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System and method for geographically organizing and classifying businesses on the world-wide web. System and method for automatically organizing and classifying businesses on the World-Wide Web. Consumer product information request CPIR enabling servlets and web-based consumer product information catalogs employing the same. Automatic access of electronic information through machine-readable codes on printed documents. Method and apparatus for navigation of relational databases on distributed networks.

Computer apparatus and method for communicating between software applications and computers on the world-wide web using universal variable handling. Computer apparatus and method including a disconnect mechanism for communicating between software applications and computers on the world-wide web. Document management system using an access-limited character train and password, and a method and computer-readable medium therefor. Document security management system, document security management method, and document search device.

Method and system for providing computer-network related information about a calling party. Method and apparatus for communicating information about a called party to a calling party. System for generating home page, device and method therefor, and system for displaying home page and method therefor.

Apparatus for bleaching a de-activated link in a web page of any distinguishing color or feature representing an active link. Method, apparatus and computer program product for user selected refreshing of internet web pages. Method and apparatus for publishing information to a communications network and enabling subscriptions to such information. Methods for operating a universal client device permitting interoperation between any two computers. Method and system for processing a memory map to provide listing information representing data within a database.

Intelligent method, apparatus and computer program product for automated refreshing of internet web pages. Methods and apparatuses for transferring data between data processing systems which transfer a representation of the data before transferring the data. Methods and apparatuses for distributing a collection of digital media over a network with automatic generation of presentable media.

Method and apparatus for server responding to query to obtain information from second database wherein the server parses information to eliminate irrelevant information in updating databases. Technique for providing enhanced relevance information for documents retrieved in a multi database search. Method and system for providing access for categorized information from online internet and intranet sources. Communications network and method having accessible directory of user profile data.

System and method for displaying and entering interactively modified stream data into a structured form. A system and method for the co-ordination and control of information supply using a distributed multi-agent platform. Accessing, viewing and manipulation of references to non-modifiable data objects. System and method for dynamic data-mining and on-line communication of customized information. Method for configuring a piece of equipment with the use of an associated machine resolvable code.

Performing an e-commerce transaction from credit card account information retrieved from a credit card company web site. Method and apparatus for configuring configurable equipment with configuration information received from a remote location. Method and apparatus for launching a web site with non-standard control input device. Method and apparatus for completing, securing and conducting an E-commerce transaction. Method and apparatus for directing an existing product code to a remote location.

Method and apparatus for accessing a remote location by scanning an optical code. Method for controlling a computer using an embedded unique code in the content of video tape media. Method and apparatus for opening and launching a web browser in response to an audible signal. Method of controlling a computer using an embedded unique code in the content of DVD media. Digital ID for selecting web browser and use preferences of a user during use of a web application.

Method and apparatus for utilizing an audibly coded signal to conduct commerce over the internet. Method and apparatus for matching a user's use profile in commerce with a broadcast. Method and apparatus for utilizing an audible signal to induce a user to select an E-commerce function. Accessing a vendor web site using personal account information retrieved from a credit card company web site.

Method for interconnecting two locations over a network in response to using a tool. Method for controlling a computer using an embedded unique code in the content of dat media. System and apparatus for connecting a wireless device to a remote location on a network.

Method and apparatus for allowing a remote site to interact with an intermediate database to facilitate access to the remote site. Method for controlling a computer using an embedded unique code in the content of CD media. Method and apparatus for launching a web browser in response to scanning of product information. Bar code scanner and software interface interlock for performing encrypted handshaking and for disabling the scanner in case of handshaking operation failure.

Method using database for facilitating computer based access to a location on a network after scanning a barcode disposed on a product. Method and apparatus for utilizing an existing product code to issue a match to a predetermined location on a global network. Method and apparatus for accessing a remote location with an optical reader having a programmable memory system. Method and apparatus for accessing a remote location by sensing a machine-resolvable code. Unique bar code for indicating a link between a product and a remote location on a web network.

Method and apparatus for controlling a user's pc through an audio-visual broadcast to archive information in the users pc. Retrieving personal account information from a web site by reading a credit card. Method and apparatus for accessing a remote location with an optical reader having a dedicated memory system.

Method and apparatus for delivering information from a remote site on a network based on statistical information. AUA en. System and method for distributed storage and retrieval of personal information. EST3 en. Apparatus and method for aggregation and automated supply of transactions that involve information or personal electronic data. Computer implemented system for communicating between a user terminal and a database system. Method for requesting a date with a driver of a vehicle spotted, via the license plate number of the vehicle.

Web-based generation of telephony-based interactive voice response applications. Interactive activity interface for managing personal data and performing transactions over a data packet network. Method and apparatus for detecting changes in websites and reporting results to web developers for navigation template repair purposes. Method, product, and apparatus for resource identifier registration and aftermarket services.

USREE1 en. Method and apparatus for integrating resolution services, registration services, and search services. Methods, systems, products, and devices for processing DNS friendly identifiers. Method, product, and apparatus for enhancing resolution services, registration services, and search services. Process for maintaining ongoing registration for pages on a given search engine. Automatic advertiser notification for a system for providing place and price protection in a search result list generated by a computer network search engine.

System and method for enabling multi-element bidding for influencing a position on a search result list generated by a computer network search engine. System and method for influencing a position on a search result list generated by a computer network search engine.

System and method for providing place and price protection in a search result list generated by a computer network search engine. Method and apparatus for providing web based services using an XML Runtime model to store state session data. A method for providing a user interface to a subscriber terminal for configuring intelligent network services. Methods, systems and computer program products for the automated discovery of a services menu. Internet-based education support system, method and medium providing security attributes in modular, extensible components.

System and methods for browsing a database of items and conducting associated transactions. Method, system and computer program product for facilitating an auction behavior and automatic bidding in an auction. Method, system and computer readable medium for addressing handling from an operating system. Customized web browsing and marketing software with local events statistics database. Performing server actions using template with field that can be completed without obtaining information from a user.

Methods and systems for determining a meaning of a document to match the document to content. Information storage, retrieval and delivery system and method operable with a computer network. USA1 en. Document processing system, terminal device, document providing device, document processing method, recording medium. System, method and computer program product for publishing web page content having uniform predetermined format and features. System and method for dynamically updating a site map and table of contents for site content changes.

System and method for retrieving information from a database using an index of XML tags and metafiles. Method of generating print production tasks using information extracted from enterprise databases. System and method of using a sales management system to generate printed products. Streaming media search and continuous playback system of media resources located by multiple network addresses.

System and method for media playback over a network using links that contain control signals and commands. Streaming media search and continuous playback of multiple media resources located on a network. System for bypassing a server to achieve higher throughput between data network and data storage system. System and method for rapid completion of data processing tasks distributed on a network. System and method for marketing employing the distribution of a pay for performance database.

Method and apparatus for performing a research task by interchangeably utilizinga multitude of search methodologies. Method and apparatus for providing a sponsoree-sponsor relationship in a directory, including eminent domain rights for the sponsoree.

System and method of providing information to an onboard information device in a vehicle. System and method for the realization of transactions supported by a directory access LDAP protocol. Method of evaluating long-term average portfolio risk and return for cyclical corporation. Extension of browser web page content labels and password checking to communications protocols. System and method for efficiently accessing affiliated network addresses from a wireless device.

Method and system for searching indexed information databases with automatic user registration via a communication network. Information processing system, information disclosing server, and portal server. Method and apparatus for indentifying related searches in a database search system. Streaming video programming guide system selecting video files from multiple web sites and automatically generating selectable thumbnail frames and selectable keyword icons.

System, method, and article of manufacture for maintaining and accessing a whois database. DKT3 en. Systems and procedures for providing data storage place on servers in an on demand media delivery system. Apparatus and method for specifying and obtaining services through voice commands. Method, apparatus and system for marketing, delivering, and collecting payment for information. System and method for agency based posting and searching for job openings via a computer system and network.

Device, system and method for providing map information, and recording medium recorded with map information providing program. WOA1 en. Method and system for centrally organizing transactional information in a network environment.

Method for using a data processing system depending on an authorization, associated data processing system and associated program. Reverse proxy mechanism for retrieving electronic content associated with a local network. Apparatus and method for categorizing services using canonical service descriptions. Electronic catalog aggregation apparatus for realizing fast and efficient electronic catalog system.

System and method for collecting, storing, managing and providing categorized information related to a document object. Apparatus and method for recruiting, communicating with, and paying participants of interactive advertising. Apparatus and method for providing a centralized personal data base accessed by combined multiple identification numbers. Method for communicating data relating to intellectual property applications between a user and a receiver.

Communication apparatus and method, recording medium, program, and content providing apparatus. Apparatus and method for ensuring a real-time connection between users and selected service provider using voice mail. System and method allowing advertisers to manage search listings in a pay for placement search system using grouping. Apparatus and method for scheduling live advice communication with a selected service provider. Use of extensible markup language in a system and method for influencing a position on a search result list generated by a computer network search engine.

Method and system for the automated collection and display of database information via a communications network. Method and apparatus for categorizing and presenting documents of a distributed database. Method and system for interactive, multi-user electronic data transmission in a multi-level monitored and filtered system.

Method and system for filtered web browsing in a multi-level monitored and filtered system. Method and system for secure, community profile generation and access via a communication system. Method and system for multi-level monitoring and filtering of electronic transmissions.

Method, computer software, and system for providing end to end security protection of an online transaction. Web site and method for search engine optimization by prompting, recording and displaying feedback of a web site user. Efficient online auction style listings that encourage out-of-channel negotiation. Introducing a fixed-price transaction mechanism in conjunction with an auction transaction mechanism. Social news gathering, prioritizing, tagging, searching, and syndication method.

Method and system for generating and distributing electronic communications for maximum revenue. System and method for matching local buyers and sellers for the provision of community based services. Method and apparatus to compensate demand partners in a pay-per-call performance based advertising system. Methods and apparatuses to connect people for real time communications via voice over internet protocol VOIP.

Methods and apparatuses for geographic area selections in pay-per-call advertisement. Method and system for promoting and transferring licensed content and applications. Internet-based job placement system for creating proposals for screened and pre-qualified participants.

Internet-based job placement system for managing proposals for screened and pre-qualified participants. Method and apparatus to allocate and recycle telephone numbers in a call-tracking system. Methods, systems and computer program products for performing customer account updates.

System and methods for electronic commerce using personal and business networks. Method and system for the creating, managing, and delivery of feed formatted content. Game theoretic prioritization scheme for mobile ad hoc networks permitting hierarchal deference. System and method of presenting on-line product selection based on internal marketing and user popularity.

Systems and methods for presenting advertising content based on publisher-selected labels. Methods and apparatuses to access advertisements through voice over internet protocol VoIP applications. Systems and methods to manage a queue of people requesting real time communication connections. Electronic commerce global relational actualizing bargaining method and apparatus. Structured computer-assisted method and apparatus for filtering information presentation.

Dynamic schema-based silicon IP analysis, qualification, data exchange, and integration. Web based conversion of non-negotiable credits associated with an entity to entity independent negotiable funds. Conversion of loyalty program points to commerce partner points per terms of a mutual agreement. Systems and methods for providing advanced information searching in an interactive media guidance application. Preventing on-line violations of legal regulations on users of a communication system.

Dynamic characterization of nodes in a semantic network for desired functions such as search, discovery, matching, content delivery, and synchronization of activity and information. System for developing literacy skills using loosely coupled tools in a self-directed learning process within a collaborative social network. Methods, systems, and computer program products for accessing a discussion forum and for associating network content for use in performing a search of a network database.

System and method for extracting contact information from website traffic statistics. Systems and methods to provide communication references to connect people for real time communications. System and method for organizing, posting and searching information on a network. Prediction engines using probability tree and computing node probabilities for the probability tree. System, program product, and methods for social network advertising and incentives for same.

Method and system for providing network search results based in part on a user's financial data. BRPIA2 en. Object-based system and language for dynamic data or network interaction including learning management. Method and apparatus requesting information upon returning to a search results list. Conditionally obfuscating one or more secret entities with respect to one or more billing statements.

Obfuscating identity of a source entity affiliated with a communique in accordance with conditional directive provided by a receiving entity. System and method for transmitting illusory and non-illusory identification characteristics. System and methods for automatically accessing a web site on behalf of a client. Systems and methods of summarizing documents for archival, retrival and analysis. WOA2 en. Terminal apparatus, server apparatus, information processing method, program, and interlocked application feed system.

System and method for generating ethnic and cultural emoticon language dictionaries. Systems and user interfaces for dynamic access of multiple remote databases and synchronization of data based on user rules. System and method for optimizing online marketing based upon relative advertisement placement. Method for processing url and associated server and non-transitory computer readable storage medium. USDS1 en. Data processing systems for webform crawling to map processing activities and related methods.

Secure permissioning of access to user accounts, including secure deauthorization of access to user accounts. Parameter-based computer evaluation of user accounts based on user account data stored in one or more databases. Data processing systems and communication systems and methods for the efficient generation of privacy risk assessments. Data processing systems for identifying and modifying processes that are subject to data subject access requests. Data processing systems for identifying, assessing, and remediating data processing risks using data modeling techniques.

Data processing systems for automatic preparation for remediation and related methods. Data processing systems for the identification and deletion of personal data in computer systems. Data processing systems for orphaned data identification and deletion and related methods.

Data-processing consent refresh, re-prompt, and recapture systems and related methods. Data processing systems for fulfilling data subject access requests and related methods. Data processing systems for prioritizing data subject access requests for fulfillment and related methods. Data processing systems for processing and managing data subject access in a distributed environment.

Data processing systems for data testing to confirm data deletion and related methods. Data processing systems and methods for efficiently assessing the risk of privacy campaigns. Data processing systems and communications systems and methods for integrating privacy compliance systems with software development and agile tools for privacy design.

