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Yet the data suggests investors have a narrow idea of what kind of innovations—and what kind of innovators—deserve funding. Since , only. I expect strong returns. She has made her career finding and funding new ideas from new places. They include companies like Ellevest, The Muse, and UrbanSitter which is proving that there is indeed a market for new platforms that connect parents to childcare.

Can these new funds ever compete with the more established ones? Inevitably, venture capital will stop categorizing funds that make a point of investing in women and people of color as nontraditional and start seeing them as common sense. But I will be doing everything I can to help accelerate it.

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The player has four cards to a flush and needs one of the remaining nine cards of that suit to complete the hand. The player counts the number of cards that will improve his hand, and then multiplies that number by four to calculate his probability of catching that card on either the turn or the river. If the player misses his draw on the turn, he multiplies his outs by two to find his probability of filling his hand on the river.

Another important concept in calculating odds and probabilities is pot odds. Pot odds are the proportion of the next bet in relation to the size of the pot. Experienced players compare the pot odds to the odds of improving their hand. If the pot odds are higher than the odds of improving the hand, the expert player will call the bet; if not, the player will fold. This calculation ties into the concept of expected value , which we will explore in a later lesson.

Experts in probability understand the idea that, just because an event is highly unlikely, the low likelihood does not make it completely impossible. In fact, many experienced poker players subscribe to the idea that bad beats are the reason that many inferior players stay in the game. Bad poker players often mistake their good fortune for skill and continue to make the same mistakes, which the more capable players use against them. One of the most important reasons that novice players should understand how probability functions at the poker table is so that they can make the best decisions during a hand.

While fluctuations in probability luck will happen from hand to hand, the best poker players understand that skill, discipline and patience are the keys to success at the tables. A big part of strong decision making is understanding how often you should be betting, raising, and applying pressure. Rooted in GTO, but simplified so that you can implement it at the tables, The One Percent gives you the ultimate gameplan.

A strong knowledge of poker math and probabilities will help you adjust your strategies and tactics during the game, as well as giving you reasonable expectations of potential outcomes and the emotional stability to keep playing intelligent, aggressive poker. By Gerald Hanks. Gerald Hanks is from Houston Texas, and has been playing poker since If your first card is an ace, the odds of receiving another ace are the same as the odds were before you received the first ace.

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Subjects were given a one-week placebo lead-in followed by eight weeks of double-blinded treatment with paroxetine, titrated from 20mg up to 60mg in 10mg increments per week depending on tolerability and efficacy. Adverse events were minimal and included nausea, headache, and sweating. One patient discontinued due to adverse effects. Of the 53 who entered the placebo lead-in, 45 continued on to the medication phases six were placebo responders and two dropped out.

A similar significant improvement was noted on the CGI A week, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine was next performed at five study sites across two countries [ ]. Subjects with other Axis I disorders were also excluded in this study. A one-week placebo lead-in was employed with placebo responders dropped from to the study prior to the opportunity to receive active medication.

Twenty-one out of 36 patients assigned to paroxetine, and 24 out of 40 patients assigned to placebo, completed all study visits. The main analyses included 34 from the paroxetine group and 37 from the placebo group who completed at least one post-baseline visit. Adverse events were comparable between paroxetine and placebo groups, with the most common reported adverse effects being dry mouth, headache, and nausea.

Six individuals from the paroxetine group and one from the placebo group discontinued due to adverse effects. Unlike the initial paroxetine RCT, no treatment-group-related outcome differences were found. Both placebo and active medication groups had significant improvement in scores across all measures, with those assigned to paroxetine having larger improvements week to week, but not at a statistically significant level. Bupropion, a dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was compared to naltrexone in a blind-rater study comparing 19 PG subjects taking naltrexone and 17 subjects taking bupropion over a week period in a parallel fashion [ ].

Twelve out of 17 of the patients receiving sustained-release bupropion completed the study compared to 13 out of 19 receiving naltrexone. Nine individuals in the bupropion group were considered full responders as compared to 10 in the naltrexone group. The remaining participants were all considered partial responders. A full responder was defined as absence of gambling behavior for two weeks and improvement on the CGI.

Partial response was defined as a decrease in the frequency of gambling behavior and amount of money spent gambling. Individuals in the bupropion group typically increased doses to the highest level to obtain results while those taking naltrexone often responded to more moderate doses. Limitations of the study include no placebo control group, open-label nature, small sample sizes, and exclusion of other Axis I or II disorders other than PG , limiting the ability to apply these findings to the greater population of PG subjects, many of whom have additional co-morbidities.

In the first and only RCT to date examining bupropion, Black et al. Those meeting inclusion criteria were entered into a two-week observation period before beginning the medication phase. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed at multiple time-points during the trial, and subjects were evaluated at one, three, and six months. Thirty-nine subjects were randomized 18 to bupropion and 22 completed the study eight from the bupropion group.

Eight dropped out before a post-baseline assessment could be obtained, and 17 withdrew during the trial. No significant between-treatment-group difference was found for dropping out. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between placebo and bupropion.

