anna brokenheartedly tells Olaf that she doesn't even know what love is anymore. Olaf replies by telling Anna that love is putting someone else before yourself, using Kristoff as an example.

This reveals Kristoff's true feelings to Anna, much to Anna's surprise. Suddenly, the library's window bursts open due to the strong winter winds. Olaf rushes to close it, but he then using a pair of icicle like binoculars, Olaf notices Kristoff and Sven rushing across the fjord towards them. Knowing Kristoff is truly the one that loves Anna, the two try to head out to meet him.

Olaf helps Anna up, but in the hallway, the storm outside is so worse that icicles spring up from the inside and block their path. Going out a window, the two slide down the castle's steep roofs. Anna attempts to make her way across the icy fjord, with Olaf close behind.

However, as the wind picks up, Olaf is blown away, and Anna finds her hands are turning to ice. Even so, she continues to move forward, calling out Kristoff's name. Elsa crying loudly over the loss of her beloved younger sister; her only remaining sibling she had. Meanwhile, Hans finds Elsa wandering the ice of the fjord. Thinking he's come for her, Elsa tells him to leave her alone, and take care of Anna. Hans lies and says that Anna was killed by Elsa's magic.

The pain of this causes Elsa to collapse, the snow in the air suddenly hanging in stillness. This then gives Kristoff and Anna the chance to reach each other. But at that moment, Anna hears a sword being drawn a short distance away. In horror, Anna sees Hans about to swing his sword at Elsa and kill her. With seconds to choose between saving her own life or Elsa's life, Anna takes one last look at Kristoff and runs towards Elsa.

Just as Hans is taking his swing at Elsa, Anna uses all her remaining strength and steps in front of him and freezes solid. Hans's sword hits Anna frozenly, the blade of the sword broke and shattered and a sudden shock wave throws him brutally backward knocking Hans unconscious. Kristoff and Sven arrive seconds later. Seeing Anna turned frozen solid, Elsa breaks down in tears, hugging her sister.

No one is sure what to say when Anna's icy form begins to change and gain color. After 3 minutes, Anna immediately unfreezes, because Anna's sacrifice to save Elsa is considered as an act of true love. Elsa realises that love is the way to control her powers, and with one move is able to melt all the snow on the ground in a matter of seconds, including the surrounding snow, revealing that they are on top of a ship.

Olaf, overjoyed, smiles with glee, but the summer heat starts to melt him. Elsa restores him and gives him a small flurry cloud blizzard to hover over him and keep his temperature below freezing temperature, finally allowing him to live his dream of experiencing summer and all its wonders. When Hans awakens after the great thaw, he finds Arendelle thawed and peace restored.

Kristoff tries to march forward towards Hans to get him, and Elsa seems touched by Kristoff's protectiveness over her and Anna. Anna, however, decides to finish him instead. Anna then approaches the manipulative and deceptive Hans, who can only stutter with disbelief "But she froze your heart" Anna coolly replies, "The only frozen heart around here is yours" and sucker-punches Hans over the ship railing and into the ocean.

She and Elsa then hug, with the 2 sisters restored than ever. As the sisters hug, Anna looks lovingly towards Kristoff, showing that she reciprocates his love. Once again, Arendelle is restored to normal. Elsa is once again accepted as princess, with everyone finally understanding that she is no monster, but a creator of beautiful magic. Exposed as the manipulating liar he is, Hans is deported and sent back to his own kingdom to face punishment from his 12 brothers and his deeds.

Elsa additionally cuts off all trade with the Duke of Weselton. The Duke tries to claim that he was innocent and a victim of fear. But to no avail, he and his bodyguards are sent back in disgrace, with Kai deliberately keeps on calling the Duke's kingdom "Weaseltown" to piss-off him. Elsewhere, Anna leads a blindfolded Kristoff to the docks, though briefly runs him into a lamppost.

She removes the blindfold, and gives Kristoff a new sled and reveals that Elsa has named him the Official Ice Master for the kingdom, and so he can be with Anna. He attempts to decline both the sled and the title, too modest to accept, but Anna points out that this is a direct order from the queen. When she asks what his thoughts on the sled are, Kristoff picks up Anna and twirls her around in his arms, exclaiming he loves it, and that he could kiss her.