Data processing and scanning systems for generating and populating a data inventory. Data processing and communications systems and methods for the efficient implementation of privacy by design. Data processing systems and methods for performing privacy assessments and monitoring of new versions of computer code for privacy compliance. Data processing systems for data transfer risk identification and related methods.

Data processing systems for data-transfer risk identification, cross-border visualization generation, and related methods. Data processing systems for automated classification of personal information from documents and related methods. Data processing systems for generating and populating a data inventory for processing data access requests.

Data processing systems for integration of consumer feedback with data subject access requests and related methods. Consent receipt management and automated process blocking systems and related methods. Data processing systems and methods for populating and maintaining a centralized database of personal data. Data processing systems for calculating and communicating cost of fulfilling data subject access requests and related methods. Data processing systems for identity validation of data subject access requests and related methods.

Automated data processing systems and methods for automatically processing requests for privacy-related information. Data processing systems for use in automatically generating, populating, and submitting data subject access requests. Data processing systems and methods for automatically detecting and documenting privacy-related aspects of computer software.

The method that Chinese web page is presorted is carried out based on Keywords matching. Apparatus and method of distributing documents to remote terminals with different formats. Method for generating a document utilizing a plurality of windows associated with different data objects. System and method for automated selection of equipment for purchase through input of user desired specifications.

Method and apparatus for storing and generating financial information employing user specified input and output formats. Apparatus and method for communicating textual and image information between a host computer and a remote display terminal.

Query language execution on heterogeneous database servers using a bind-file bridge between application and database languages. System for determining direct and indirect user access privileges to data base objects. Method and system for providing user access control within a distributed data processing system by the exchange of access control profiles.

Method and system for variable authority level user access control in a distributed data processing system having multiple resource manager. Method for allowing retrieval of documents with user defined search descriptors. Computer implemented method and system for storing and retrieving textual data and compressed image data. Access control policies for an object oriented database, including access control lists which span across object boundaries.

Apparatus and method for creation of a user definable video displayed document showing changes in real time data. System and method for authenticating transmission and receipt of electronic information. System for multilevel secure database management using a knowledge base with release-based and other security constraints for query, response and update modification.

Data processing method to provide a generalized link from a reference point in an on-line book to an arbitrary multimedia object which can be dynamically updated. Electronic data entry system employing an expert system to facilitate generation of electronic data forms with complex interrelationships between fields and subforms.

System for providing application programs with direct addressability into a shared dataspace. Apparatus for and method of displaying a data item of a database using the display function of a selected data item. Computer-based data integration and management process for workforce planning and occupational readjustment. System for dynamic segmentation analysis using conversion of relational data into object-oriented data. System and method for dynamically displaying entering, and updating data from a database.

Computer-based method and apparatus for interactive computer-assisted negotiations. Method and system for data retrieval in a distributed system using linked location references on a plurality of nodes. Network having selectively accessible recipient prioritized communication channel profiles.

Method for extracting profiles and topics from a first file written in a first markup language and generating files in different markup languages containing the profiles and topics for use in accessing data described by the profiles and topics. Apparatus for applying analysis rules to data sets in a relational database to generate a database of diagnostic records linked to the data sets. High-level adaptable bidirectional protocol for use between a hypermedia system and a plurality of editors.

Method and system for the capture, storage, transport and authentication of handwritten signatures. Method for accessing computer files and data, using linked categories assigned to each data file record on entry of the data file record. Management facility for server entry and application utilization in a multi-node server configuration.

Graphical user interface for computer management system and an associated management information base. Computer-assisted system for interactively brokering goods or services between buyers and sellers. Method and apparatus for searching for information in a network and for controlling the display of searchable information on display devices in the network.

Apparatus and method for providing a secure gateway for communication and data exchanges between networks. Method and apparatus for information management using an open hierarchical data structure. Method and system for building a database for use with selective incentive marketing in response to customer shopping histories. Method and system for authenticating access to heterogeneous computing services.

Computer system and method for storing medical histories using a carrying size card. Interactive computer system to match buyers and sellers of real estate, businesses and other property using the internet. System and method for restricting user access rights on the internet based on rating information stored in a relational database. System and methods for remotely accessing a selected group of items of interest from a database. System for automatic unattended electronic information transport between a server and a client by a vendor provided transport software with a manifest list.

Method and apparatus for publishing documents in a hypertextural network environment. Method of creating and editing a web site in a client-server environment using customizable web site templates. Home page creating systems apparatuses and program recording mediums, and home page displaying systems and program recording mediums. Method and system for preparing and registering homepages, interactive input apparatus for multimedia information, and recording medium including interactive input programs of the multimedia information.

Web page display system utilizing locally stored image data components that are integrated according to part combination information transmitted by a server. LUA1 en. USDS en. System and method for integrating voice, facsimile and electronic mail data through a personal computer.

CHA5 en. Enhanced apparatus and methods for retrieving and selecting profiled textural information records from a database of defined category structures. Portable computer system having password control means for holding one or more passwords such that the passwords are unreadable by direct access from a main processor. System having central processor for transmitting generic packets to another processor to be altered and transmitting altered packets back to central processor for routing.

Decentralized distributed asynchronous object oriented system and method for electronic data management, storage, and communication. EPB1 en. CAA1 en. Data collection and retrieval system for registering charges and royalties to users. Method for preventing inadvertent betrayal by a trustee of escrowed digital secrets. Interactive multimedia communication system that accesses industry-specific information. Apparatus and methods for retrieving information by modifying query plan based on description of information sources.

Computerized system for making payments and authenticating transactions over the internet. Method and apparatus for dynamically customizing electronic information to individual end users. Information summarizing method, information summarizing device, weighting method, and teletext receiving device. System for controlling the distribution and use of digital works having a fee reporting mechanism.

System and method for scheduling broadcast of and access to video programs and other data using customer profiles. DET2 en. Systems and methods for secure transaction management and electronic rights protection. Hypertext document transport mechanism for firewall-compatible distributed world-wide web publishing. Computer system and computer-implemented process for remote editing of computer files.

Method and apparatus for publishing hypermedia documents over wide area networks. Method and system to create, transmit, receive and process information, including an address to further information. Method and apparatus for locating bone cuts at the distal condylar femur region to receive a femoral prothesis and to coordinate tibial and patellar resection and replacement with femoral resection and replacement.

Customer information control system and method with API start and cancel transaction functions in a loosely coupled parallel processing environment. System for prompting parameters required by a network application and using data structure to establish connections between local computer, application and resources required by application.

Method of providing internet pages by mapping telephone number provided by client to URL and returning the same in a redirect command by server. Integrated request-response system and method generating responses to request objects formatted according to various communication protocols.

Method for delivering separate design and content in a multimedia publishing system. Information retrieval system in an on-line network including separate content and layout of published titles. Computerized purchasing system and method for mediating purchase transactions over an interactive network.

Method for categorizing documents into subjects using relevance normalization for documents retrieved from an information retrieval system in response to a query. Relevance normalization for documents retrieved from an information retrieval system in response to a query. Method and apparatus for generating a composite document on a selected topic from a plurality of information sources. Method and apparatus for identifying textual documents and multi-mediafiles corresponding to a search topic.

Architecture for processing search queries, retrieving documents identified thereby, and method for using same. Apparatus for capturing, storing and processing co-marketing information associated with a user of an on-line computer service using the world-wide-web.

Data structure and method for publishing electronic and printed product catalogs. Persistent client state in a hypertext transfer protocol based client-server system. Hypertext markup language HTML extensions for graphical reporting over an internet. Method of uploading a message containing a file reference to a server and downloading a file from the server using the file reference.

Configurable password integrity servers for use in a shared resource environment. Retrieving plain-text passwords from a main registry by a plurality of foreign registries. System for adding new entry to web page table upon receiving web page including link to another web page not having corresponding entry in web page table. Method and apparatus for generating dynamic web pages by invoking a predefined procedural package stored in a database.

System, method and article of manufacture for secure network electronic payment and credit collection. Client-server system using embedded hypertext tags for application and database development. System, method and article of manufacture for virtual point of sale processing utilizing an extensible, flexible architecture.

System and method for billing for transactions conducted over the internet from within an intranet. Secure access method, and associated apparatus, for accessing a private IP network. CNC en. System and method for providing a network host decoy using a pseudo network protocol stack implementation.

Management of query result complexity using weighted criteria for hierarchical data structuring. FRB1 en. Akkiraju, Praveen et al. Andrews, Keith et al. Anick, Peter G. Ayre, Rick et al. Balasubramanian, V. Barclay Rebecca O. Baser, K. Computer Science, vol. Beck, Bradley C. Berners-Lee, Tim et al. Bina, Eric et al. USA, pp. Bowman, C. Mic et al. Computer Science, University of Colorado, pp. Brown, Marc H. Chabrow, Eric R. Cinkosky, M.

As referred to herein, the buying rate is the rate at which conversion agencies accept non-negotiable funds for conversion to negotiable funds, and the selling rate can be the rate at which conversion agency or other such entity as well as credit providing entities can advance credits to person for future actions It should be noted that different rates may also be quoted for different types of non-negotiable funds e. In one embodiment, conversion ratio can be a market based exchange rate and thus can change whenever the values of either of the two component currencies change.

In another embodiment, the conversion ratio can be a fixed exchange rate, also known as a pegged exchange rate, which is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currency's value is matched to the value of another single currency. The conversion ratio in this instance does not fluctuate but is consistent and steady.

Method can in one embodiment comprise steps to However, the following description of one embodiment of method is not intended to be construed as limiting as other or additional steps for an entity granting a consumer entertainment credits and presenting indicia leading to credit redemption are contemplated. Method can begin in step , where the credit providing entity can reward a customer with entertainment credits for actions or behavior or promised future actions or behavior undertaken by the customer in response to a credit earning opportunity.

In step , the credit providing entity can present a customer with indicia for redemption options for the customer earned entertainment credits. Indicia can be in the form of banners, radio buttons, pop-up windows, embedded links, audio and or video notification, QR or bar codes, flyers, and the like. Upon user selection of the indicia advertised redemption option s , the credit providing entity can in step direct the customer to one or more rewards entities e. In step , the rewards Web site utilizes user credentials provided by, for example, the credit providing entity of the customer or the customer him or herself to access the consumer's account information and determine the amount of non-negotiable credits in the consumer's account.

The consumer optionally selects to supplement his or her available credits by engaging in a credit advance and elects to redeem some quantity of non-negotiable credits in step The quantity of converted non-negotiable credits is subtracted from the user's account in step Lastly, the consumer terminates the session by logging off the rewards Web site in step GUI shows an interface from a gambling Web site.

The indicia can be presented to a customer via a variety of means including but not limited to banners, radio buttons, pop-up windows, embedded links, audio and or video notification, QR or bar codes, flyers, and the like. GUI can be a checkout window from an e-commerce site. GUI includes payment button , which represents a payment option that includes the conversion of non-negotiable credits to purchase the items in the shopping cart.

Selection of payment button by a user can produce GUI GUI can be a display window from a conversion agency. GUI includes display box and buttons , In one embodiment, GUI can be contained within the e-commerce site. GUI can display the balance of non-negotiable, entertainment credits earned from one or more game providing entities.

GUI contains a means by which the user selects the type of non-negotiable credits to convert including, but not limited to, a set of radio buttons, a set of checkboxes, a highlighting mechanism, and the like. Display box can display the monetary value of the selected non-negotiable credits. The value displayed in display box can be based on preset conversion factors.

Button can allow a user to purchase additional entertainment credits at predetermined exchange rates or engage in a credit advance when the option is available to the customer. For example, a credit account holder may wish to engage in a loan policy for credits in exchange for a guarantee of future acts or behavior that would earn him or her non-negotiable credits.

The credit loan is a policy that can take advantage of a credit account holder's lack of impulse control in regards to purchasing behavior by allowing a user to immediately purchase a desired good or purchase but delay payment until a later time. In another embodiment, the credit advance or loan can be an immediate purchase of non-negotiable credits with negotiable funds to supplement earned entertainment credits. Selection of button by a user can produce GUI GUI includes yes button and cancel button GUI can include a means to continue the transaction, yes button , and a means to cancel the transaction, cancel button Selection of cancel button by a user cancels the transaction and can return the user to GUI GUI can be a display window from the same said e-commerce site.

Customer financial account can include a user prompt that can present the customer with his or her summary information, a user account overview , buttons for typical options such as pay balance and request increased limit , credit indicator , and account navigation options User account overview can present the customer with one or more financial account types for the customer. Each account can be eligible for loyalty point accrual through a variety of options.

For example, user account type one could be eligible for a fixed 5 points per transaction credit reward and card two could allow varying levels of point accrual for different types of transactions e. Credit indicator can provide the customer with a visual display of the number of loyalty points he or she has accrued to date and selecting the point specific account navigation option can launch customer credit account GUI Customer credit account GUI can include summary , redemption options , buttons for navigation such as a button to return to recent activity for example, GUI , and credit account specific navigation options , including an option to convert credits to other payment artifacts for example, transferring converted funds to a customer's PAYPAL account, or an entity specific gift card.

Summary can present the customer with an overview of the total balance of points earned to date which can be visually seen via indicator Redemption option indicator can present the customer with a selection of or all available options for spending his or her accrued loyalty points. Such options can include, but are not limited to, shopping at an exclusive discount designer boutique, an online mall, booking a flight with points, gifting points to another individual or donating points to an organization or cause, initiating a cash-back request based on a specified conversion ratio, paying a membership or subscription fee with points, and the like.