Final scores for the bupropion group decreased by study end a total of 9. Although significant improvement was seen in subjects, no statistical difference was found between bupropion and placebo. Adverse effects in the bupropion group did not differ significantly from the placebo group, although numerically higher frequencies of headache, nervousness, stomach discomfort, and dry mouth were reported.

One study to date involving PG subjects has investigated modafinil, a stimulant drug with pro-dopaminergic and pro-noradrenergic properties. The results suggested bi-directional influences based on impulsivity status. The authors predicted that modafinil mg would decrease the priming and reinforcing effect of the slot machine and this effect would be more pronounced in HI versus LI subjects.

Main outcome measures included betting behavior, self-report on pleasurable effects of gambling, desire to gamble, and physiological responses to gambling. All subjects recruited into the study played a slot-machine-type game in a mock-bar setting and were explicitly informed that this was not a treatment study. Each subject participated in two slot-machine-playing days, receiving in a random-order double-blinded fashion three hours before playing placebo on one day and modafinil on another.

Modafinil decreased motivation to gamble and risky decision making and improved inhibitory control in HI subjects but had opposite influences on LI subjects. Modafinil did not alter self-reported pleasure during game playing. Modafinil significantly decreased mean bet size to a similar degree in both HI and LI subjects. The drug appeared to be well tolerated among both groups with no significant side effects reported. The limitations on this study include small sample size, the complex pharmacology of modafinil, and the exclusion of co-morbidities, which reduces the generalizability of the findings to the population as a whole.

As with several other studies, the authors believe the heterogeneity of PG necessitates multiple medications be available to treat the differing people with PG. Olanzapine, a drug with antagonistic properties at dopamine and serotonin receptors, has been evaluated in a 12 week double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study [ ].

The dosage schedule began at 2. The average dose for patients during the study was 8. Forty-two subjects were randomized, 40 had at least one post-randomization measure and 25 completed all phases, of which 15 received placebo and 10 olanzapine. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in the reasons for discontinuation. Adverse events were mild to moderate in nature with the most commonly reported being somnolence and increased appetite, which led to a significantly greater weight gain among those on olanzapine than on placebo.

The results showed no significant difference across all outcome measures in olanzapine versus placebo. All subjects had improvement across all measures with no discernible difference between those on placebo and those on olanzapine. Limitations of this study were sample size and ineligibility of subjects with Bipolar I disorder. A concurrent double-blind, placebo-controlled, seven week RCT investigated olanzapine for treating PG involving video poker gambling [ ].

Twenty-three participants were enrolled and 21 completed the study. Dosage was started at 2. Subjects met with the study team on a weekly basis and were encouraged to attend GA. There were no significant differences between those on placebo and those on olanzapine in gambling-related craving or clinical improvement, although some reductions in gambling behaviors were seen on both groups over time.

No serious adverse effects were reported but two subjects in the olanzapine group discontinued due to fatigue and sedation. Limitations include a small sample size, short duration of trial, possible influences of meeting weekly with a clinician though no formal psychosocial treatment was given , exclusion of co-occurring disorders, and sole involvement of patients who reported video poker as their main addiction.

Together these two trials do not support a role for olanzapine in the treatment of PG, consistent with other findings that show drugs that antagonize dopamine D2-like receptors e. The influences of haloperidol, a D2-like dopamine receptor antagonist, on PG subjects during slot machine gambling were examined [ ].

Twenty non-treatment-seeking PG subjects and 18 matched healthy controls were studied. Each subject attended two sessions, one week apart. One session involved administration of haloperidol 3 mg and one placebo in a double-blind fashion. Each subject gambled in a mock-bar setting 2. A visual analog scale was used to measure subjective ratings of pleasure at these times as well as right after the gambling episode.

The Lexical Salience Task LST was administered right after the slot machine episode and blood pressure was measured at minute intervals throughout the session. Haloperidol appeared to increase enjoyment, excitement, and involvement and motivation to gamble for PG subjects with no appreciable effect on controls.

Blood pressure rose during gambling in both groups under both conditions, with the haloperidol augmenting the effect for both groups. In PG subjects, haloperidol also enhanced the salience to gambling words relative to neutral words on the LST. Adverse events during this phase were few with several reports of flatulence. Twenty-seven subjects entered the first open-label phase of the study. Of note, those subjects who were currently taking a psychotropic medication not an exclusionary criteria as long as they were stable on the medications for a period of three months prior to enrollment, and no changes were made to their medication schedule while enrolled , showed no response to the open-label NAC.

Of the 13 entering discontinuation, six were assigned to NAC and seven to placebo. Of those assigned to NAC, Limitations to this study include the fact that only responders were randomized into the double-blind portion of the study, small sample size, and short duration of treatment.

Individuals with Axis I disorders other than PG were excluded. Forty-two subjects were randomized to topiramate or placebo, and 27 completed the study. Of those discontinuing, nine were from the placebo group and six from the topiramate group.