Realizing what he said, Kristoff immediately puts her down, and stammers awkwardly that he'd like to, among several sentences of nonsense, leaving him embarrassingly flustered. Anna kisses his cheek, saying to Kristoff, "We may," and the two share their first kiss, officially beginning their soon romantic relationship. With Elsa no longer afraid of her powers, she creates an ice rink in the castle courtyard and promises to never shut the castle gates ever again and Elsa and Anna both knew that nothing would never come between them again as well, while gifting Anna a pair of ice skates.

Anna is delighted but tells Elsa that she can't skate yet. Elsa delightfully and playfully helps her, and she is later joined by Olaf. The film ends with everyone in the village happily skating in the Arendelle ice rink. In the post-credits scene , it reveals that Marshmallow has survived the fall into the gorge and to some degree reattached his leg.

He is seen limping back into the ice castle, where all he finds is Elsa's discarded crown. He looks around for a moment, then gets an idea and smiles. Then, pleasing his inner prince, Marshmallow happily crowns himself as king of the ice palace while going back to his neutral later good and peaceful form smiling and letting out a happy sigh, happily continuing his life in the North Mountain. In March , Walt Disney suggested a co-production to film producer Samuel Goldwyn, where Goldwyn's studio would shoot the live-action sequences of Andersen's life and Disney's studio would animate Andersen's fairy tales.

However, the studio encountered difficulty with The Snow Queen , as it could not find a way to adapt and relate the Snow Queen character to modern audiences. Even as far back as the s and s, it was clear that the source material contained great cinematic possibilities, but the Snow Queen character proved to be too problematic. After the United States entered World War II, the Disney studio had to focus on making wartime propaganda, which caused development on the Disney-Goldwyn project to grind to a halt in All of Andersen's fairy tales were, instead, told in song and ballet in live-action, like the rest of the film.

It went on to receive six Academy Award nominations the following year. In the late s, Walt Disney Feature Animation started developing a new adaptation of The Snow Queen after the tremendous success of their recent films during the Disney Renaissance era, but the project was scrapped completely in late , when Glen Keane reportedly quit the project and went on to work on another project which became Tangled Even before then, Harvey Fierstein pitched his version of the story to the Disney executives, but was turned down.

After a number of unsuccessful attempts from to , Disney shelved the project again. During one of those attempts, Michael Eisner , then-chairman and chief executive officer of the Walt Disney Company , offered his support to the project and suggested doing it with Oscar-winning director John Lasseter at Pixar Animation Studios after the then-expected renewal of Pixar's contract with Disney.

But negotiations between Pixar and Disney collapsed in January and that contract was never renewed. The next attempt started in when Lasseter was able to convince Chris Buck who had co-directed Tarzan for the studio to return to Disney Animation from Sony Pictures Animation where he had recently co-directed the Oscar-nominated Surf's Up , and that September, Buck pitched several ideas to Lasseter who by then had also become Chief Creative Officer of Disney Animation , one of which was The Snow Queen.

Buck later revealed that his initial inspiration for The Snow Queen was not the Andersen fairy tale itself, but that he wanted "to do something different on the definition of true love. It turned out Lasseter had been interested in The Snow Queen for a long time; back when Pixar was working with Disney on Toy Story in the s, he saw and was "blown away" by some of the preproduction art from Disney's prior attempts.

Development began under the title Anna and the Snow Queen , which was planned to be traditionally animated. According to Josh Gad, he first became involved with the film at that early stage, when the plot was still relatively close to the original Andersen fairy tale and Megan Mullally was going to play Elsa.

By early , the project entered development hell once again when the studio failed to find a way to make the story and the Snow Queen character work. On December 22, , following the success of Tangled , Disney announced a new title for the film, Frozen , and a release date of November 27, A month later, it was confirmed that the film would be a computer-animated feature in stereoscopic 3D, instead of the originally intended hand-drawn animation. Anderson-Lopez and Lopez joined the project and started writing songs for Frozen in January After Disney decided to advance The Snow Queen into development again, one of the main challenges Buck and Del Vecho faced was the character of the Snow Queen, who was then a villain in their drafts.

The studio has a tradition of screening animated films in development every twelve weeks, then holding lengthy "notes sessions" in which its directors and screenwriters from different projects provide extensive "notes" on each other's work. Buck and Del Vecho presented their storyboards to Lasseter, and the entire production team adjourned to a conference to hear Lasseter's thoughts on the project.

Art director Michael Giaimo later acknowledged Lasseter as the "game changer" of the film: "I remember John saying that the latest version of The Snow Queen story that Chris Buck and his team had come up with was fun, very light-hearted. But the characters didn't resonate. They aren't multi-faceted. Which is why John felt that audiences wouldn't really be able to connect with them.

