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Kennedy School of Government. Armando N. Meier, Rablen, Garz, Marcel, Thomas Buser, See citations under working paper version above. Sorry, no citations of articles recorded. More information Research fields, statistics, top rankings, if available. This author has had 10 papers announced in NEP. These are the fields, ordered by number of announcements, along with their dates. If the author is listed in the directory of specialists for this field, a link is also provided.
You can help correct errors and omissions. For general information on how to correct material on RePEc, see these instructions. To make corrections to the bibliographic information of a particular item, find the technical contact on the abstract page of that item. There, details are also given on how to add or correct references and citations. To link different versions of the same work, where versions have a different title, use this form. The Arabidopsis thaliana Med25 mediator subunit integrates environmental cues to control plant development.
Med8, Med18, and Med20 subunits of the Mediator head domain are interdependent upon each other for folding and complex formation. Molecular Cell , Vol. Functional and physical interactions within the middle domain of the yeast mediator. Molecular Genetics and Genomics , Vol. The yeast Mediator complex and its regulation. Trends in Biochemical Sciences , Vol. The mediator complex. Advances in Protein Chemistry , Vol. A unified nomenclature for protein subunits of mediator complexes linking transcriptional regulators to RNA polymerase II.
S Phase-specific transcription of the mouse ribonucleotide reductase R2 gene requires both a proximal repressive E2F-binding site and an upstream promoter activating region. Journal of biological chemistry , Vol. Site-specific Srbdependent phosphorylation of the yeast Mediator subunit Med2 regulates gene expression from the 2-microm plasmid. Functional interactions within yeast mediator and evidence of differential subunit modifications. Journal of Biological Chemistry , Vol. Sequences downstream of the transcription initiation site are important for proper initiation and regulation of mouse ribonucleotide reductase R2 gene transcription.
European Journal of Biochemistry , Vol. Mediator of transcriptional regulation. Regular ed. Methods in Enzymology , Vol. Gene structure and regulation of the expression of the R1 and R2 subunits of mouse ribonucleotide reductase. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology , Vol. A multiprotein mediator of transcriptional activation and its interaction with the C-terminal repeat domain of RNA polymerase II.
Chain them? Yes, commands that need to go together are chained together so that they use the same key for sorting. As a start, I would therefore add clear parameters to e. So every time a layer gets rendered, it uses the parameters to clear the corresponding render target.
If you find that you still need to clear render targets while rendering into them, only then would I add those commands. However, I cannot get the idea. Your bucket Submit function implementation simply iterates over the commands array. This assumes a correct ordering of commands. I guess commands data are sorted in the end. What I meant with my comment regarding sorting was the following:.
If you use something like std::sort or similar, you need to provide both keys and the associated data. This means that every time two items in the array need to swap places, both the key and the data will be swapped. So in the first case, you end up touching all keys and the associated data during the sort process, and then linearly walk through the memory again when submitting.
In the second case, you only touch the key data during sorting, and then walk the array of indices linearly, doing an indirect lookup to the keys and data. Additionally, radix-sorting bit, bit or bit data is vastly faster than e. However, I am not sure to what level I should abstract the renderer.
For instance, should the renderQueue also be responsible for uploading data such as textures? And how do you handle position data known as worldMatrix? Same for transformations — you will need commands for setting world, view and projection transformations. What is VertexLayoutHandle in your implementation? As I understand it contains vertices attributes such as their size, type float, int , semantics Position, Color, etc. From previous posts — data is stored in some manager that return only handle.
Another question is how you manage another parameters like color, uv-coordinates? They are in static buffers too or there is another allocation strategy? It is a handle to a vertex layout, which contains information about the structure of the vertex data being bound. Certainly not , that would be way too much. Why are you manually creating a command packet structure in memory instead of using a struct?
Is it because of the padding added by the compiler and being able to access actual Cmd through known offset, if yes then why not use struct and offsetof Cmd instead. Because the auxiliary memory needed by the command is optional, but I want to store the data itself right next to the command packet, i. How do you handle updating uniform variables GLSL , do you create commands like UpdateUniform1F and push them into bucket chained together with Draw or DrawIndexed command or do you create special commands for rendering each effect or object like ScreenFadeOut and CharacterCloth?
The more general approach would be the first you described. However, if you find yourself in a situation where this leads to a lot of UpdateUniforms and draw commands being generated, it might be better to build specialized commands like the ones you mentioned. In normal way. Where are the right place to do this?