Across all measures except the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale BIS where a trend difference was reported, there were no significant differences seen between those on topiramate versus placebo. A total of 28 participants across both groups reported adverse events, although all were mild to moderate in intensity. The most commonly reported adverse effects were fatigue, headache, nausea, and shoulder pain. A total of adverse effects were reported across both groups, with a numerical majority 52 coming from the placebo group.

Limitations include the small sample size, exclusion of comorbidities, and short trial duration. Amantadine, a drug with glutamatergic antagonist properties at the N-methyl d-aspartate NMDA receptor and dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic influences, has been evaluated in treating PG in individuals with PD [ ]. Seventeen patients with PG and PD were entered into a week double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover open-extension study.

Five patients dropped out. Limitations include short treatment schedule, only PG with PD were subjected to the treatment, small sample size, and all subjects were concurrently on anti-parkinsonian medications. Amantadine use associated with ICDs Thus, amantadine use in targeting PG in PD should be considered cautiously and the extent to which amantadine might be efficacious in treating non-PD PG warrants direct investigation. A placebo-controlled RCT enrolling individuals with PG and bipolar-spectrum disorders bipolar II, bipolar disorder not otherwise specified, or cyclothymia, with Bipolar I being excluded investigated sustained-release lithium carbonate [ ].

Targeted serum lithium levels ranged from 0. Subjects unable to maintain doses or comply with instructions were dropped. Forty subjects were enrolled with 18 of them assigned to the lithium group. Six lithium and five placebo subjects dropped out of the study before completing, with no differences between the groups.

Similar results were seen in the CGI scores, with the lithium group having greater improvement from baseline than the placebo group. Overall, there was a significant main effect of treatment outcome as well as a significant drug-by-time interaction. The lithium-treated group also showed improvement in their Barratt Impulsiveness Scale nonplanning impulsivity subscale scores compared to the placebo group, perhaps indicating this treatment may work by targeting this aspect of impulsivity.

In a study investigating the effects of lithium on brain activity in PG subjects with co-occurring bipolar disorder, Pallanti et al. Twenty-one patients with PG and co-occurring bipolar disorder and 21 matched comparison subjects underwent baseline PET scans. Sixteen PG patients entered a double-blind, placebo-control, randomized trial of lithium, as described in the paragraph above.

Four out of the five assigned to the lithium group and three out of eleven assigned to the placebo group were classified as responders. After 10 weeks of treatment, these patients had a second PET scan. Compared to the controls at baseline, there was a lower GMR in PG patients, and lithium treatment was associated with increases to levels more in line with the control subjects at baseline.

Limitations to this study include the small sample size, presence of bipolar disorder limiting the generalizability of the findings, and lack of subjects completing an assessment of their cognitive processing related to gambling while undergoing the PET scan. Lithium was compared to valproate in a single-blind evaluator blinded trial [ ].

Forty-two patients were enrolled, of whom, 15 receiving lithium and 16 patients receiving valproate completed. Mean dose of lithium at study end was CGI scores improved over the course of four to 14 weeks. Limitations include small sample size, single-blind design, lack of placebo control, and exclusion of co-morbidities commonly associated with PG substance use and bipolar disorders.

Naltrexone, an antagonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors, has been shown in RCTs to be efficacious in treating substance addictions including alcohol and opioid dependence. An early RCT investigated naltrexone in an week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a one week single-blind placebo lead-in [ ]. Thirty-six subjects completed all study visits with nine more completing at least six visits.

Naltrexone demonstrated superiority over placebo. Of those taking naltrexone, there were four subjects who developed elevated liver transaminase levels, and this occurred in individuals who were concurrently on an analgesic. A significant placebo effect was also observed.

Limitations include the high dropout frequency for placebo responders, small sample sizes, high drop-out frequency among the naltrexone group during the double-blind phase mostly due to elevated transaminase levels common to higher doses of naltrexone , and short duration of trial. To further protect the blinded nature of the study, a third investigator saw the subjects at their week two visit to assess side effects and improvement.

This investigator did not have contact with study participants at any other visit. Due to their findings from the previous trial, only subjects who reported gambling due to urges or cravings were enrolled. Individuals with co-occurring disorders with the exception of bipolar, substance abuse, and psychotic disorders were included. There were no significant differences between groups in relation to reported adverse events.

Most adverse events were mild to moderate in nature and occurred within the first week of treatment. Adverse events included nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, dry mouth, and constipation. There were no significant differences among the three groups receiving naltrexone on baseline characteristics, treatment completion, compliance, treatment effects, or side effects, so the results were combined and presented as group comparisons between naltrexone and placebo. Thirteen of the placebo group and 36 of the naltrexone group completed the study with no significant between-group differences noted for those who did and did not complete.

Of those assigned to naltrexone, 23 were able to abstain from gambling for at least a month compared to just two from the placebo group. Limitations to this study include no long-term follow-up beyond the 18 weeks of medication, exclusion of those with severe mental illness comorbidities, and a placebo effect common in pharmacological treatment trials for PG. An additional trial involving naltrexone combined pharmacological and behavioral therapies and involved subjects with co-occurring alcohol dependence and PG [ ].