It should be understood that each of these redemption options can be subject to a differing conversion rate set by either the conversion agency or credit granting entity It should be noted that the separate entities are not affiliated with one another and can be separate legal entities. User can engage in a consumer incentive activity provided by credit providing entity which in turn provides user with credits as a reward for engaging in the sponsored activity.

The non-negotiable credits can be passed onto the conversion agency upon a user request or a user initiation of a purchase with credits. In one embodiment conversion agency can be compensated for their services by the credit providing entity through compensation payment In another embodiment, conversion agency can build in compensation for their services through a processing or handling fee passed onto the user Conversion agency can then provide the user with access to negotiable funds to be utilized in the user initiated transaction with vender Vender , upon receipt of payment , can provide the user with his or her desired good or service purchased.

Computer game accessed, for example, through a social networking site, online multiplayer games, etc. When a user is awarded points a credit award notice can inform the user that he or she has successfully completed a challenge or milestone and has been rewarded a number of entertainment credits.

Credit award notice can include buttons for returning to the game and continue accruing points and redeeming points Should a user elect to redeem his or her points immediately, e-wards account GUI can be launched. E-wards account GUI e. Redemption options can include, but are not limited to, game downloads and game items, memberships and subscriptions, trailers and previews, movies and TV show downloads, redeeming prepaid cards or promotional codes and viewing a user download or redemption history.

Game downloads and game items can include a new game, special levels opening up upon a user reaching a certain level or completing a certain action in a game, an option to purchase upgrades to user equipment or game achievements, and the like. Memberships and subscriptions can include gym memberships, magazine or newspaper subscriptions, and the like.

Other options and components for credit redemption are contemplated. User can engage in game of chance with credit providing entity in exchange for non-negotiable credits Gambling website can provide an online gambling opportunity for customers where customers can earn points or non-negotiable credits in exchange for wining a gambling game.

The number of credits earned can depend on the specific wager or odds or be fixed to a set amount per play. Upon successful completion i. In addition, gambling website can present the user with an indicia button to redeem points or an option to play again User selection of the redeem points button can launch credit redemption options GUI. Credit redemption GUI can present a customer with his or her total credit balance as well as credit redemption options Redemption options in this instance can include options to play more games with credit wagers, order room service in a casino hotel room when available, order in room entertainment such as movies or TV shows or even purchasing tickets to events, shopping for merchandise or initiating cash-out to a credit card or other payment artifact.

An option to cancel and return to the game is also included. In this embodiment's scenario, user can play a gambling game hosted by credit providing entity , which in turn can reward user with non-negotiable credits for participating in the gambling game. Non-negotiable credits can be passed on to conversion agency for conversion to non-negotiable funds upon user initiation of a transaction with vender The vender can be unaware the funds are being transferred through the conversion agency and thus from the vender's perspective the transaction is a regular transaction.

System can represent a specific embodiment of system In system , consumer can interact with a game of chance server , such as through a Web site that server provides. Interactions can occur via a browser , rich internet interface, or other software executing upon client Client can be any of a variety of devices including, but not limited to, a personal computer, a kiosk, a telephone, a personal data assistant PDA , a mobile phone, and the like.

In one embodiment, client can operate in a stand-alone fashion. Alternatively, client can be a device that cooperatively participates in a network of distributed computing devices. Network can facilitate data exchanges over wireless as well as line-based communication pathways and protocols. Conversion agency server includes user account data store in which consumer is a member. Associate server includes customer data store in which consumer is a member. Financial institution server includes account data store Account data store includes conversion agency account corresponding to conversion agency Consumer can earn non-negotiable credits from games provided by server These earnings non-negotiable credits can be managed by associate server The quantity of these non-negotiable credits can be saved in customer data store In one embodiment, conversion agency can maintain multiple accounts for the consumer These different accounts can be associated with different game providing entities, and with different types of non-negotiable credits.

For example, consumer can earn credits from participating in an online game hosted by server Consumer can choose to use conversion agency to convert any or all of these credits to a monetary equivalent. Conversion agency withdraws the necessary amount from conversion agency account contained within the account data store of financial institution and transfers it to an account specified by consumer In another example, consumer uses conversion agency to complete a purchase at e-commerce server Again, conversion agency withdraws the necessary amount from conversion agency account contained within the account data store of financial institution and transfers it to the account of e-commerce server E-commerce server can provide a Web site that supports online purchases of goods or services.

In one embodiment, e-commerce server can include a distinct payment option for conversion agency This distinct payment option could process the conversion of credits through their Web site. Alternatively, the distinct payment option could launch an application to process the conversion of credit that is separate from their Web site.

In another embodiment, associate server can act as e-commerce server In one embodiment, e-commerce server can provide a software service or can execute a software module that permits the sale of goods or services, without necessarily providing a Web site. Financial institution server can be any of a variety of entities including, but not limited to, a bank, a credit card company, an investment firm, and the like.

As shown herein, data stores , , , , , and the like can be physically implemented within any type of hardware including, but not limited to, a magnetic disk, an optical disk, a semiconductor memory, a digitally encoded plastic memory, a holographic memory, or any other recording medium. Each of the data stores , , , , can be stand-alone storage units as well as a storage unit formed from a plurality of physical devices, which may be remotely located from one another.

Additionally, information can be stored within each data store , , , , in a variety of manners. For example, information can be stored within a database structure or can be stored within one or more files of a file storage system, where each file may or may not be indexed for information searching purposes. Content can be contained within analog or digital signals and conveyed through data or voice channels and can be conveyed over a personal area network PAN , a local area network LAN , or a wide area network WAN.

The network can include local components and data pathways necessary for communications to be exchanged among computing device components and between integrated device components and peripheral devices. The network can also include network equipment, such as routers, data lines, hubs, and intermediary servers which together form a packet-based network, such as the Internet or an intranet.

The network can further include circuit-based communication components and mobile communication components, such as telephony switches, modems, cellular communication towers, and the like. It should be understood that embodiments illustrated in FIG. The embodiment discussed in FIG. In game participation embodiment , user can play a designated computer or video game such as Farmville, World of Warcraft, Eve, Civilization, and the like and perform actions in the game that can earn user credits that are reflected in a credit meter Actions that can warrant credits , can be predetermined by a computer game provider i.

It should be noted that these computer game earned credits are for virtual world actions and interactions. As such, a user is not limited to real world actions for earning credits. A virtual world is an online community that can take the form of a computer-based simulated environment through which users can interact with one another and use and create objects. Virtual worlds are not limited to games but, depending on the degree of immediacy presented, can encompass computer conferencing and text based chatrooms.

As such, neither the credit subsequent non-negotiable fund nor the negotiable fund need be real world items. A conversion from a non-negotiable fund to a negotiable fund can occur fully in a virtual world environment. Actions that can warrant credits can include actions that lead to specific level achievements, high scores, interacting with or collaborating with other users in a certain manner should the game be a multiplayer game, and the like.

Actions that warrant credits can, in one embodiment, be unknown to a user prior to achieving the credit award, encouraging users to continue participation in the game for a possible future credit award to increase their credit balance as tracked by credit meter In another embodiment, actions can be known and provider user with a roadmap to follow to earn certain credits to reach his or her own goal of accrued credits In one embodiment, credit meter can also include a notification of the current or effective conversion ratio applying to the earned credits In external advertisement placement , user can host his or her own website Part of this site can be an advertisement for external content or products.

The advertisement can be for adjacent market goods to allow an adjacent market entity to take advantage of adoption order as well as commonality of requirements or relationships due to the fact that adjacent market segments share common characteristics in application requirements and ecosystem, or community, relationships.

For example, the electric toothbrush market part of the oral hygiene market , can be adjacent to the market for dental services. As such, John Smith's Dentistry website can include an external advertisement for an electric toothbrush or an airline website can enable visitors to also view external advertisement offers from car rental companies or destination city hotels.

It should be noted that an external advertisement need not be for an adjacent market good or service. Upon each consumer click of the external ad posted to John Smith's site , John Smith can receive credits as shown on his credit meter The credit meter can be a personal credit mater for John Smith or a credit meter for the Smith Dentistry business entity. However, the credits can, in one embodiment, also be awarded to person by a third party non-affiliated entity that is engaged in business with the entity whose goods and services are being advertised.

The GUI or control element of one's credit account can be accessible from a dedicated site or be accessible from a plug in or linkage within a game or e-commerce site, and the like. In one embodiment, an e-wards GUI can present the account holder with summary information that can be linked to a user selected goal purchase users can thus be reminded of their end reward for participating in credit earning activities.

Options to change a current goal , view similar options to goal , and the like, can be interactive options for e-wards account GUI Additionally, the GUI can include a visual representation of a user's current credit meter totaling a user's accrued credits from various actions and behaviors for example, credits accrued from game participation or external advertisement placement program In another embodiment, the visual representation can be incorporated into an e-commerce website letting a user know how many more credits he or she would have to accrue to purchase certain selected items.

Account management options can include a plethora of options, such as credit balance check, an overview, detailed history, pending credits both to be received in the account as well as credits to be converted , an option for a credit advance further expounded upon in FIG.

In another embodiment, the option to convert credits can include a quick conversion form , wherein a user can designate an amount of credits to be converted and placed on a user or account owner selected pre-registered gift card, store member card, payment account such as PAYPAL , and the like. In this instance, the concept of giving and removing credits is based on an incentive structure present in human behavior remunerative or financial incentive in this instance.

As used herein, an incentive is any factor financial or non-financial that enables or motivates a particular course of action, or counts as a reason for preferring one choice to the alternatives. More specifically, it is an expectation that encourages people to behave in a certain way. In this specific embodiment, an incentive can be health targeted rewarding a user for his or her health related achievements and can be sponsored by a specific entity such as, for example, weight watchers and the like.

It should be understood that other embodiments are contemplated. In this specific user achievement embodiment, user actions such as swimming a certain number of laps, running a given amount of time or burning a specific number of calories from running, etc. Credits can be tracked and available for use in purchases through health credit redemption GUI GUI can include a credit meter , and a specific conversion ratio notice.

Additionally, GUI can include a button to call upon credit details , and a button for a user to enter his or her recent health activity to be converted to credits In one embodiment, entering health activity for credits can be restricted to a user's personal trainer or health representative to prevent abuse of credit garnering behavior by a user.

In another embodiment, a record keeping device such as an athletic watch or heart rate monitor, a lap counter, or a combination of such devices can be utilized to download data into GUI to maintain accurate records of health activities and assign a correct number of credits to a user's health credit redemption GUI account and credit meter Other methods of entering health activity for credit conversion are contemplated.

It should also be noted that other types of achievement credit embodiments are contemplated. Other embodiments need not be behavior based as they can, for example, be based on a financial threshold. GUI can also include purchase options at external sites unaffiliated with the credit providing entity , as well as a list of types of options which can in one embodiment include direct links.

Purchase options can in one embodiment be based on a user's purchase history regarding achievement type which can also include purchases acquired without credit conversion such as a complete AMAZON account purchase history analysis, and the like. Other achievement based embodiments are contemplated. For example, another embodiment can include programs set up through children's schools or parents or a combination of the two, wherein certain grades, points, or extra credits can earn children for example a new Nintendo cartridge linked to academic programs and educational content.

A reverse system to the one described in user achievement embodiment , can be a user behavior embodiment In this embodiment, a user can engage in the reverse of accruing credits. That means a user can lose credits based on bad behavior, which can function as negative feedback in an effort to influence a user behavior.

The user can, in one embodiment, have options for making up for losing bad credits but can be limited to a ceiling of credits earned within a given timeframe. List can be can be modified as needed by a sponsoring entity that provides credits to user based on his or her behavior. The additional incentives depicted in the following description are broader and economy or market based than the incentive structure discussed in FIG.

Unlike a private good such as an individual's own health , in this case credits can be earned from enhancing a public good or service. As used herein, a public good is a good that is non-rival and non-excludable. Non-rivalry means that consumption of the good by one individual does not reduce availability of the good for consumption by others; and non-excludability means that no one can be effectively excluded from using the good.

Non-excludability may cause problems for the production of such goods. Uncoordinated markets driven by self-interested parties may be unable to provide these goods in optimal quantities, if at all. As such, subsidies can be used as incentives for individuals to contribute to or produce a public good. A subsidy can be an assistance paid to a business or economic sector through a variety of ways either directly to the business or industry or indirectly through subsidizing the business or industry's consumers' purchases.

Most subsidies are made by the government, but can also be an assistance granted by others such as individuals or non-governmental institutions, to producers or distributed as subventions in an industry to prevent the decline of that industry e. For example, sponsored initiative embodiment shows a subsidy project, in this instance a green initiative, where individuals can receive non-negotiable credits from engaging in green actions and behavior such as carpooling, recycling, buying electric cars, and the like.

Sponsored initiative GUI can track and maintain a credit balance to be redeemed for products offered by sponsored and approved green initiative venders that are not affiliated with the original credit providing entity. Other types of subsidy credits are contemplated and the above example is not intended to be limiting.

An additional type of subsidy credit can be a market promotion embodiment It should be noted that while the following description centers on a mobile application, the disclosure should not be construed as limited to a mobile application. The mobile device can include a display area and an input mechanism , which, in this example, are one-and-the-same.

That is, the display area of a mobile device can also be used as the input mechanism , for example, with a touch screen. Mobile device display can present the user with an app of the day marketplace. The app of the day marketplace can include app promotion summary as well as more detailed app of the day information This free app can, in one embodiment, be due to a previous qualifying app purchase as noted in the app information section.

In another embodiment, the app promotion can be freely available to all users regardless of prior app purchases. App of the day display can also include a back button to return the user to a prior screen or an install button to download and install the promoted app of the day to his or her mobile device The marketplace will offer the app of the day for free to its purchasers as a non-negotiable credit that to the marketplace is a negative one, expended for marketing, good will, or another intangible benefit but still reimburse the app provider with the usual amount of payment for the app or the app provider receives a tax write-off, or the like.