If you have two arrays for key and data, how do you make sure the data array order matches the key array order after sorting? Store a pointer to the data inside the key instead. Storing an index would also work and most likely be smaller than a pointer, e. There is no one-fits-all implementation.
Basically, you shift and OR together the important bits of your commands. Depending on the sort criteria, the bits will have to end up either closer to the LSB or MSB, and where you place those bits is up for you to decide. You are commenting using your WordPress.
You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Command buckets In the first part of the series , I introduced the idea that not all layers need to store keys of the same size, e.
But what does a CommandBucket need to store, and how do we store it? N keys that are used for sorting the N draw calls Data for N draw calls Note that the amount and type of data stored for each draw call heavily depends on the type of draw call. Commands Now that we have buckets for storing draw calls, how do we add commands to a bucket?
After all buckets have been populated, we can sort them by their keys: gBufferBucket. Sort ; lightingBucket. Sort ; deferredBucket. Sort ; postProcessingBucket. Sort ; hudBucket. Sort ; For sorting the commands in the bucket, we can use whatever sorting algorithm we want.
After all buckets have been sorted, we can submit them to the render backend: gBufferBucket. Submit ; lightingBucket. Submit ; deferredBucket. Submit ; postProcessingBucket. Submit ; hudBucket. Submission process But how do we submit the commands to the graphics API? There is a better and simpler solution: function pointers. Backend dispatch Instead of storing the ID of a command in the bucket, we can directly store a pointer to a function that knows how to deal with a certain command, and forwards it to the render backend.
Command packets Because we no longer just store single commands in the bucket, we introduce the concept of command packets. But still, let us recap which concepts this post introduced: Commands: a self-contained piece of information that is handed to the backend dispatch. Each command resembles one simple operation such as an indexed draw call, copying data to a constant buffer, etc. Each command is implemented as a POD struct. Backend dispatch: simple forwarding functions that extract data from a command, and forward them to the graphics backend.
Each dispatch function deals with a different command. Command packets: a command packet stores a command, along with additional data such as a pointer to a dispatch function, any auxiliary memory a command might need, and an intrusive linked list for chaining commands. Chaining of commands: commands that need to be submitted in a certain order can be chained together.
Command bucket: A command bucket stores command packets along with a key of any size. Multi-threaded rendering: Commands can be added to buckets in parallel from multiple threads. The only two points of synchronization are the memory allocation, and storing the key-value pair into the array of command packets. Multi-threaded sorting: Each command bucket can be sorted independently, in parallel.
How do we efficiently allocate memory for individual command packets in the case of multiple threads adding commands to the same bucket? How can we ensure good cache utilization throughout the whole process of storing and submitting command packets? Can we use one contiguous chunk of memory? Key generation: Which information does a key hold?
How do we efficiently build a key? Like this: Like Loading There are two options for drawing many objects using the stateless rendering API. Is command bucket has one global render state blend, depth, etc for all contained command? That would certainly be possible, yes. Additionally, submission should be faster because render states can only change between the submission of two distinct buckets.
Disadvantages: It leads to more command buckets being created, potentially that could be a lot more. Might make it harder to fully data-drive render states for operations, and e. Great series, however I do have some questions about this design. Been reading your blog for years.
Great source of information! I would say you basically have two options: Be on the safe side, and do the temporary copy like illustrated in the post. This means that dynamic data is temporarily copied to a memory location held by the command bucket, only to be used for updating some kind of GPU resource before the draw call is submitted. As said, this needs more memory and more copy operations.
On the positive side, it is safe to use, because the programmer does not need to think about the lifetime of his data once it has been submitted into the bucket. Offer a second, alternative version of e. CopyConstantBufferData, which does not copy the data, but only stores the pointer to the data. The data is then copied from there when updating the GPU resource. This saves memory and copy operations, but puts more burden on the programmer, because he now has to make sure that the memory location pointed to is still valid when the data is copied in the backend.
Hi again, Stefan! I have two more questions for you. Hi, Thanks for these blog posts. What I meant with my comment regarding sorting was the following: If you use something like std::sort or similar, you need to provide both keys and the associated data. Hi, What is VertexLayoutHandle in your implementation? Hi Stefan I have one more question. What is the better approach? None of the two is better per se I think.
Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:. Email required Address never made public. An injured James then reveals about Raj's past. Raj's father Suryanarayana was a respected man in Rayadurg , and his best friend, a rich man named Ramamurthy, was Chaitra's father. Chaitra and Raj were childhood friends. Bellary, who is Ramamurthy's brother-in-law, found out about the presence of iron ore under Ramamurthy's land, and along with Baireddanna, decided to exploit the ore for their own benefit.