The most common adverse effects reported were nausea, dry mouth, fatigue, and headaches. All but one subject from the naltrexone group completed the medication portion of the trial. Those considered completers attendance at month follow-up assessment included 19 from the original 27 in the naltrexone group and 19 from the original 25 in the placebo group. Eight and six failed to complete the study from the naltrexone and placebo groups, respectively.

Although significant time effects were noted among completers, no statistically significant between-group differences were seen on any of the four behavioral measures. Limitations include no clinician rated assessments of improvement i. It should also be noted that all subjects received cognitive behavioral counseling and any improvement cannot be attributed solely to the medication or to the counseling.

Nalmefene, an antagonist at the mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors, also has shown promising results in the treatment of substance addictions, particularly alcohol dependence. However, unlike naltrexone, nalmefene is considered devoid of hepatotoxicity. Nalmefene was initially investigated in the treatment of PG in a week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at 15 sites throughout the United States [ ].

Two hundred and seven subjects were enrolled. Fifty-one subjects were assigned to placebo with the remainder assigned to one of the nalmefene groups. Although subjects began the treatment study, dropouts included 27 from the placebo group and from the nalmefene group, leaving 49 individuals in the nalmefene groups and 24 individuals in the placebo group for comparison.

Reasons for discontinuation included adverse events and loss to follow-up. Adverse events were mild to moderate in nature, occurred primarily in the first week of treatment, and most commonly included nausea, insomnia, constipation, and dizziness. There was no significant difference in the outcome measures between the three nalmefene groups so those data were combined and compared as a group against the placebo group. On the primary measure, those on nalmefene had better outcomes from those on placebo placebo — Limitations to this study include the short duration of treatment, exclusion of individuals with psychiatric co-morbidities, frequent dropout, and possible compromise of blinding related to adverse effects.

A subsequent confirmatory study involved a double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT of nalmefene with a single-blind placebo lead-in phase [ ]. Two-hundred and thirty-three participants from 25 outpatient centers throughout the United States were enrolled into the single-blind placebo lead-in phase. Adverse events were similar to those in the initial study of nalmefene. In an intent-to-treat ITT analysis, However, the ITT group included 43 participants who discontinued prior to receiving active medication.

Limitations of this study include the exclusion of comorbidities, short trial duration, and frequent dropout. Data from placebo-controlled RCTs of naltrexone and nalmefene were analyzed to identify factors associated with treatment outcome [ ].

In alcohol dependence, opiate antagonist treatment outcome is better amongst those with a family history of alcoholism and strong cravings for alcohol [ , ]. Similarly, treatment outcome to naltrexone or nalmefene in PG was associated with a family history of alcoholism and, amongst those receiving high doses of opioid antagonist nalmefene 50 or mg, naltrexone or mg , strong gambling urges at treatment onset.

The variable most strongly associated with placebo response was age, with younger individuals more likely to respond to placebo. Multiple neurotransmitter systems, including serotonergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, glutamatergic and opioidergic, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of PG. Consistently, brain imaging studies have implicated multiple brain regions and circuits, particularly ventral cortical-striatal areas. RCTs investigating the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological treatments have demonstrated multiple promising leads, with opioid antagonists demonstrating the greatest empirical support.

Nonetheless, few studies have examined how opioids and opioid receptor function relates to gambling and PG, and individual differences in opioid receptor systems may have important treatment implications. For example, allelic variants of the gene encoding mu-opioid receptor gene have been linked to naltrexone treatment outcome in alcoholism, and these warrant investigation in PG, particularly with respect to treatment with naltrexone or nalmefene [ , ].

Existing data suggest that co-occurring disorders may be used to guide the selection of pharmacotherapies Figure 1. Although promising, multiple aspects still warrant additional testing. Additionally, treatments based on other important individual differences e.

Multiple knowledge gaps exist. For example, the frequent placebo response observed is poorly understood, may complicate treatment outcome, and warrants study. Treatments that combine pharmacological and behavioral approaches may help optimize treatment outcome. Additional measures genetic, neuroimaging might help identify factors that can be used to select appropriate treatments on an individual basis and may also better define brain mechanisms predicting and mediating the effectiveness of specific treatments.

Using these approaches, the lives of many people currently struggling with PG may be improved. Potenza has received financial support or compensation for the following: Dr. Conflicts of Interest: The authors report that they have no financial conflicts of interest with respect to the content of this manuscript. Bullock reports no biomedical financial interests or other conflicts of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

Curr Psychopharmacol. Author manuscript; available in PMC Dec Scott A. Bullock 1 and Marc N. Potenza 1, 2. Marc N. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Copyright notice. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Pathological gambling PG affects about 0. Background Gambling is defined as placing something of value at risk with the hope of gaining something of greater value. Epidemiology Prevalence Several national studies have been performed to estimate the prevalence rates of PG.