The production team then addressed the film's problems, drafting several variations on The Snow Queen story until the characters and story felt relevant. At that stage, the first major breakthrough was the decision to rewrite the film's protagonist Anna who was based on the Gerda character from The Snow Queen , as the younger sibling of Elsa, thereby effectively establishing a family dynamic between the characters. To fully explore the unique dynamics of the kind of relationships, Disney Animation convened a "Sister Summit," at which women from all over Disney Animation who grew up with sisters were asked to discuss their relationships with their sisters.

In March , Jennifer Lee, one of two screenplay writers of Wreck-It Ralph , was brought in as one of the film's writers. Lee later explained that as Wreck-It Ralph was wrapping up, she was giving notes on other projects, and "we kind of really connected with what we were thinking. According to Lee, several core concepts were already in place from Buck and Del Vecho's early work, such as the film's "frozen heart" hook: "That was a concept and the phrase We didn't know how or why.

But you have to earn that ending. If you do, it will be great. If you don't, it will suck. Before Lee was brought on board, another screenwriter had made the first pass at a script, and Anderson-Lopez and Lopez tried to write songs for that script but none worked and all were cut. Then "the whole script imploded," which gave the songwriters the opportunity "to put a lot of [their] DNA" into the new script that Lee was writing.

The production team "essentially started over and The earlier versions differed sharply from the final version. In the original script the songwriters first saw, Elsa was evil from the start; she kidnapped Anna from her own wedding to intentionally freeze her heart, then later descended upon the town with an army of snowmen with the objective of recapturing Anna to freeze her heart properly. By the time Lee came in, the first act included Elsa deliberately striking Anna in the heart with her freezing powers; then "the whole second act was about Anna trying to get to Hans and to kiss him and then Elsa trying to stop her.

The original plot also had different pacing, in that it was "much more of an action adventure" than a musical or a comedy. One major breakthrough was the composition of "Let It Go" by songwriters Lopez and Anderson-Lopez, which forced the production team to reconceptualize and rewrite Elsa as a far more complex, vulnerable, and sympathetic character.

In The Daily Telegraph 's words, instead of the villain envisioned by the producers, the songwriters saw Elsa as "a scared girl struggling to control and come to terms with her gift. Forget villain. Just what it would feel like. And this concept of letting out who she is, that she's kept to herself for so long, and she's alone and free, but then the sic sadness of the fact that the last moment is she's alone.

It's not a perfect thing, but it's powerful. So that was when we really found the movie and who these characters were. Another major breakthrough was developing the plot twist that Prince Hans would be revealed as the film's true villain only near the end. Hans was not even in the earliest drafts, then at first was not a villain, and after becoming one was revealed to be evil much earlier in the plot.

Del Vecho said, "We realized what was most important was if we were going to make the ending so surprising, you had to believe at one point that Hans was the answer If you can get the audience to leap ahead and think they have figured it out, you can surprise them by turning it the other way. For example, Hans mirrors the behavior of the other characters: "He mirrors Anna, and he's goofy with her The Duke of Weselton is a jerk, so he's a jerk back.

And with Elsa he's a hero. Because the minute it is understood, it deflated. Lee had to work through the issue of how to write Anna's personality, in that some of her colleagues felt Anna should be more dysfunctional and co-dependent, like Vanellope von Schweetz in Wreck-It Ralph.

Lee disagreed with that position, but it took her almost a year to figure out how to convincingly articulate "this is what Anna's journey is. No more than that. No less than that. To construct Anna and Elsa's relationship as sisters, Lee found inspiration in her own relationship with her older sister. Lee said her older sister was "a big inspiration for Elsa", called her "my Elsa" in an op-ed in the Los Angeles Times , and walked the red carpet with her at the 86th Academy Awards.

Lee explained, "having to The production team also turned Olaf from Elsa's obnoxious sidekick into Anna's comically innocent sidekick. Lee's initial response to the original "mean" version of Olaf had been, "Kill the f-ing snowman", and she found Olaf by far "the hardest character to deal with. The problem of how exactly Anna would save Elsa at the film's climax was solved by storyboard artist John Ripa. At the story meeting where Ripa pitched his take on the story, the response was silence until Lasseter said, "I've never seen anything like that before," which was followed by a standing ovation.

Along the way, the production team went through drafts where the first act included far more detail than what ended up in the final version, such as a troll with a Brooklyn accent who would have explained the backstory behind Elsa's magical powers, and a regent for whom Lee was hoping to cast comedian Louis C. After all those details were thoroughly "over-analyzed", they were excised because they amounted to a "much more complex story than really we felt like we could fit in this minute film.