In another embodiment, upon successful installation of the app promotion , the user may access a used app store via mobile device The Used app store can present the user with resale options of installed applications of the mobile device Additionally, the used app store can include a button for buying used apps as well as a button to view sale history A user selling an application in a secondary marketplace is a type of non-negotiable fund to negotiable fund money or otherwise exchange.

The sale can be for credits that can be converted to cash or cash itself. The currency for this transaction can, in one embodiment, be tracked and maintained within an e-wallet application or rewards account, and the like. Other types of promotions for credits are contemplated. For example, airlines allow sales for a limited time period for certain flights or destinations earning a consumer double or triple the loyalty points.

The following embodiments are for exemplary purposes only and other social networking credit embodiments are contemplated. As such they can be individual or group-centered. Social networking services allow users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their individual or group networks.

It should be noted that most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging. As such, social networking credit services can be integrated into e-commerce sites to allow for social feedback actions , social outreach actions , and the like. Social feedback actions embodiment can illustrate how a consumer may earn credits from providing reviews or other services that allows other members of his or her social network to act in a more informed manner.

Decision making of other members of the social network are improved the more information or certainty is added to a specific situation or choice. It should be noted that more informed individuals will be able to make more rational choices in the economic sense, which subsequently facilitates the prediction of market behavior for economic entities. As such, both consumers as well as suppliers benefit from the proliferation of social feedback options for credit. E-commerce site can sell products and services and allow purchasers to perform socially serving activities in exchange for providing them with credits in the form of loyalty points, discounts, or other non-negotiable credits.

Social credit action GUI shows one example of such a socially serving activity. In this embodiment, the credit garnering activity can be leaving a review for a previously purchased good such as writing a book review on AMAZON. Options associated with the social credit action GUI can include a visual ranking starts option as well as a descriptive text rating The form can also include a submit button that can publish the user created review to e-commerce site , and a cancel button that can return the user to e-commerce site without publishing a social credit action or review.

An optional account button can provide a means for a credit user to reach his or her awards credit account such as social credit account GUI directly from an e-commerce site User selection of the account button can launch the social credit account GUI The credit account GUI can include a listing for overall account balance as well as a details pane Details pane can list the user's past credit garnering actions and a breakdown of the amount of credits gained from various types of social feedback actions.

For example, a user can have earned credits from writing reviews, sharing a review, liking another individual's review or marking it as useful or helpful or receiving a helpful status of one of his or her own reviews. Similarly, a user may receive a dock in credits negative credits when one of his or her social feedback actions is deemed as irrelevant or untrue. Other options for creating an effective incentive structure for social actions are contemplated.

GUI can also include a button to encourage use of credits for a purchase. Social outreach action embodiment depicts another type of social proliferation of information within the marketplace. In this instance, a deal site for example, an e-commerce site providing goods and services as well as daily deals on purchases to customers can present a consumer with a summary page of a recently purchased deal for a good or service.

In effect the retailer or front party supplements the vender that it is a storefront for, for the non-negotiable credits extended to the deal site 's members or credit recipients. In one embodiment, there can be a requirement associated with the credits. For example, a requirement can be set that a user's social outreach actions lead to three of his or her social network contacts purchasing the same item before a user will be given credits.

In this instance, the credits can be that the original purchaser's transaction is free. Selection of the social outreach option can launch a sharing options GUI to be presented to the purchaser. In this manner, sharing options GUI can provide convenient and quick dissemination of the site 's information to a user's social network. In this embodiment, sharing options GUI can be coupled to an individual's social networking contact lists.

A submit button can be included to launch messages sharing the deal purchase as well as a cancel button that can return the user to the deal site A further example of vender transactions discussed above can include a phone service company extending a discount on a new mobile phone to a customer for signing an additional contract. Additional scenarios where an entity supplements another entity downstream for a credit given to a purchaser are contemplated.

Most of the time, a user will have earned credits from engaging in previous interactions with a credit providing entity. In this manner, a credit account holder may wish to engage in a loan policy for credits in exchange for a guarantee of future acts or behavior that would earn him or her non-negotiable credits. As used herein, a loan is a type of debt. Like all debt instruments, a loan entails the redistribution of financial assets over time, between the lender and the borrower.

In a loan, the borrower initially receives or borrows an amount of money or in this instance credits , called the principal, from the lender, and is obligated to pay back or repay an equal amount of credits to the lender at a later time. The credits can be paid back in regular installments, or partial repayments; in an annuity, each installment is the same amount.

It should be noted that the loan or credit advance can generally be provided at a cost, referred to as interest on the debt, which provides an incentive for the lender to engage in the loan or credit advance. Conventionally, an advance service for funds can allow credit account holders to withdraw credits, either through an ATM or over the counter at a bank or other financial agency, up to a certain limit. Such advances can generally incur a fee to replace the interchange fee normally charged to the merchant on a card transaction , although this can be waived if the account is in credit.

It should be noted that credit advances can be, but are not required to be administered in a conventional advance service manner. That is, in one embodiment, higher conversion ratios for credit advances can be required for purchases making a credit advance fee dependent upon the amount of credits requested, while in another embodiment a credit advance can include a one-time fixed credit fee associated with the credit loan or advance.

E-commerce site register GUI can be a checkout window from an e-commerce site. E-wards account GUI can be a display window from a conversion agency. GUI can include a message communicating a user's credit account balance of non-negotiable, entertainment credits earned from one or more game providing entities, or the status of the account in relation to the requested purchase amount from GUI It should be noted that when a user has enough credits to complete the purchase, he or she can be presented with a credit account GUI to choose the type of credits to apply to his or her requested purchase as summarized in GUI In this instance, however, a message notifying the user that there are insufficient funds in place can provide a user with three button options cancel purchase , add other form of payment , or request credit loan Selection of the add other form of payment button can result in a conventional credit card or PayPal payment GUI being presented to the user to supplement or replace the credit based payment.

Selection of the credit loan button can produce credit advance agreement GUI GUI contains a means by which the user selects the amount or even type of non-negotiable credits to advance including, but not limited to, a set of radio buttons, a set of checkboxes, a highlighting mechanism, and the like.

Display box can display the monetary value of the selected non-negotiable credits as well as the amount of credits to be advanced for conversion and purchase completion at the e-commerce site. Selection of cancel button by a user cancels the credit advance process and can return the user to GUI Selection of button by a user can be dependent upon a user actively acknowledging terms and conditions of the requested credit advance and can produce GUI E-commerce site GUI can be a display window from the same said e-commerce site.

In interfaces , a user controlled character within a game of chance can be utilized to earn entertainment credits e. Experience points can be automatically converted within game using interface The result of the conversion can produce negotiable credits e. For example, the conversion can be used by the user to supplement a payment of an online subscription to game Experience points can be earned by interacting with entities within the game of chance where interactions are governed in part by a randomization component.

For example, character can perform combat with a computer controlled opponent which can respond to user controlled character actions by the use of a random action algorithm to perform appropriate reactions. In one embodiment, game can encompass one or more randomization elements which can include, but is not limited to, combat interaction, loot generation, non-playable character NPC interactions, and the like.

In game of chance , a character can be utilized by a user to complete an objective e. In one instance, objective completion can be presented quest interface permitting visual confirmation of the objective. In the instance, interface can include a conversion option which can permit the conversion of experience points to a user selectable option. For example, conversion option can be a user interactive button which can trigger the presentation of interface Experience details can be utilized to present information about total experience points earned during character's existence.

Details can provide pertinent experience point information when a cursor is placed over experience point presentation e. For example, experience points can be presented as a horizontal bar within game interface. In one instance, experience details can be customized to present conversion information about a user defined goal. In the instance, a user can specify negotiable fund goals e.

For example, details can present the amount of experience points required to reach a ten dollar conversion. Upon selection of conversion option , interface can be presented within game Interface can include conversion options , configuration options , and conversion information Conversion options can include, but is not limited to, conversion of experience points into virtual currency, account credit, discounts at e-commerce sites, dragon kill points DKP , and the like.

In configuration options , a user specified quantity of experience points can be converted to selection option For example, a user can choose to convert two thousand experience points to an account credit. In conversion information , information about conversion outcome for experience points can be presented. It should be appreciated that conversion rates can be dynamic and or constant. In one embodiment, conversion rates can be tied to game economy permitting economic state to dictate conversion rates.

In one embodiment, conversion of experience points can negatively affect character development. In the embodiment, a quantity of experience points can be deducted from the character based on the configuration options specified by user.

For example, if a user selects to convert two thousand experience points into a one dollar account credit the character can be reduced to one thousand experience points from three thousand experience points. It should be appreciated that experience points can be continually gained and lost through game interaction and conversion options In section , a portion of game interface can be presented displaying the outcome of the conversion.

In section , experience details can be presented in a tooltip which can indicate the current experience points of the character resulting from the conversion. For example, experience points can be a shortened horizontal bar indicating the portion of the level which the character has achieved.

Drawings presented herein are for illustrative purposes only and should not be construed to limit the invention in any regard. It should be appreciated that the disclosure is not limited to the conversion of experience points within game It should be appreciated that options can be mutually exclusive, combinatorial and the like. For example, a user can convert experience points into a sum of gold pieces and an ecommerce store credit.

It should be understood that the functionality described within interfaces can be performed by a plug-in, Web-enabled service, 13rd-party tools, and the like. For example, interface can be a screen of an add-on software. It should be appreciated that conversion functionality can be performed by a conversion agency intermediary independent of game provider.

For example, an achievement completed in Game A can be converted to gold pieces e. In the embodiment, a user can select to convert achievement points within a Game A to Game B currency. In the embodiment, the conversion can be initiated within interface of game and completed within interface of game It should be appreciated that the disclosure is not limited in this regard and can include a one stage process.

In game , an interface can be presented indicating an achievement accomplishment. Interface can include achievement information, conversion option , conversion element , and the like. Conversion option can be a user selectable option which can permit conversion of entertainment credits e.

It should be understood that the conversion can include one or more conversion rates which can be associated with one or more games. For example, if a game has three types of virtual currency, each type can be presented as an option for conversion. It should be appreciated that games can include games from one or more different vendors.

Interface can include, but is not limited to, game selection , conversion preferences , and the like. For example, pending conversions e. In conversion preferences , user selectable preferences for receiving funds can be specified. For example, ten achievement points can be converted to a quantity of twenty silver pieces within Game B. In one instance, conversions within FIG. Upon selection of element , a user profile associated with Game B can be accredited with funds.

It should be appreciated that achievements can include, individual achievements, group based achievements, and the like. For example, achievements can include successful completion of a raid encounter e. In embodiment , tool within game of chance can permit conversion of entertainment credits e. In embodiment , interface , can allow game of chance earned credits to be converted into vendor specific vouchers.

In one instance, game can be a simulation based game permitting earnings to be accrued which can determine user success within the game. For example, game can be a farming simulation which allows the planting, harvesting, and selling of crops e. It should be appreciated that earnings can include, but is not limited to, virtual currency e.

In one instance, tool can trigger the presentation of interface In the instance, interface can include, but is not limited to, earned credits information, converted funds details, and the like. In one embodiment, game of chance can be a multiplayer game e. For example, game can be a social networking game. It should be appreciated that game outcome can be affected by one or more random variables including, multiplayer interaction, virtual economy state, and the like.

In interface , user selectable credits can be chosen to be converted into funds In one instance, interface can be an interface able to support co-operative gameplay. In the instance, interface can be presented in response to a co-operative user action within a second user interface of game For example, a second user e.

That is, interface can be a mechanism for co-operative gameplay with conversion capabilities. It should be appreciated that interface can include capabilities which support other co-operative gameplay including, but not limited to, trading, group-based objectives, and the like.

In game of chance , points earned from presence registration at a venue associated with a location based service can be converted into a negotiable voucher. Game of chance can include, but is not limited to, online social network game, location based game, and the like. For example, game of chance can include geocaching games which can reward points for locating cached objects.

In one instance, game can be associated with a location based social networking Web site. For example, game can be a mobile application for earning status advancement e. It should be appreciated that earnings can be affected by one or more random variables including, user-to-user interactions, venue promotions, and the like. In interface , conversion of earned points e. Interface can include, but is not limited to, earnings information , conversion option , conversion artifact , and the like.

For example, interface can present the points earned by a user e. In one instance, interface can be presented when a quantity of earning is reached. For example, when a user reaches one thousand points, the interface can be automatically presented upon check-in. In another instance, interface can be manually selected from a set of conversion options associated with the game of chance In one embodiment, conversion option can be a voucher for a venue associated with a previous presence registration.

For example, a discount e. Upon conversion initiation via conversion artifact , conversion can be performed. Interface can be presented responsive to the conversion In interface , a coupon can be presented which can be utilized by a user as a negotiable entity.

For example, coupon can be automatically added to a user account associated with a venue at which the coupon is redeemable. In one embodiment, interface can present electronic and non-electronic options for coupon redemption. In the embodiment, an electronic redemption button can permit the presentation of coupon which can be communicated to proximate electronic devices.

In the embodiment, interface can permit a hardcopy of the coupon to be created which can be utilized as a traditional coupon. The present invention may be realized in hardware, software, or a combination of hardware and software.

The present invention may be realized in a centralized fashion in one computer system or in a distributed fashion where different elements are spread across several interconnected computer systems. Any kind of computer system or other apparatus adapted for carrying out the methods described herein is suited. A typical combination of hardware and software may be a general purpose computer system with a computer program that, when being loaded and executed, controls the computer system such that it carries out the methods described herein.