Neural Biology Similar to the cravings in cocaine dependence, gambling urges in PG may immediately precede engagement in the addictive behavior. Serotonin Serotonin or 5-Hydroxytryptamine 5-HT is a monoamine neurotransmitter biochemically derived from tryptophan. Dopamine Dopamine is a catecholaminergic neurotransmitter.

Endorphins endogenous opioid peptides Endorphins, opioidergic peptides produced by the body, have been implicated in pleasure and reward processing. Glutamate Glutamate, one of the 20 amino acids involved in building proteins and the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter, has been implicated in motivational processes and drug addiction [ 31 , 59 ].

Translating Neurobiological Understandings Into Effective Treatments Knowing which regions of the brain, and which systems are involved, may guide the selection of medications to test for treatment development. Treatments Behavioral Therapies and Interventions Multiple behavioral therapies and approaches have been used in helping people manage their gambling problems.

Pharmacotherapies In part based on the neurobiological underpinnings of PG and pharmacotherapies efficacious in substance addictions and other psychiatric disorders, several families of medications opioid antagonists, mood stabilizers, SRIs and glutamatergic drugs have been investigated for their efficacies and tolerabilities in the treatment of PG. Open in a separate window. Figure 1.

In double-blind phase Meta-analysis Studies A quantitative meta-analysis of pharmacological treatment trials conducted between and July has been performed [ 90 ]. Serotonin Clomipramine Given data supporting a role for serotonin in PG and the efficacy of SRIs in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, several early clinical trials investigated SRIs in the treatment of PG.

Fluvoxamine The early promise seen in the trial involving clomipramine led to larger studies of other SRIs including fluvoxamine. Sertraline Only one RCT involving sertraline has been published to date. Escitalopram PG often presents with co-occurring disorders. Dopamine Bupropion Bupropion, a dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was compared to naltrexone in a blind-rater study comparing 19 PG subjects taking naltrexone and 17 subjects taking bupropion over a week period in a parallel fashion [ ].

Modafinil One study to date involving PG subjects has investigated modafinil, a stimulant drug with pro-dopaminergic and pro-noradrenergic properties. Olanzapine Olanzapine, a drug with antagonistic properties at dopamine and serotonin receptors, has been evaluated in a 12 week double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study [ ].

Haloperidol The influences of haloperidol, a D2-like dopamine receptor antagonist, on PG subjects during slot machine gambling were examined [ ]. Amantadine Amantadine, a drug with glutamatergic antagonist properties at the N-methyl d-aspartate NMDA receptor and dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic influences, has been evaluated in treating PG in individuals with PD [ ].

Mood Stabilizers Lithium A placebo-controlled RCT enrolling individuals with PG and bipolar-spectrum disorders bipolar II, bipolar disorder not otherwise specified, or cyclothymia, with Bipolar I being excluded investigated sustained-release lithium carbonate [ ]. Opioid Antagonists Naltrexone Naltrexone, an antagonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors, has been shown in RCTs to be efficacious in treating substance addictions including alcohol and opioid dependence.

Nalmefene Nalmefene, an antagonist at the mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors, also has shown promising results in the treatment of substance addictions, particularly alcohol dependence. Conclusions and Future Directions Multiple neurotransmitter systems, including serotonergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, glutamatergic and opioidergic, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of PG. Acknowledgments Dr. Footnotes Conflicts of Interest: The authors report that they have no financial conflicts of interest with respect to the content of this manuscript.

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Herz A, Spanagel R. Endogenous opioids and addiction. The pharmacology of opioids [ Google Scholar ]. Herz A. Endogenous opioid systems and alcohol addiction. Psychopharmacology Berl ; 2 — Esch T, Stefano GB. The neurobiology of pleasure, reward processes, addiction and their health implications. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. Opposing tonically active endogenous opioid systems modulate the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Plasma endorphin levels in pathological gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies.

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Therefore, the odds of receiving another Ace are 3 in 51 5. Check out CORE and learn poker in the quickest and most systematic way:. In order to find the odds of getting dealt a pair of Aces , we multiply the probabilities of receiving each card:. Many beginners to poker overvalue certain starting hands, such as suited cards. We recommend you print the chart and use it as a source of reference. If you do see a flop, you will also need to know what the odds are of either you or your opponent improving a hand.

One common occurrence is when a player holds two suited cards and two cards of the same suit appear on the flop. The player has four cards to a flush and needs one of the remaining nine cards of that suit to complete the hand.

The player counts the number of cards that will improve his hand, and then multiplies that number by four to calculate his probability of catching that card on either the turn or the river. If the player misses his draw on the turn, he multiplies his outs by two to find his probability of filling his hand on the river. Another important concept in calculating odds and probabilities is pot odds. Pot odds are the proportion of the next bet in relation to the size of the pot. Experienced players compare the pot odds to the odds of improving their hand.