When Suryanarayana and Ramamurthy objected, they and their families, except Raj and Chaitra, were killed by Bellary and Baireddanna. Chaitra was adopted by Bellary, who planned to kill her when she becomes an adult so he could acquire Ramamurthy's land.
Chaitra, who was aware of Raj's love for making bets, told her childhood friend James to trap Raj by placing the bet which took place earlier in the movie so that Bellary and Baireddanna can be destroyed using him. Raj decides to avenge his father's death and kills Bellary, Baireddanna and his son at Rayadurg.
He rescues Chaitra and distributes Ramamurthy's land to the villagers after marrying her. Choudary , in association with N. Prasad and Paras Jain, produced a film titled Merupu directed by Dharani starring Ram Charan and Kajal Aggarwal in the lead roles whose production began on 30 April There was no proper script except a vague one-line for the film then and a song was shot on Charan.
After the release of Orange , Charan and the producers asked Dharani to come up with its bound script. He narrated it to both Charan and his father Chiranjeevi. When Dharani quoted a high budget, Chiranjeevi and the producers suggested a reduction. After completing a schedule, Merupu was shelved and later, N.
Prasad approved a script narrated by Sampath Nandi and announced in late February Sameer Reddy was recruited as the film's cinematographer while Raju Sundaram and Shobi choreographed the songs along with Prem Rakshith. Charan left for an abroad trip for a complete make-over of his attire and practised different dancing steps as part of his homework for the film.
Parthiepan made a cameo appearance as Charan's father in the film marking his Telugu debut who accepted it after Nandi explained the role's importance. He could not dub for his role since he was shooting for a Tamil film in France. He revealed that all his action sequences will be with Charan only.
Principal photography commenced in June at Hyderabad. The next schedule began at Sri Lanka in early July Few scenes were shot in a set erected near the Aluminium factory at Gachibowli. Tamannaah and Brahmanandam participated in the film's shoot at Hyderabad till 6 October after which the makers planned to shoot the film in China.
During the shoot of Charan's introduction scene, the cables fixed to the train failed and Charan, who was sitting in a car on the railway track, jumped from the car and was injured. Racha became the first Telugu film to be shot in the dense forest of interior China. On its completion, Charan took a break for ten days. Charan and Tamannaah were filming for a song sequence on a boat when the park's deputy director Sanjay Kumar insisted that the duo should use life jackets as they were entering a risky spot.
After few disagreements, the film's shoot was temporarily halted and some long shots were shot when the duo used the jackets. The forest officials also restricted the entry of about 20 vehicles and members into the park due to which the shoot was limited to a small portion of a song.
After spraining his leg during the song shoot at Annapurna Studios, Charan was advised to take a bed rest for three to four weeks. He rejoined the shoot on 25 March to complete the remaining two songs. Mani Sharma composed the film's soundtrack and background score. The film was initially scheduled for a release in March After Competition Commission of India imposed a fine on Karnataka Film Chamber of Commerce for restricting free trade, Racha released in Karnataka in more than screens.
Racha was dubbed into Tamil as Ragalai and into Malayalam as Raksha. The former was released on 6 April while the latter was released a week later. Sify called the film a "paisa vasool" one and stated "Both, actor Ram Charan and his director Sampath Nandi play a safe game by following the same pattern of earlier mass-masala movies.
Rachcha offers nothing new but has enough elements that entertain the mass audiences and mega fans. Even when you tune yourself into watching a mass entertainer and don't expect anything intellectually stimulating, you do miss the ingenuity and spark that were the hallmark of mass entertainer blockbusters like Singam , Pokiri or Kick. Go without expectations and you will be entertained. Karthik Pasupulate of The Times of India gave the film 3 out of 5 stars and felt that the film is designed for the "hardcore Mega Fans and it makes no bones about it".
He added "Clearly there are a lot of prospective hooting opportunities for the die hard Ram Charan fans. As for the other kind of audience, well, you'll have to ask them. We suspect they might just be feeling a little unattended". Though, the story is not that great and is quite predictable one, the ability of the director made it quite interesting.
Rating the film 2. They termed the film's presentation as a "lacklustre and ordinary" one. By then, the film was declared a blockbuster. The specially designed axe used by Ram Charan in the film's climax was auctioned by Movie Artist Association. In a press meet, Tammanaah showcased the axe to the media and the proceeds of its sale were announced to be used to educate poor children in Telugu cinema.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Megaa Super Good Films. Release date. Running time.
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