The present invention also may be embedded in a computer program product, which comprises all the features enabling the implementation of the methods described herein, and which when loaded in a computer system is able to carry out these methods. Computer program in the present context means any expression, in any language, code or notation, of a set of instructions intended to cause a system having an information processing capability to perform a particular function either directly or after either or both of the following: a conversion to another language, code or notation; b reproduction in a different material form.

This invention may be embodied in other forms without departing from the spirit or essential attributes thereof. Accordingly, reference should be made to the following claims, rather than to the foregoing specification, as indicating the scope of the invention. The flowchart and block diagrams in the Figures illustrate the architecture, functionality, and operation of possible implementations of systems, methods and computer program products according to various embodiments of the present invention.

In this regard, each block in the flowchart or block diagrams may represent a module, segment, or portion of code, which comprises one or more executable instructions for implementing the specified logical function s. It should also be noted that, in some alternative implementations, the functions noted in the block may occur out of the order noted in the figures. For example, two blocks shown in succession may, in fact, be executed substantially concurrently, or the blocks may sometimes be executed in the reverse order, depending upon the functionality involved.

In one embodiment, an account is established for in-game credits provided by an entity to one or more users. Many of these acts explicitly prohibit the transfer of negotiable funds from gambling earnings across state lines Non-negotiable funds can include any of a variety of financial instruments that are not legal currency and not governed under article 3 of the Uniform Commercial Code UCC.

What is claimed is: 1. A method comprising: at least one of one or more computers establishing an account for in-game credits provided by an entity to one or more users, wherein the entity owns or controls a computer game, wherein one or more users play the computer game to earn at least a portion of the in-game credits, wherein the in-game credits are non-negotiable credits;. The method of claim 1 , wherein the in-game credits correspond to one or more of: a a virtual good of the computer game being exchanged for a quantity of in-game credits,.

The method of claim 1 , wherein the entity compensates the commerce partner in negotiable funds for redeeming the subtracted quantity of in-game credits by converting the quantity of in-game credits into the negotiable or entity independent funds.

The method of claim 1 , wherein after the conversion operation, the negotiable or entity independent funds are not able to be converted into the in-game credits. The method of claim 1 , wherein the conversion operation converts the quantity of in-game credits to the quantity of negotiable or entity independent funds in accordance with a conversion ratio of credits-to-funds. The method of claim 1 , wherein the negotiable or entity independent funds are reward program points of a reward program of the commerce partner.

The method of claim 1 , wherein the commerce partner is compensated for granting the negotiable or entity independent funds through advertising benefits from a cross marketing alliance between the commerce partner and the entity. A method comprising: at least one of one or more computers receiving a converted quantity of entity-independent funds resulting from a conversion of a set of in-game credits into the converted quantity of entity independent funds, wherein the received converted quantity of entity independent funds are stored in an account maintained by a commerce partner for the one or more users, wherein the entity independent funds are non-negotiable funds able to be used for acquiring goods or services via a commerce channel of the commerce partner, wherein an entity owns or controls a computer game, wherein one or more users play the computer game to earn at least a portion of the in-game credits, wherein the in-game credits are not able to be directly used for acquiring goods or services through the commerce channel and must first be converted into the entity independent funds to be used for the commerce channel; and.

The method of claim 8 , further comprising: at least one of the one or more computers recording an amount in negotiable funds owed to the entity by the commerce partner for redeeming the set of in-game credits for the converted quantity of entity independent funds.

The method of claim 8 , wherein the in-game credits are expended during the conversion of in-game credits to entity independent funds. The method of claim 8 , further comprising: at least one of the one or more computers subtracting a sub quantity of the entity impendent funds from the account responsive to a purchase via the commerce channel by the one or more users.

The method of claim 8 , wherein the in-game credits result from one or more of: a a player character in the computer game acquiring experience points,. The method of claim 8 , wherein the entity independent funds are marketplace funds able to be spend in a marketplace of the commerce partner, wherein the commerce partner is a platform owner of a platform upon which the computer game executes. The method of claim 8 , wherein the set of in-game credits are converted to the quantity of entity independent funds in accordance with a conversion ratio of credits-to-funds.

A computer program product comprising: one or more computer-readable, storage devices;. The computer program product of claim 15 , wherein the quantity of available negotiable or entity independent funds are able to be used for purchases of goods or services from the commerce partner, wherein the commerce partner does not directly accept the in-game credits for purchases of the goods or services.

The computer program product of claim 15 , wherein the negotiable or entity independent funds comprise reward program points of a reward program of the commerce partner. The computer program product of claim 15 , further comprising: program instructions, stored on at least one of the one or more storage devices, to responsive to the received selection being processed, present within the graphical user interface a second quantity of in-game credits, wherein said second quantity represents an amount of in-game credits available after converting the subset of in-game credits into negotiable or entity independent funds.

The computer program product of claim 15 , wherein the graphical user interface is a user interface of the computer game. The computer program product of claim 15 , wherein the graphical user interface is a user interface renderable in a Web browser provided by the commerce partner. Web based conversion of non-negotiable credits associated with an entity to entity independent negotiable funds. Conversion of non-negotiable credits earned from a game of chance to negotiable funds.

Storefront purchases utilizing non-negotiable credits earned from a game of chance. Self-service stations for utilizing non-negotiable credits earned from a game of chance. USP true Conversion of loyalty program points to commerce partner points per terms of a mutual agreement. USB1 en. USB2 en. Systems and methods for creating and maintaining real money tournaments for video games.

System and method for administering a value vault for use in facilitating a financial transaction. Method for converting long term debt debt of commercial borrowers into receivables. USA en. Instinet communication system for effectuating the sale or exchange of fungible properties between subscribers. Electronic identification system with power input-output interlock and increased capabilities.

Financial transaction processing system using an integrated circuit card device. Method for implementing an on-line presentation in an information processing system.


They might be serving computers and workstations in an academic setting. They might even be laptops or desktops that are connected to the Internet by dedicated links such as Digital Subscriber Loops or cable modems. But because these computers might not be thought to contain critical or valuable information, they may not be as protected from invasion as they might otherwise be.

These vulnerable resources may not be configured by their operators to be resistant to the exploitation of vulnerabilities. Consumers are sometimes surprised by the unexpected consequences of well-intended service features. For example, a few months ago, I suddenly received a barrage of messages from my email correspondents who reported that a batch of messages they had sent me nearly two years ago had suddenly emerged on the Internet accompanied by rejection notices saying that these messages had not been delivered.

A back-up email server had received and recorded these messages and awakened from its slumbers for reasons never quite clear to realize that from its perspective, this cache of messages had not been delivered in two years. More generally, email services often make backup copies of the email so as to recover from a catastrophic failure of a primary server.

From time to time, email users are surprised to discover that email they thought they had long since deleted has been retained in backup files and has been released by accident or has become discoverable in a legal proceeding or is accessible under appropriate warrants. This is perhaps a specific case of the more general case of record keeping, such as is done in the consumer telecommunications service industry.

Detailed billing records of calls telephone number called, originating telephone number, date and time of day of call are often kept for periods ranging from three months to a year to resolve subsequent disputes. Anyone who uses a major credit card that provides a report annually on their use can confirm that the credit card industry knows a great deal about specific consumer activities in the form of detailed transaction records.

One of the more serious consumer risks arises in the use of access-controlled services requiring user authentication. These passwords are often fixed and reused repeatedly. Users are notorious for the poor choices of passwords and their unwillingness to change them regularly. A match exposes the password. Such tools are very commonly available. This is outright fraud. It is illegal and actionable. Public access to government records may expose a considerable amount of personal information to public view.

Details of court records, registrations, building permits and designs, home addresses and phone numbers, traffic violations are all potentially available. There is often considerable debate about the legality of making such information accessible, even if it is obtained by legitimate means from legal sources.

Consumers may be misled by email, chat room or instant messaging exchanges into believing things about their correspondents that are not true. This works both ways. A person may misrepresent himself or herself deliberately or you may be the target of an attack against you by someone pretending to be you.

Consumers can respond by being far more careful about the information they provide to online service providers. They can purchase, use and frequently update virus detection software. Even if you use secure Web sites, the protection extends only to the delivery of personal information to the Web site. Consumers should make a point of learning company privacy protection policies.

Companies seeking to protect their own computing assets and networks can install firewalls and make use of encryption methods to protect employee access to corporate networks via the public Internet. Software manufacturers need to pay closer attention to the potential abuses their software can support—not simply focus on the constructive functionality they offer.

Internet service providers need to configure their networks to increase resistance to various forms of hacking. And legislators may be able to help law enforcement agencies by providing tools for combating criminal use of online systems. There is a tension in the latter response because it is possible to erode privacy in severe ways in the process of trying to assist in law enforcement.

The Internet has the potential to be an enormously powerful, positive and constructive force in our society. It is also a potential source of serious abuse. As a society, we are challenged to find a balance between protecting the society from abusive practices and protecting individuals from abuse by various state, local and federal government agencies.

The next decade will surely be filled with unexpected twists and turns as we learn how to apply online technologies to our daily needs. One can only hope that out of all the experience will come wisdom and the will to apply it. Cerf, thank you for an excellent statement, and your admonition to pass no foolish laws; that is particularly important.

Congress has to look at these issues in a different way. The Internet is this vast system, decentralized, made up of millions of content-creators worldwide, and the last thing that one should do would be to impose a sort of Washington one-size-fits-all solution. That, as you say, would just breed contempt for the law because it could not be enforced.

Your points are very well-taken. I will have some questions in a moment, and feel free, any time I am around, to go over the time limit, because that was very well-said. It is good to see you again, Mr. Thanks for including ITAA in this hearing. Cerf has described it is managed, owned, and operated by the private sector. In fighting physical crime, we always look to Government as the lead, because Government has the law enforcement tools and the law enforcement community to do that.

However, in fighting cyber crime, there is a unique onus on the private sector in partnership with Government to come up with solutions. Certainly, one thing which we believe is particularly important, Mr. Chairman, is a higher level commitment both in corporations and in the Government to fighting cyber crime.

That is because consumers demand it, and citizens demand it. As Dr. Cerf pointed out, the Internet has morphed into something now where the commercial and governmental reliance on it is very high, and yet the focus on security has not been, up until recent years, a major part of the Internet, but even with this growth, as Dr. Cerf pointed out, the Internet is still in its infancy. At any one time, no more than 3 or 4 percent of the globe is connected to it, and most experts will tell you that in the not-too-distant future we will live in a truly digital world transformed by Internet technology.

The Internet today, which we think of as basically a PC-based model sitting at our desk, will change dramatically to become ubiquitous, seamless, and integrated into everything we do. Digital ubiquity means that we no longer will think about how we use and access information on the Internet. A virtual information bubble will be formed around our lives, anticipating and addressing many of our needs, and this mobile commerce, sometimes called m-commerce, or ubiquitous commerce, called u-commerce, will be enabled by wireless networking.

Now, how important is this wireless issue? Well, I understand, Mr. Let us put this concept into perspective. In the world today there are about 20 billion microprocessors, give or take a few. Only about 3 billion of them, however, are in computers.

These others are going to be linked going well beyond some of the devices we think about today, such as the cellular phone which I have with me, or my PDA, into all kinds of aspects of our lives, into automobiles, into thermostats in your homes, smart tags used for tollways, and all kinds of other opportunities which we are just beginning to think about.

Operating on multiple protocols, which is part of this development of the wireless world, magnifies security vulnerabilities, and this proliferation of devices and protocols is not surprising, because we are still in the early days of this ubiquitous Internet, but we need to develop viable security solutions not just in the wire-line world, but also in the wireless world.

We must bring together vertical industries, which are unfortunately sometimes segregated, such as telecommunications, IT industry, health care, finance, energy, and others, and create a broad industry dialog on additional pieces to the security puzzle which will take us toward this ubiquitous Internet.

We need to move toward consolidation, toward simplification, toward improved security, if we are going to have a truly ubiquitous Internet. Today, I suggest a four-point call to action for industry to focus beyond the security realities of today by addressing u-commerce.

First, we need industry collaboration at the highest levels. Simply bringing together technical people, as important as they are, will not get the job done. Second, this collaboration must be across industries. Again, the Internet industry itself cannot solve all these challenges. Third, we have to put aside some egos and some initial investments and come together for consolidation and collaboration, and it must focus on a point which I know is very dear to your heart, Mr.

We at ITAA are already starting to address this challenge, which we know will not be easy to meet. No one, least of all the IT industry which I represent, wants to be dictated to about its products and capabilities.

After all, the IT industry believes it knows best its own industry. But I believe unless we get some common threads going on these issues, it will be very difficult to get a secure world in a wireless Internet. A couple more points about cyber security, which I know Mr. Schneier will also be addressing. Too often, the assumption is made that improving cyber security and fighting cyber crime can be done with technology alone.

Just give me the right software, just give me the right hardware, just give me the right firewall and I am all set. That is wrong. Just as the best alarm system will not protect a building if the alarm code falls into the wrong hands, or is not turned on at night, a network will not be protected if the passwords are given out freely.

Failures in the people and in the processes part of the cyber crime solution may, in fact, be the majority of the problems we see. That means that organizations must be willing to invest not just in the technology solutions, but also in the training, the security procedures, and this must be across the enterprise, not just in the IT department. We need to practice what Dr. Cerf has called cyber hygiene.

Everyone needs to be a part of the solution. Now, in many ways, solutions of cyber security challenges are no different than any other Internet-related policy issue. Industry leadership, again, must be the hallmark—but, Government does have an important role.

So let me review a few points that I believe Government must focus on. First, I would like to reiterate the point Dr. Cerf made. The Congress must provide for what I call the Internet Hippocratic oath. First, do no harm. Second, Government must do a better job of practicing what it preaches.