If the pot odds are higher than the odds of improving the hand, the expert player will call the bet; if not, the player will fold. This calculation ties into the concept of expected value , which we will explore in a later lesson. Experts in probability understand the idea that, just because an event is highly unlikely, the low likelihood does not make it completely impossible.

In fact, many experienced poker players subscribe to the idea that bad beats are the reason that many inferior players stay in the game. Bad poker players often mistake their good fortune for skill and continue to make the same mistakes, which the more capable players use against them. One of the most important reasons that novice players should understand how probability functions at the poker table is so that they can make the best decisions during a hand.

While fluctuations in probability luck will happen from hand to hand, the best poker players understand that skill, discipline and patience are the keys to success at the tables. A big part of strong decision making is understanding how often you should be betting, raising, and applying pressure. Rooted in GTO, but simplified so that you can implement it at the tables, The One Percent gives you the ultimate gameplan.

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The player has four cards to a flush and needs one of the remaining nine cards of that suit to complete the hand. The player counts the number of cards that will improve his hand, and then multiplies that number by four to calculate his probability of catching that card on either the turn or the river. If the player misses his draw on the turn, he multiplies his outs by two to find his probability of filling his hand on the river.

Another important concept in calculating odds and probabilities is pot odds. Pot odds are the proportion of the next bet in relation to the size of the pot. Experienced players compare the pot odds to the odds of improving their hand. If the pot odds are higher than the odds of improving the hand, the expert player will call the bet; if not, the player will fold.

This calculation ties into the concept of expected value , which we will explore in a later lesson. Experts in probability understand the idea that, just because an event is highly unlikely, the low likelihood does not make it completely impossible. In fact, many experienced poker players subscribe to the idea that bad beats are the reason that many inferior players stay in the game.

Bad poker players often mistake their good fortune for skill and continue to make the same mistakes, which the more capable players use against them. One of the most important reasons that novice players should understand how probability functions at the poker table is so that they can make the best decisions during a hand. While fluctuations in probability luck will happen from hand to hand, the best poker players understand that skill, discipline and patience are the keys to success at the tables.

A big part of strong decision making is understanding how often you should be betting, raising, and applying pressure. Rooted in GTO, but simplified so that you can implement it at the tables, The One Percent gives you the ultimate gameplan. A strong knowledge of poker math and probabilities will help you adjust your strategies and tactics during the game, as well as giving you reasonable expectations of potential outcomes and the emotional stability to keep playing intelligent, aggressive poker.

By Gerald Hanks. Gerald Hanks is from Houston Texas, and has been playing poker since If your first card is an ace, the odds of receiving another ace are the same as the odds were before you received the first ace. True or false? In a high pair vs. Sign in or Register for Free. And it will still be there when you are ready. Slow playing is a mistake common among players who are afraid of chasing their opponents out of the pot. However, when you feel uncertain, just bet.

Studying is essential to becoming the best poker player you can be, but at the same time, poker is a game that requires practice. Many of the decisions you make at the poker table are automatic. This, of course, only gets worse as the decisions become important. But it's very important you set aside time to study.

Reading poker articles , playing around with poker tools , and talking over hands with friends are a few of the many ways you can improve your game away from the table. This is a mistake many new players make, but also some more experienced players. The situation usually plays out as follows.

Their opponent checks to them on the river and they have a medium strength hand, so they bet On the river, you should be betting with a polarized range. That is to say, bet with a range that contains both value bets and bluffs, and check everything in between. All you have to do is check and showdown with these medium-strength hands and hope to drag the pot.

Poker expert and game theory wizard Matthew Janda says we should bluff the most on the flop, slightly less on the turn, and the least on the river. Applications shows that in order to bet with a balanced range a range composed of the optimal number of value bets and bluffs on the river, we need to bluff less on each progressive street.

This is because our bluffs will have more equity on earlier streets, as well as the opportunity to bluff again on a later street. Think about it So, because we have more equity, we can bluff more often while still remaining balanced. This is one of the most misunderstood aspects of advanced tournament poker strategy. So, instead of playing defensively, you should be playing solid and aggressive poker early on in order to build up a stack for a deep run.

If you find yourself short-stacked and near the money bubble or a pay jump, then you can start using a more survival-oriented playing style. Poker is a complex game. You have to weigh many factors in order to choose the best path of action. Bet sizing aside, the choices themselves are not many: you only need to choose between checking, calling, betting, raising, or folding.

But figuring out which one of these actions wins the most is seldom obvious. This is why you should always avoid rushing when making a decision. An extra moment's thought could provide the crucial insight needed to make the right choice, and it'll help you keep emotions out of your decision making. Do this and you'll win more, and learn more while playing. That said, it's important to avoid all unnecessary tanking.

You should never, for example, take 15 seconds to fold your 9s5c preflop from under the gun. Not only will it piss off your fellow players, you will actually hurt your own win-rate by reducing the number of hands played per hour. Building a network of poker playing friends will advance your understanding of the game. You'll bounce ideas off of each other, and gain new perspectives on every situation. The problem with going it alone is that you're more prone to biases. With another 2 or 3 or 4 different poker minds around you, you can more easily find what's right about your thought processes and thus eliminate most of the bias.