Frozen was released theatrically in the United States on November 27, , and it was accompanied by the new Mickey Mouse animated short film Get a Horse! The film's premiere was at the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood , California on November 19, , and had a five-day limited release there, starting from November 22, before going into wide release. Frozen opened to strong early reviews, with several critics comparing the film favorably to the films of the Disney Renaissance, particularly The Little Mermaid , Beauty and the Beast , Aladdin , and The Lion King.

Indeed, some journalists thought the film's success marked a second Disney Renaissance. The film was praised for its visuals, themes, musical numbers, screenplay, and voice acting, especially of Kristen Bell, Idina Menzel and Josh Gad. The "Let It Go" musical sequence was repeatedly singled out for praise; some critics called it one of the best film sequences of the year.

The site's consensus reads: "Beautifully animated, smartly written, and stocked with singalong songs, Frozen adds another worthy entry to the Disney canon. On April 25 , , after many rumors and speculation, a sequel was officially slated for release on November 22 , On April 25 , , the official release date for the Frozen sequel was announced by Disney. Summer: Frozen Summer Fun!

This wiki. This wiki All wikis. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Do you like this video? The ice guy? The nice guy? The snow man? Or no man? The Disney Wiki has a collection of images and media related to Frozen. TheStreet April 25, Collider September 28, Categories :. Universal Conquest Wiki. FandomShop Newsletter GalaxyQuest.

For us, the breakthrough came when we tried to give really human qualities to the Snow Queen. When we decided to make the Snow Queen Elsa and our protagonist Anna sisters, that gave a way to relate to the characters in a way that conveyed what each was going through and that would relate to today's audiences. Bitcoin nodes use the blockchain to distinguish legitimate Bitcoin transactions from attempts to re-spend coins that have already been spent elsewhere.

Mining is intentionally designed to be resource-intensive and difficult so that the number of blocks found each day by miners remains steady. Individual blocks must contain a proof of work to be considered valid. This proof of work is verified by other Bitcoin nodes each time they receive a block. Bitcoin uses the hashcash proof-of-work function. The primary purpose of mining is to set the history of transactions in a way that is computationally impractical to modify by any one entity.

By downloading and verifying the blockchain, bitcoin nodes are able to reach consensus about the ordering of events in bitcoin. Mining is also the mechanism used to introduce Bitcoins into the system: Miners are paid any transaction fees as well as a "subsidy" of newly created coins. This both serves the purpose of disseminating new coins in a decentralized manner as well as motivating people to provide security for the system. Bitcoin mining is so called because it resembles the mining of other commodities: it requires exertion and it slowly makes new units available to anybody who wishes to take part.

An important difference is that the supply does not depend on the amount of mining. In general changing total miner hashpower does not change how many bitcoins are created over the long term. Mining a block is difficult because the SHA hash of a block's header must be lower than or equal to the target in order for the block to be accepted by the network. This problem can be simplified for explanation purposes: The hash of a block must start with a certain number of zeros.

The probability of calculating a hash that starts with many zeros is very low, therefore many attempts must be made. In order to generate a new hash each round, a nonce is incremented. See Proof of work for more information. The difficulty is the measure of how difficult it is to find a new block compared to the easiest it can ever be.

The rate is recalculated every 2, blocks to a value such that the previous 2, blocks would have been generated in exactly one fortnight two weeks had everyone been mining at this difficulty. This is expected yield, on average, one block every ten minutes. As more miners join, the rate of block creation increases. As the rate of block generation increases, the difficulty rises to compensate, which has a balancing of effect due to reducing the rate of block-creation.

Any blocks released by malicious miners that do not meet the required difficulty target will simply be rejected by the other participants in the network. When a block is discovered, the discoverer may award themselves a certain number of bitcoins, which is agreed-upon by everyone in the network. Currently this bounty is 6. See Controlled Currency Supply. Additionally, the miner is awarded the fees paid by users sending transactions. The fee is an incentive for the miner to include the transaction in their block.

In the future, as the number of new bitcoins miners are allowed to create in each block dwindles, the fees will make up a much more important percentage of mining income. Users have used various types of hardware over time to mine blocks. Hardware specifications and performance statistics are detailed on the Mining Hardware Comparison page.

Early Bitcoin client versions allowed users to use their CPUs to mine. The option was therefore removed from the core Bitcoin client's user interface.


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