The rules of the challenges of technology, people, and processes apply to the Government sector just as much to the private sector, yet we constantly hear about failures in the Government. The U. Government must lead by example in preventing intrusions into agency Web sites, data banks, and information systems.

Leadership in this area means substantial investments, which I fear candidly are not being made today, Mr. Chairman, to deal with the cyber security challenge to the Government. Number 3, we need a more sophisticated process in the Government of leadership. Funding is critical. Funding is critical in terms of IT spending for the Government, in terms of research and development, in terms of work force. We need to focus on these issues, not to waste money, not to duplicate what the private sector is doing, but to coordinate and collaborate with the private sector.

In conclusion, Mr. The ubiquitous Internet, u-commerce, is going to mean more people connected to the Internet, and they need to also have the trust and confidence that these media they are using are reliable, so it is important that we focus, as this Subcommittee is doing, on information security, and come together to meet the challenges.

Chairman Wyden and Members of the Subcommittee, thank you for inviting me here to testify today on Internet security. My name is Harris N. I am proud that ITAA has emerged as the leading association on cyber security issues. ITAA represents over corporate members. These are companies that have a vested economic interest in assuring that the public feels safe in cyberspace; in the United States and around the world, the vast majority of the Internet related infrastructure is owned and operated by the private sector.

The GIP recently sponsored a major event on security and privacy in the next generation of the Internet that drew industry leaders from around the world. Customers and citizens—whether consumers in the B2C space, or business partners in B2B operations, or Americans receiving services electronically from their governments—demand it. The stakes involved are enormous. Despite the current slowdown, IT-driven productivity increases have enabled our country to have what many economists thought we could not have: high growth, low unemployment, low inflation, and growth in real wages.

The Internet, when it was created nearly thirty years ago, was a collaborative product developed by industry, government and academia. It was designed to be an open, borderless medium for communication and sharing information, and was not programmed with security features.

Nor was it intended for commercial use. As you know, the Internet today is used extensively as a commercial medium, augmenting or even forming the basis of entire business models. And we are moving forward still. Most Internet executives will tell you that in the not too distant future, we will live in a truly digital world, transformed by Internet technology. The Internet will be ubiquitous, seamless and integrated into everything we do.

Digital ubiquity means that we no longer consciously think about how we use and access information on the Internet. Just as we assume that the power grid is always available, we will have Internet Protocol in and on everything—our cars, our home appliances, even the products we buy at the supermarket. The Internet will allow these items to communicate—forming a virtual information bubble around our lives, anticipating and addressing many of our needs.

Mobile or Ubiquitous Commerce will be enabled by wireless networking. This is already starting to happen around the globe. Government and businesses increasingly have as much at stake digitally as physically. Assets and value are no longer based on material objects but on information, knowledge and network connections. In the old economy and the new, more businesses are using technology to manage operations, sales, employee relations, partnerships and supply chains.

More revenue is derived and more cost savings realized from online activity. Just like a business cannot properly function without sound financial processes and systems, the same has become true for managing network activity and the valuable, critical information that flows through the network. As I mentioned earlier, the Internet was not designed with commercial and security features in mind, yet as businesses become dependent on it for growth and market share, vast security needs have emerged.

ITAA believes strongly that for this reason, Internet security measures must be addressed at the CEO and boardroom level of every company and by political leadership at all levels. And this attention must occur around the globe, not just in the U. Cyber crime places the digital economy at risk. Just as the reality or threat of real crime can drain the economic vitality of neighborhoods, cities and even nations, so to can the reality or threat of crimes committed online against people and property shutter businesses and cause an otherwise motivated digital public to break their Internet connection.

Cyber crime falls into several categories. Most incidents are intended to disrupt or annoy computer users in some fashion. Other online intrusions are conducted to deface websites, post political messages or taunt particular groups or institutions. Even though no one stands to profit, damages caused by such attacks can run from the trifling to the millions of dollars.

What motivates these attackers? Hackers may view the attack as a technology challenge, may be seeking to strike a blow against the establishment, may be looking for group acceptance from fellow hackers, or may be just indulging themselves in a perverse thrill. Other cyber criminals are more material guys and gals.

They hope to profit from their intrusions by stealing valuable or sensitive information, including credit card numbers, social security numbers, even entire identities. Targets of opportunity also include trade secrets and proprietary information, medical records, and financial transactions. These crimes include fraud, racketeering, gambling, drug trafficking, money laundering, child molesting, kidnapping and more. Cyber terrorists may seek to use the Internet as a means of attacking elements of the physical infrastructure, like power stations or airports.

As we have seen in the Middle East, cyber terrorists encouraging political strife and national conflict can quickly turn the Internet into a tool to set one group against another and to disrupt society generally. Another class of cyber criminal and, unfortunately, the most common is the insider who breaks into systems to eavesdrop, to tamper, perhaps even to hijack corporate IT assets for personal use.

Regardless of category, the threat is real. While most targets were attacked only a few times, some were victimized 60 or more times during the test period. For many small companies, being knocked off the Internet for a week means being knocked out of business for good. A nationwide public opinion poll released last year by ITAA and EDS showed that an overwhelming majority of Americans, 67 percent, feel threatened by or are concerned about cyber crime.

In addition, 62 percent believe that not enough is being done to protect Internet consumers against cyber crime. Roughly the same number, 61 percent, say they are less likely to do business on the Internet as a result of cyber crime, while 33 percent say crime has no effect on their e-commerce activities. The poll of 1, Americans also revealed that 65 percent believe online criminals have less of a chance of being caught than criminals in the real world, while only 17 percent believe cyber criminals have a greater chance of being caught.

These threats collectively represent a chipping away at the trust that is so critical to the Internet. Thankfully, technology is moving faster than public policy ever could to secure the technology that will dominate our economic future. Information security, or cyber security, is the multifaceted discipline that counteracts cyber crime and works to secure the Internet. Information security—or InfoSec—deals with cyber crime prevention, detection and investigation.

Too many times, the assumption is made that improving cyber security and fighting cyber crime can be done with technology alone. Just as the best alarm system will not protect a building if the alarm code falls into the wrong hands, a network will not be protected if the passwords are given out freely. Processes and people tend to be the more problematic elements of the Internet security puzzle.

The two are closely linked. From a strategic point of view, the challenge is to make cyber security a top priority issue. Moving from platitudes to practical action requires the sustained commitment of senior management. The goal is to embed cyber security in the corporate culture.

That is not always easy to do. Whenever tradeoffs arise, the bias is towards speed, not safety and security. Organizations must be willing to invest in the development of comprehensive security procedures and to educate all employees—continuously. We call this practicing sensible cyber hygiene, a term that my friend Vint Cerf frequently uses as he speaks about these challenges around the globe.

The primary focus of improving processes and changing behaviors is inside the enterprise. However, the scope of the effort must also take into account the extended organization—supply chain partners, subcontractors, customers, and others that must interact on a routine basis.

A very simple example is that a company may diligently employ the latest virus detection software. ITAA and its members have been working to execute a multi-faceted plan designed to improve U. However, Mr. Department of Commerce. Information sharing is a risky proposition with less than clear benefits. No company wants information to surface that they have given in confidence that may jeopardize their market position, strategies, customer base, or capital investments.

Nor would they risk voluntarily opening themselves up to bogus but costly and time-consuming litigation. Releasing information about security breaches or vulnerabilities in their systems presents just such risks. Companies also fear revealing trade secrets to competitors, and are understandably reluctant to share such proprietary information.

They also fear sharing this information, particularly with government, may lead to increased regulation of the industry or of electronic commerce in general. Public policy factors also act as barriers to industry information sharing.

Anti-trust concerns are a second potential legal hurdle to information sharing. Fortunately, such risks appear small. The antitrust laws focus on sharing information concerning commercial activities. Information Sharing Advisory Centers ISACs should be in compliance with the antitrust laws because they are not intended to restrain trade by restricting output, increasing prices, or otherwise inhibiting competition, on which the antitrust laws generally focus. The Justice Department has also indicated that there are minimal antitrust concerns involving properly structured joint industry projects for dealing with externalities.

An entity created to share information regarding common threats to critical infrastructure should fall into this category. Given the changing nature of the cyber crime threat and in spite of the many business, operational and policy hurdles standing in the way, many companies in the private sector recognize the need to have formal and informal information sharing mechanisms. Internet Service Providers are an example of the latter circumstance. Because these firms provide networking capability commercially, these businesses often have extensive network security expertise.

Such firms act as virtual Information Sharing and Analysis Centers, gathering information about detected threats and incursions, sanitizing it by removing customer specific data, and sharing it with customers. The IT industry has adopted a formal approach to the information sharing challenge. The objective of the IT—ISAC is to enhance the availability, confidentiality, and integrity of networked information systems. The IT—ISAC is a not-for-profit corporation that will allow the information technology industry to report and exchange information concerning electronic incidents, threats, attacks, vulnerabilities, solutions and countermeasures, best security practices and other protective measures.

Its internal processes will permit information to be shared anonymously. The organization is a voluntary, industry-led initiative with the goal of responding to broad-based security threats and reducing the impact of major incidents. It will offer a by-7 network, notifying members of threats and vulnerabilities.

The group also is clear on what is will not undertake. Excluded activities include standards setting, product rating, audits, certifications or dispute settlement. The group plans to evolve its information sharing activities over time, starting with IT companies and then moving across sectors. It is also expected that the ISAC will enable sensitive information to be shared between industry and government.

But that sharing must be a two-way street, if it is going to be effective. The organization gathers and disseminates information on incidents, product vulnerabilities, fixes, protections, improvements and system survivability. The organization strives to maintain a leak proof reputation while collecting thousands of incident reports yearly. These could be anything from a single site reporting a compromise attempt to a virus with worldwide impact.

Other ISACs have been formed in the financial services and telecommunications industries. And I would like to mention two other groups that play an important information sharing role. The Partnership for Critical Infrastructure Security provides a venue for organizations from numerous industries to pool their knowledge and experience about information infrastructure risks and protections. PCIS also examines critical interdependencies among infrastructure providers and seeks common solutions to risk mitigation.

PGIS members are focused on five areas for collaboration: sound practices, workforce, research and development, cyber crime and law enforcement and public policy. ITAA is proud to have played a leadership role in the formation of both organizations, and I sit on the Boards of Directors of both. An awareness raising campaign targeting the IT industry and vertical industries dependent on information such as the financial sector, insurance, electricity, transportation and telecommunications is being overlaid with a targeted community effort directed at CEOs, end users and independent auditors.

Education: In an effort to take a longer-range approach to the development of appropriate conduct on the Internet, the Department of Justice and the Information Technology Association of America have formed the Cybercitizen Partnership. The Partnership hosted a very successful event last fall at Marymount University in Northern Virginia that brought together key stakeholders in this area.

Ultimately, a long range, ongoing effort to insure proper behavior is the best defense against the growing number of reported incidents of computer crime. The Cybercitizen website has received over , hits in the past year. We have planned a security skills set study to determine what the critical skills are, and will then set out to compare those needs with courses taught at the university level in an effort to determine which programs are strong producers. We commend the Administration and Congress for supporting training more information security specialists.

The challenge to find InfoSec workers is enormous, because they frequently require additional training and education beyond what is normally achieved by IT workers. Many of the positions involving InfoSec require US citizenship, particularly those within the federal government, so using immigrants or outsourcing the projects to other countries is not an option.

Best Practices: We are committed to promoting best practices for information security, and look to partners in many vertical sectors in order to leverage existing work in this area. In addition, our industry is committed to working with the government—whether at the federal, state or local levels.

At the same time, industry is listening to best practices developed by the government. This exchange of information will help industry and government alike in creating solutions without reinventing the wheel. The marketplace has allowed the best technologies to rise to the top, and there is no reason to treat information security practices differently. Government funding in this gap—bringing together government, academia and industry—is necessary. International: In our work with members of the information technology industry and other industries, including financial services, banking, energy, transportation, and others, one clear message constantly emerges: information security must be addressed as an international issue.

American companies increasingly are global corporations, with partners, suppliers and customers located around the world. This global business environment has only been accented by the emergence of on-line commerce—business-to-business and business-to-consumer alike. Addressing information security on a global level clearly raises questions. Many within the defense, national security and intelligence communities rightly raise concerns about what international actually means.

Yet, we must address these questions with solutions and not simply ignore the international arena. This event brought together industry, government and academia representatives from around the world to begin the process of addressing these international questions. A second Summit is planned for later this year to continue the dialogue.

In many ways, solutions to cyber security challenges are no different than any other Internet-related policy issue. Having said that, we also believe that government has several roles to play in helping achieve better cyber security and combating cyber crime:. Excessive or overly broad legislation and subsequent regulation crafted in a rapidly changing technology environment is apt to miss the mark and likely to trigger a host of unintended consequences.

In many instances, existing laws for crimes in the physical world are adequate to address crimes conducted in cyberspace. New legislation should always be vetted for circumstances that single out the Internet for discriminatory treatment. The rules of technology, process and people apply equally to the public sector.

Leadership in this area means substantial investments of new money in information security technology and services. Responding to the issue by reallocating existing dollars from current programs is robbing Peter to pay Paul and likely to play out at the expense of the American public and their confidence in e-government.

It also means insisting that government agencies implement rigorous information security processes and practice them on a daily basis. Making InfoSec part of the government culture will require extensive senior management commitment. We have a critical shortage of information technology professionals generally and information security specialists specifically. In general, we support legislation to increase the number of appropriately skilled workers in this critical area.

The evolution of the Internet over these thirty-some years tells us that its possibilities are limited only by our imaginations. The prospect of ubiquitous commerce, brought about by wireless computing, could pose greater security challenges as we move forward. Internet security is an enabler to continued progress, and without it, public trust could erode and the true limits of technology never be pushed. I submit to you that the market is moving quickly to establish and maintain public trust in this new and exciting medium.