Another benefit of having poker friends comes into play when those inevitable downswings occur. Your friends can provide an amazing source of support during the hard times, and since they are poker players themselves that support will be all the more helpful. Most players are too passive preflop. But in order to get paid with them preflop, you also need to add in an appropriate amount of bluffs.

Sure, 3-betting only premium hands will work at first, but your opponents will soon catch on and start folding. Bluffs add depth to your preflop strategy, and help you to build more balanced range. Additionally, many low stakes players are not accustomed to playing versus 3-bets. This inexperience leads to many mistakes on their part, and the benefactor of those mistakes is you--the 3-bettor.

There is no harder spot in poker than playing out of position with a high stack-to-pot ratio. The situation is so complex that even solvers use almost exclusively mixed strategies which are impossible to execute as a human. One trick to bypass this is to play more defensively and check more of your good-but-not-great hands.

That being said, one of my favorite quick poker tips is that you should remember that Ace-high often still has a decent chance to win the pot even if you check it down. Turning this hand into a bluff in that spot not only opens you up to be exploited by loose calls, it also wins less than checking because you are not actually folding out that many better hands. What often happens is your opponent holds a worse high-card hand, which you beat, but which you don't get to see shown down because you've bet.

So, next time you get into that spot, just check it down! NOTE: Join the , people that have upgraded their poker skills with our free preflop charts! Click here to get them now! Signup today for free poker strategy, exclusive discounts, and be the first to get notified on new updates. This is Dynamik Widget Area. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

Previous Version 15 Quick Poker Tips. Here is the original version of this "quick poker tips" article, which was a bit more advanced originally published July 6th, Tip 1: Tighten up your preflop game. Tip 5: Game select, game select, game select!

Tip 6: Lean towards fast playing your strong hands so you can build the pot and make more money. Further reading: Fast Playing vs Slow Playing Revealed Tip 7: Play poker about twice as often as you study poker, but make sure to study! Tip 8: Do you know definitively whether your river bet is a value bet or bluff?

Tip Think of the early stages of a tournament like a cash game. Tip Make poker friends. Tip 3-bet more often. Tip Avoid bluffing on the river with Ace-high when it checks down. Dan B. Poker Strategy May 3, About the Author. Online grinder aspiring to reach the highest stakes and crush the toughest games. Join Our Newsletter Signup today for free poker strategy, exclusive discounts, and be the first to get notified on new updates.

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But beware of tricky players who may expect you to make a continuation bet and check-raise you. Continuation bets are more successful when you have position over your opponent s. This is not uncommon so try and get as good a knowledge of your opponent as possible before making moves and be prepared to fold if you hold nothing.

Don't feel as though you have to call if you get raised because you are more than likely not pot-committed. Just fold your cards and accept that the play didn't work out that time, save your chips for when you do make the hand. Continuation bets are commonplace in today's Texas hold em poker game, so it is in your best interest to familiarize yourself with them and start incorporating them into your play.

There are no set rules to when these plays will work, but there are guidelines as mentioned above that you can follow to help improve the effectiveness of the play. The best way to learn how and when to use continuation bets is to go and sit down at a table and experiment a little. The good thing about continuation bets is that they are relatively inexpensive to use, so you won't be losing a whole load of money trying to learn how and when to use them.

SwC Poker is my favourite room to play at. It has the worst players you can find online right now. You need to get some bitcoin to play here, but it's worth it. Accepting players from: Russia. What is a continuation bet? How to make a good continuation bet. Take in to consideration reads on your opponents.

Continuation bet sizing. Avoid making continuation bets against calling stations. Using the flop to determine whether or not to continuation bet. Continuation bet example. Good flop for a continuation bet example hand history. Bad flop for a continuation bet example hand history. Factors that influence continuation betting. Number of players in the pot. Position in the hand. Continuation bet evaluation. Related articles. Go back to the awesome Texas Hold'em Strategy. Ready To Play? Now you have to build better strategies, understand how to balance your value to bluff ratio and which hands to check.

Otherwise, you will not get the results that you want. Therefore, when you have a chance to make a continuation bet, you should answer yourself what you are trying to achieve with it. Without understanding the answer, you will likely end up just clicking buttons, which is not a winning strategy. So when deciding either c-bet or not, answer those few simple questions, and you will have a clearer picture:. While you can have a lot of fun firing some games in the Casoola casino , making decisions in poker requires more thinking, and answering these simple questions will help you understand if making a continuation bet is a better option than checking.

The same thought process goes for checking as well. You need to understand the reason behind the play and what you are trying to achieve. Apart from the times when you are just giving up with the hand due to the bad board or unfavorable situation, you should know why checking is better than a c bet, and only then make the play.

To illustrate what I mean, I will take an extreme example to make it very clear. BB is going to check his entire range, and you face a decision to c-bet or to check. Another significant benefit from checking these strong hands in poker is that you can also check some total air and bluff it later on because you will have some value holdings to go along with it.