Internet security is economic security, and market forces will continue to draw the attention of the highest levels of corporate hierarchy. This is a beneficial development. These forces will prevent an erosion of trust, will contribute to efficiently developing security products, and will drive management at all levels to focus on Internet security. Thank you. Thanks for having us. It has been interesting, I spent a lot of time talking to different people, and when I got here I actually snitched one of your pads and wrote a bunch of notes.

Kind of the neat thing is, I am listening to your opening remarks, and about five of the points I wanted to make you made to me, so I feel like I am in good company. Now, you said very well, the Internet is important to business, to people. Fundamentally, security is the enabling technology, the limits of security are in a very real sense the limits of the Internet. If you cannot do it securely, whether it is you knowing who I am when I speak to you, or me making an anonymous purchase, or voting, we are not going to do it, and this is only going to get bigger.

Now, I have been doing security for, I do not know, 10, 15 years, and what I have learned sort of watching the world and being involved in it is that security is not working. Every year, the problem gets worse. Security is failing us. We see this in all the press reports you mentioned. We see this in how much damage there is, how much money is lost, how many incidents there are.

I mean, every metric. Things are not getting better, despite computer security being a year-old academic discipline, and every year there are new products, new ideas, new services. It is not that we are not winning, we are not even breaking even, and I spent a lot of time writing my most recent book and thinking about the problem, because it is surprising—why are we not getting better? Complexity to me is the enemy of security. So what do we do? To a first approximation, the Internet is about people.

You said very well that technology alone cannot be the solution, because it is not a technology problem. Fundamentally, it is a people problem. I mean, the same problems we have in the real world we have on the Net. We have fraud, threat, trespass, damage. None of these crimes are new.

Now, also, the Internet is different. There are three main differences that are worth bringing out. The first one is automation. The fact that you can automate an attack, the fact that you can automate a crime, makes certain things a lot easier to do as a criminal, and a lot harder to find. You know, picking up a penny from everybody becomes a valid way of doing crime on the Net. In the real world, you could never make that efficient. We talk about the notion of the script kitty, and I think Vint mentioned this, the idea of taking an attack where a skilled person knows how to do it, encapsulating it in software, and giving it to 10, people.

We have separated skill from ability through automation, and that is a very big difference, and a very big deal. Another big difference is a lack of political boundaries. All of our law enforcement is based on proximity, an attacker going up to you and hitting you over the head. We know how to prosecute that, but if the attacker starts in Russia and accesses computers in France to get to Citibank in New York, suddenly that is a lot less clear, and things are much more complicated, and this lack of political boundaries makes any security work much more difficult, because you are not dealing with any coherent group.

The third difference is how techniques propagate. Because the Internet is so pervasive in communication, criminal techniques, hacking techniques propagate much quicker, and you can see this in the real world, when a new way of breaking into an ATM machine, for example, is discovered, people learn about it slowly, and the attack becomes in vogue.

On the Net, this can happen overnight, so a lot of our traditional ways of dealing with crime, which is fixing it after we see it is a problem, fails when things happen so fast. So again, to me, I believe Internet security will continue to get worse in the foreseeable future. I do not see any magic bullets. I do not see any ways to solve the problem. So the question to ask is, what do we do? Given this reality, and I believe percent this is true, what can we do? We cannot shut the Net down. We cannot say, less complexity.

I know you think the operating system is fun. We are not going to do that. We are not going to put cell phones in the Net. We are not going to have mobile commerce. They are going to happen, whether they are secure or not, so I have some suggestions.

The first one is something that I am working on in my company, not really something for you to do, is to look at detection response. I mean, I look at security in terms of prevention, detection, and response.

A lot of what we have done in computer security is prevention. We have built all of these prophylactics that we assume will prevent fraud, prevent crime, and that is what is failing in the real world. We get security through detection response. I do not wear body armor, but I am safe on the streets not because I have prevented crime, but because I understand that if there is a crime, that there will be detection response.

If you want to improve the security in your house, you do not make your walls thicker, you get a burglar alarm, and to me this is very important. This makes security robust. Right now, security is very fragile on the Net, and you see it in the newspapers. A new vulnerability is discovered, and we are all at risk. Suddenly, we are not secure. Alarm systems are robust. If you have enough motion sensors and pressure plates and electric eyes in your house, you will catch the burglar, regardless of how he got in, and we need that same kind of thinking on the Net.

The second thing, and you talked about this, and I am thrilled you did, risk management. A lot of us talk about how do we avoid the threat? We cannot avoid the threat. The question is, how do we manage the risk? Just like any other business risk, computer crime and fraud is a risk, and this has some ramifications. In a few years, you will get cyber insurance.

You will have to, as a business, and then a few years later, premiums will diverge, depending on what products you are using, what you are doing, and what this will bring is something else we are lacking, is liability.

Right now, there is no liability in software. An automobile manufacturer could, conceivably, put an oxyacetylene shunt into your fuel line and boost the performance of your car. They do not do that because they know the liability to be enormous.

The software industry has no such compunctions. There is no liability. If you read software licenses, they basically say, if this product deliberately maims your children, and we knew about it, and we chose not to tell you because we thought it would hurt sales, we are not liable. This is a disaster, because it means that features come unfettered with any controls. My third piece of advice is about legislation.

I worry about rushing into legislation. This is all very new. We do not understand how the technology works, how it interacts, even things like what it means to trespass on a Web site. What does unauthorized access mean? It is not at all obvious. I am spending time talking with a Stanford law professor trying to write a paper on this.

It is very hard to pin down what these things mean in this new environment, and we will figure it out, but it is going to take a while, and I worry about quick laws that have unintended consequences. We have seen that a couple of times. I also think we really can no longer have laws that trail technology. Up to now a new technology has appeared, the telephone, and over 10 or 20 years we have figured out what the laws are. Technology moves too fast today. We do not have time to do that.

This is an enormous challenge because we almost have to make laws that are based on principles, not based on the details of technology, and then that way you can make the technology match what you want. To a very real extent, technology can determine what laws are possible. There are some things we cannot do on the Net, no matter how much you want, but if we have some guiding principles as to what we as a society believe is good, and right, and important, we can codify that into the actual technology, and to me this is an enormous opportunity for America to take its principles of free speech, personal privacy, of liberty, and weave them into the fabric of a very international Net.

We could fail to do that, but we could also do that. I guess those are my points. I will take questions, and if there is ever a job application for that information security czar, I would love to do it. My name is Bruce Schneier. Counterpane was founded to address the immediate need for increased Internet security, and essentially provides burglar alarm services for computer networks. I am the author of seven books on cryptography and computer security, as well as hundreds of articles and papers on those topics.

For several years, I have been a security consultant to many major Internet companies. Internet security is an enormously important issue, and one that will become increasingly important as the Internet affects the lives of more people. Simply stated, during the last decade the Internet has transitioned from a technological plaything for a few people to a critical infrastructure as fundamental as the phone system.

Internet security has transitioned from an academic curiosity to a fundamental enabling technology for our future. The limits of Internet security are the limits of the Internet, and the limits of the Internet profoundly affect our country as the Information Economy continues to grow.

I believe that there are two questions before the Committee today. The first is whether the Internet is safe enough to conduct business on. The second, if you agree that the Internet is not safe enough, is what we can do to improve the situation. I will focus my remarks on these two issues. The Internet is critical to business. But with that connection comes new threats: malicious hackers, criminals, industrial spies. These network predators regularly steal corporate assets and intellectual property, cause service breaks and system failures, sully corporate brands, and frighten customers.

Unless companies can successfully navigate around these, they will not be able to unlock the full business potential of the Internet. The increased complexity of the Internet and its applications, the rush to put more services and people on the Internet, and the desire to interconnect everything all contribute to the increased insecurity of the digital world.

Security based solely on preventive products is inherently fragile. Newly discovered attacks, the proliferation of attack tools, and flaws in the products themselves all result in a network becoming vulnerable at random and increasingly frequent intervals. Active security monitoring is a key component missing in most networks. Insurance is another. In business, insurance is the risk manager of last resort.

And in most cases, insurance drives security requirements. Companies install a burglar alarm system in their warehouse not because it reduces theft, but because it reduces their insurance rates. As the need for Internet security becomes more universally recognized , insurance companies will begin to drive security requirements and demand product improvements. The third key component to a secure Internet is law enforcement. The primary reason we live in a safe society is that we prosecute criminals.

Today the Internet is a lawless society; hackers can break into computers with relative impunity. We need to turn the Internet into a lawful society, through regular prosecution and conviction of Internet criminals. When I began working in computer security, the only interest was from the military and a few scattered privacy advocates.

The Internet has changed all that. The promise of the Internet is to be a mirror of society. Everything we do in the real world, we want to do on the Internet: conduct private conversations, keep personal papers, sign letters and contracts, speak anonymously, rely on the integrity of information, gamble, vote, publish digital documents. All of these things require security. The limits of security are the limits of the Internet. And no business or person is without these security needs.

The risks are real. Everyone talks about the direct risks: theft of trade secrets, customer information, money. People also talk about the productivity losses due to computer security problems. Or if ten people have to scramble to clean up after a particularly nasty intrusion? More important are the indirect risks: loss of customers, damage to brand, loss of goodwill. Last year Egghead. Regardless of how the investigation turned out, some percentage of customers decided to shop elsewhere.

When CD Universe suffered a credit card theft in early , it cost them dearly in their war for market share against Amazon. The public perception that their source code was untainted was much more important than any effects of the actual attack. And more indirect risks are coming. Can company officers be held personally liable if they fail to provide for network security? The courts will be deciding this question in the next few years. As risky as the Internet is, companies have no choice but to be there.

The lures of new markets, new customers, new revenue sources, and new business models are just so great that companies will flock to the Internet regardless of the risks. There is no alternative. This, more than anything else, is why computer security is so important.

Five years ago, network security was relatively simple. No one had heard of denial-of-service attacks shutting down Web servers, Web page scripting flaws, or the latest vulnerabilities in Microsoft Outlook Express. In recent years came intrusion detection systems, public-key infrastructure, smart cards, VPNs, and biometrics. New networking services, wireless devices, and the latest products regularly turn network security upside down. I bought a firewall. Network security is an arms race, and the attackers have all the advantages.

Second, the immense complexity of modern networks makes them impossible to properly secure. And third, skilled attackers can encapsulate their attacks in software, allowing people with no skill to use them. And every year things get worse. Nothing is foolproof. Even companies like Microsoft can get hacked, badly. There are no silver bullets.

The way forward is not more products, but better processes. We have to stop looking for the magic preventive technology that will avoid the threats, and embrace processes that will help us manage the risks. Ask any network administrator what he needs security for, and he can describe the threats: Web site defacements, corruption and loss of data due to network penetrations, denial-of-service attacks, viruses and Trojans.

The list seems endless, and the endless slew of news stories prove that the threats are real. This is the traditional paradigm of computer security, born out of a computer science mentality: figure out what the threats are, and build technologies to avoid them. This paradigm is wrong. Security is a people problem, not a technology problem. Businesses manage risks. And there are many different ways to manage risks. The ones you choose in a particular situation depend on the details of that situation.

And failures happen regularly; many businesses manage their risks improperly, pay for their mistakes, and then soldier on. Businesses are remarkably resilient. To take a concrete example, consider a physical store and the risk of shoplifting. Most grocery stores accept the risk as a cost of doing business. A jewelry store might mitigate the risk through procedures: all merchandise stays locked up, customers are not allowed to handle anything unattended, etc.

And that same jewelry store will carry theft insurance, another risk management tool. You could improve the security of a bank by strip-searching everyone who walks through the front door. Studies show that most shoplifting at department stores occurs in dressing rooms. You could improve security by removing the dressing rooms, but the losses in sales would more than make up for the decrease in shoplifting. What all of these businesses are looking for is adequate security at a reasonable cost.

This is what we need on the Internet as well—security that allows a company to offer new services, to expand into new markets, and to attract and retain new customers. And the particular computer security solutions they choose depend on who they are and what they are doing. Most computer security is sold as a prophylactic: encryption prevents eavesdropping, firewalls prevent unauthorized network access, PKI prevents impersonation. To the world at large, this is a strange marketing strategy. When you buy a safe, it comes with a rating.

What this means is that a professional safecracker, with safecracking tools and an oxyacetylene torch, can break open the safe in an hour. The safe buys you time; you have to spend it wisely. Real-world security includes prevention, detection, and response. But no prevention mechanism is perfect. This is especially true for computer networks. All software products have security bugs, most network devices are misconfigured, and users make all sorts of mistakes.

Without detection and response, the prevention mechanisms only have limited value. And detection and response are not only more cost effective, but also more effective, than piling on more prevention. On the Internet, this translates to monitoring. In October , Microsoft discovered that an attacker had penetrated their corporate network weeks before, and might have viewed or even altered the source code for some of their products.

Administrators discovered this breach when they noticed twenty new accounts being created on a server. If someone had been monitoring those audit logs—automatically generated by the firewalls, servers, routers, etc. And if you can respond quickly and effectively, you can repel the attacker before he does any damage.

Good detection and response can make up for imperfect prevention. And real security is about people. What matters is who is defending you. Prevention systems are never perfect. Eventually, the insurance industry will subsume the computer security industry. Not that insurance companies will start marketing security products, but rather that the kind of firewall you use—along with the kind of authentication scheme you use, the kind of operating system you use, and the kind of network monitoring scheme you use—will be strongly influenced by the constraints of insurance.