It is just one example, how you can break down different boards and run-outs to make optimal decisions quickly. Remember that every single scenario could be analyzed similarly, and understanding what you can reach with a continuation bet or by checking will help you to improve a lot.

Your c-bet strategies will vary on different board textures, and it should be the most important factor, which you take into consideration while making the decision. Well, not as much the board itself, but how your whole range hits the board and who has the advantage. As a rule of thumb, you will be c-betting more on dry boards because it will likely miss the caller's range, and have to bet less on connected ones because your opponent is much more likely to have a piece of that and call or even check-raise as a bluff.

To achieve the best results, you should be thinking in terms of ranges or, more specifically, in terms of the range advantage. At the same time, the BB player has quite a few hands that will interact well with this particular texture.

So, you do not have range advantage here, as your opponent could have way more made hands like sets, two pairs, or even a straight. By the same virtue, if the flop were to come Ah Qs 8d, you would have a significant range advantage. However, understanding the overall principle of the range advantage is very important when deciding whether to c-bet and when defending against a c-bet.

You should spend some time analyzing different boards to build a good understanding of which spots favors your range and when you should c-betting and barreling as a bluff more often. Your c-bet ranges need to change based on that, and you need to play it a bit differently, to take max EV lines. If you have a position on your opponent, it is much easier to realize your equity with the hand, and you are guaranteed to see the turn if you check back.

While OOP, if you check, you could be facing a bet on the flop, turn and river from your opponent and have one more street to bluff catch, which makes your life much harder. Therefore, you need to check stronger hands OOP instead of making a continuation bet with all of them. Otherwise, it will be tough to defend against aggressive opponents, and people tend to bluff a lot versus missed c-bet.

When you are out of position, your c-bet range should be much smaller, and as we said before, you should check many reasonable strong hands to protect your holdings and have a chance to bluff catch. In this case, you will be able to call one or two bets but will have to fold on the river in most cases making you very vulnerable against any thinking opponent. It is a vital part, and checking stronger hands is not enough.

You need to understand how to deal when facing aggression, which hands to check-raise and when it is better to bluff catch by just calling. However, you still need to have certain strategies, especially against thinking players who will take advantage of your tendencies. Although your hand is very strong, you want to start building the pot and getting the value on the flop as later streets can bring cards that will make it harder for you to bet or for your opponent to call.

Instead, you can balance between betting and checking with different plans for different turn cards. Finally, this is an example of a hand PokerSnowie suggests to give up. Checking back and hoping to get a good card on the turn or go to a free showdown is the best course of action. Unimproved, you should be looking to fold to any aggression from your opponent.

These are just a few examples from the countless pool of possibilities. However, these should give you a pretty good idea of the baseline thinking you should adhere to when considering whether to c-bet or not when you are in position. Your general approach when out of position will be to play tighter. In this scenario, you have a very good hand — top pair with the second kicker. It may seem like a risky move as they can check back and get a free card, but having such hands in your checking range is vital for several reasons.

One of the hardest things to master in poker, yet a critical one. It is close to impossible to analyze all of the different scenarios and possibilities in a single article. Therefore, you should look at some professional training sites like Upswing poker lab or Pokercoaching to deepen your understanding. However, it is essential to understand at least the most crucial points not to make huge mistakes when continuation betting.

Let us divide all the boards into two parts to make it as simple as possible — dry and connected ones. When you choose to c-bet on a dry board, you should never bet more than half of the pot and could go with even smaller sizing in most cases. The reason is simple; you will achieve the same results with a small sizing. However, on connected boards, everything is the contrary, and you do not want to bet small and give your opponent correct odds to call with his draws to outdraw you.

Therefore, you should be betting at least two-thirds of the pot when you choose to c-bet and putting your opponent to the test. Distinguishing bet sizing based on board texture is crucial, and if you do not know how to implement advanced techniques live over betting or under betting to manipulate your opponent range, stick to the above-mentioned continuation bet strategies, and you will be up for the good start.

Here, PokerSnowie suggests firing a continuation bet of the size of the pot. So, you want to bet big to protect your holding and put pressure on any draw they might have. It is not a scenario where you want to get tricky by checking back or betting small.

While a big bet on the flop will polarize your hand, this is the best play you have. On the dry board, PokerSnowie opts to bet most of the time with a smaller sizing. As previously mentioned, this gives a lot of benefits for you and forces your opponent to continue with a wider range full of weak holdings. This is simply the matter of maximizing your EV with the entire range.

In this scenario, Snowie prefers checking back as the standard line. However, if you were to fire a continuation bet, making it about half the pot is the best sizing. While there is no simple strategy guide that will tell you how to size your c-bets in every possible scenario, these general tips and examples should give you a pretty good idea. As you see, there is a ton of information, which you need to take into consideration before making a c-bet.

To make things easier, you can follow a simple system to make educated decisions. I am talking about hand grouping. It enables you to put hands into different groups and quickly know either you should be c-betting or checking.