Consider security, and safety, in the real world. Deciding what kind of theft and fire prevention equipment to install are risk management decisions. The risk taker of last resort is the insurance industry, and businesses achieve security through insurance. They take the risks they are not willing to accept themselves, bundle them up, and pay someone else to make them go away.

However, particular functions are performed by internal proxy For example, internal proxy communicates directly with database and exchange processor , and may link the internal portion to external proxy or other components of the informal portion More than one internal proxy may be provided. Preferably, clients cannot directly access the internal proxy. Proxy may be on a firewall. Listing , which may be a database, web server or other suitable mechanism provides information about items listed for exchange.

Listing is client accessible via external proxy and network One or more than one listing may be provided per exchange. External proxy is responsible for security, filtering, and routing. External proxy communicates with internal proxy , listing , and network One or more than one external proxy may be provided per exchange.

External proxy prevents direct client access to the internal portion It may be used to prevent unwanted or undesired information from entering the exchange. Network may be any medium wired or wireless that allows for communications between components of the invention e. A preferred embodiment of the invention operates according to FIG.

In step , the mode of operation of the exchange is specified. For example, it is specified how the exchange will work and what rules it will work under. Information that may be entered during this phase may include, inter alia, the start and stop time for the exchange, the categorization of the commodity e.

Other rules and terms may be specified. This information is stored in the server and used to control a given exchange. In step , commodity information is entered by the seller. The term commodity or item can include goods or services. This information may include identification of a new commodity or modification of an existing listing by an authorized person.

If the client selects viewing an item by identifier e. The client may have retained this number from a previous session, or may have received the number via accessing the listing service. If the client enters a valid identifier, the buyer may be shown the item, information about the item, or both.

In step , the listing information is made accessible to the public. This may include posting information on a world wide web page that the public can access. Additionally, an automatic identification may be used to send E-mail to potential purchasers. Other means of making the information accessible may also be used. The listing itself may include historical data a list of commodities traded or listed in the past and associated transaction information , current listings and their status, and future listings e.

The listing may be searched by fields, keywords or other search techniques. In step , a potential purchaser or exchange partner accesses the exchange via a client terminal. The purchaser client presents a number of options. For example, the search function may enable the purchaser to search through the listing for items of interest. The purchaser may be provided with several fields of information that can be used to facilitate the search. These search fields may include classification e.

The system may return either an exact match, the closest match, or an entire classification for the client to browse through. The client may have the capability of browsing through the database using standard navigational tools. These options allow the client to quickly advance and review through the database.

Items may be displayed in various views and in various orders. Once a desired items is identified, the buyer may obtain additional information about the listed item. For example, the client may be provided with a chat option. Chat enables electronic communication via the network and may provide the client with a real-time communication link with other buyers, the seller or the exchange host. Further, if the rules of the exchange provide, the chat may be either public i. This option may be one of the exchange parameters.

Additional options may be provided to assist the client in managing the information. The client may be able to retrieve more information about a particular item that is being viewed. This may be useful when information for an item takes more than one screen to present.

It may also allow the client to send an E-mail containing all of the information about the particular item being viewed to an E-mail address. The potential purchaser may make a bid on an item that is currently being viewed and the information is processed in step Once bid is selected, the client may be provided with the current highest bid for the item, and a window entering the required information for making a bid.

In order to be accepted, the bid must meet certain criteria. For example, the bid must be higher than the current highest bid. The system may have rules in place that allow only predetermined increments e. Same as all, rules can be enforced on the client side and others can be enforced at the external proxy or internal proxy. This enforcement may also include the initial filtering of information. For example, if a bid placed is not higher than the current highest bid, the client may not transmit the bid.

Alternatively, the non- qualifying bid may be dropped at the external proxy. Thus, unnecessary communications to the server are avoided. In another embodiment of the invention, bids are not transmitted to the host if they are irrelevant. Irrelevant bids may be bids that are less than the current "best" bid.

In order to determine if the bid is relevant or not, the system determines what the seller's goal is price, location, etc. If it is, it replaces the "best" bid and the seller may be notified of the new highest bid. If it is not, the bid is disregarded. Notification may include a bid identifier, an amount and other information. New "best" bids may be broadcast to all participants in the exchange. If a potential purchaser owns the "best" bid, he may also be notified of this status. In step , the negotiations between the seller and all bidding parties are concluded.

Negotiations may be concluded by expiration of the predefined exchange time, through seller intervention, through a match being achieved or other events. In step , clearing process is performed. This may be tied to a clearing bank. Clearing may be done in several fashions. One implementation of clearing is based on a simple process for modifying at least two items. The steps required in the actual process of modifying these items will be described in detail later.

Internal clearing occurs when there is very little or no chance for the clearing process to fail, such as when the system directly controls all commodities in question. When there is internal clearing, the integrity of every trade on the system is protected at all times; that is, the system provides insurance or a guarantee of the trade completion. It is not possible for a participant to default after a trade is arranged. Since internal clearing is processed in real-time, the clients involved may proceed to the next negotiation immediately.

External clearing occurs when at least one commodity to be cleared requires dealing with external systems or where there is a possibility of failure during the clearing process. Database may have the ability to control the process of internal clearing. The present invention's implementation of clearing is based on a simple process for modifying at least two items.

Referring to FIG. First, in step , the system obtains the exclusive right to modify lock on data record 1 and on data record 2. This ensures that no process other than the internal clearing process can access the two data records. Next, in step , the system modifies the relevant data in each record. This may entail exchanging the information between the two locked records.

In step , the system releases the exclusive right to modify lock on data record 1 and data record 2. The chronological order of the processes within a step is not significant, but each process of a step must be complete before moving to the next step and the steps must be completed in proper order.

If internal clearing is not available, or if it is not desired, external clearing may be used. First, in step , the system obtains an exclusive right to modify lock on data record 1 and data record 2. In step , the system waits for one or more real-world events to occur.

Real-world events may include a physical exchange of objects, a credit card validation, etc. Once this real-world event occurs, in step , the system modifies relevant data in each record. In step , the system releases the exclusive right to modify the lock on data record 1 and data record 2. At the completion of these steps, the external clearing process is complete. In both situations, a third data record may be modified. This may be done in order to account for the system's commission.

The commission may be measured in several ways: it may be a percentage of the selling price, paid by the buyer or seller, or both; it may be a fixed amount paid by the buyer or seller, or both, or may be any other suitable means for providing compensation. Based on the type of commission, data record 3, which may represent the system, is modified to include the amount of commission gained from this trade.

In addition to being internal or external, the clearing may also be direct or indirect. Direct clearing would be used when the items are directly transferred between the buyer's and the seller's accounts. Indirect clearing would be used when items are transferred to a third party or placed in escrow. First, in step , the client bids on the item. In step , the system checks to see if the bidder is an authorized bidder.

This may be based on the exchange rules set earlier by the seller. If the bidder is not an authorized bidder, an error message is returned to the client. If the bidder is authorized, the process continues. In step , the bid is checked to determine if it meets the rules, e. There may be other rules for determining whether the bid is valid.

In one embodiment, the increment may be solely based on the bid on the item. In another embodiment, the bid increment may be determined based on the seller's estimated value of the item. In yet another embodiment, the increment may be set by the seller regardless of the bid or value of the item.

If the bid is not greater than the highest bid plus a predetermined increment, an error message is returned to the client. In step , the bid is transmitted to the seller or exchange. This may be done by electronic mail, by electronic messaging, or any suitable method. In step , the system determines if a concluding event has occurred. This may be an expiration of time, by an exact match, by seller intervention, or any other suitable event.

Once this occurs, the successful bidder is notified step In another embodiment, the seller may have the option of not selling the item. This would allow the seller to retain control of his item should the best bid be unacceptable. Once the bidder has been notified, the clearing process is initiated in step The standard client of the invention may employ various graphical user interface, or GUI, components, artificial intelligence and agent-like behaviors for various functions.

For example, a modified scroller is provided. In this modified scroller, displayed items move from one location to another, and depending on predetermined settings, the time may then either move off the display or be retained and remain visibly present in the display. If the item is not retained, then the scrolling area of the scroller is adjusted to be smaller by the size of the retained item.

If enough items are retained so that the remaining display space is be insufficient for proper scroller display, then the retained items may scroll in order to accommodate the new item as necessary. Both the active and retained scrollers are able to be manually manipulated such that items that have been previously removed from the display may be brought back for a type of history review mechanism.

In a preferred embodiment, two scrollers may be linked or associated with each other via some binding and may use this binding or association to help display information in a new and unique way. There are at least three presentations of this scroller. The first presentation, is where the scrolling is in a similar direction, and another is where the scrolling is opposite direction.

A center-out scroller, where the scrolling moves from the center to the outsides, may also be provided. Any of these scrollers may have retained items as well. Dual scrollers may be extended to three or more scrollers linked by some association. These scrollers may also be in any orientation including an orthogonal perspective such as would be in a three dimensional environment.

Security is provided for this system at different levels. Any suitable means for providing security to the system may be used such as an encrypted stream-based network communication. Referring again to FIG. The proxy's filters are based on any field in the protocol, but primarily will be based on the bid, ask, and item classification fields.

It may be desirable to not have direct communication between client and exchange All communication destined for exchange is routed through proxies and to insure authorized and authenticated communication. The external proxy has the ability to connect to external systems and retrieve information based upon an external protocol in order to extract information that another component requires. For instance, the external proxy handles incoming connections from client using the invention's protocol, and it also has the ability to handle incoming connections from other outside sources such as E-mail, CGI scripts, telephone, fax or secondary clients with secondary protocols.

An example of this is using a web page on the World Wide Web to display information about a lot for exchange. The external proxy can then extract appropriate information from the remote web page and pass this to listing service which in turn will pass information to database and exchange as needed.

The information that is required to be extracted is information that is sufficient to allow for an exchange to take place. This information is then embedded using the invention's standard protocol so that it can be extracted. Box A represents the additional processing that applies to internal proxy These processes may include a clearing processor, such as a clearing bank, electronic data interchange EDI. Box B represents the additional processing that applies to exchange processor These processes may include a partial matching processor, barter matching processor or a pooling processor.

Preferably, the internal proxy handles more advanced functions, including authorization, identification and final verifications. A single proxy may be used if desired. Two proxies permit load balancing. Referring to Fig. In this embodiment, a plurality of exchange providers may be connected via network Exchange provider may actually host the exchange, and a plurality of exchange providers may interact via network Further, a plurality of clients may be able to access exchange provider and participate in the exchange.

A preferred embodiment of this invention is an electronic auction. The electronic auction is designed to emulate and surpass a real-world auctions' functions and capabilities. First, in step , the preview phase represents the start of an auction. A lot, or an item, preferably will have been entered by this time and when the auction is started, and it is immediately placed in the preview phase.

In step , the activity phase includes a calling for bids. If a lot is in this phase after a predetermined event and no bids are entered, the next phase is the settlement phase. If there is a bid, the auction moves to step , the first interval phase. This phase is provided to give a gap between the activity phase and the auction phase. It provides time to prepare for the auction phase by placing a resting bid. No active bidding is allowed during this phase.

As in step , if there is no bid on the lot, the next phase is the settlement phase. In step , the auction phase represents the termination of the ability of multiple bidders to bid in an individual auction. When there are multiple concurrent auctions, the starting and stopping times may be staggered based on factors such as, but not limited to, activity, bid volume, price, or category.

The schedule is posted when finalized, which may occur during the first interval phase. Any outstanding resting bids are processed during this phase. The second interval phase is a gap between the auction phase and the interface phase. A new resting, or maximum, bid may be entered during this phase for use as a fail-safe during the interface phase There is no active competitive bidding during this phase.

The interface phase is the phase where the high bidder from the auction phase may have the ability to further bid in a second auction. If a resting, or maximum, bid was entered during interval or during the second interface phase , it is used as a fail-safe during this phase in case of interface failure.

The settlement phase is the phase where the results of each auction are finalized. A simple auction has only auction phase settlement phase Other steps are included in order to promote fairness and active bidding. Step and may be used only when there is a need to tie a computer bidder to a second auction such as one hosted by a human auctioneer or direct buyer to seller negotiation. The following are example embodiments: []. Brokerless refers to the fact that participants are trading directly with other participants without brokerage firm or other third party assistance.

Real-time means both the ability to offer shares of stock for sale or to purchase shares, and the results of bids on these offers is processed nearly instantaneously and thereby known almost immediately by all exchange participants. The system will consist of real-time price negotiation between buyer and seller with a price matching mechanism when an offer to buy or sell is first entered. Trading is concurrent and interactive for both buyer and seller. Both buyer and seller will use the bidding mechanism to raise or lower bids and offers.

The participants may choose any listed item offering and place a bid if they wish to buy, or change aspects of their offering if they have offered to sell. This will allow electronic price negotiation between buyers and sellers, simulating the trading floors of the real-world exchanges. When an offer to buy or sell stock is first entered, a check is made by the system to see if there is a matching offer on the opposite side of the trade.

This match will be for the same stock at the same price in tradable quantities. A similar check is made if an existing bid or offer on any shares of stock changes. If the system locates a match, a trade is consummated. The exchange system will include an extensive database for customer and trade information. The system will maintain and provide a record of all trades concerning the time of day, the parties involved, the price and number of shares traded, and any other information that is required such as required by a government regulatory agency such as the Securities and Exchange Commission SEC.

A bid history will be available for any stock traded that will include the most recent offer and bid price, the price and volume of the last trade, and the previous day or week history. The system will provide real-time trade information on a per-trade basis.

Another embodiment is the trading of "entertainment" stocks, options and futures. These stocks and options will be issued by the governing body of the trading floor on participants or entrants in real- world events. In no way will a stock or option indicate an ownership in the entity that serves as the symbol or name i.

The stock or option value is merely an indication of perceived value derived by the trading floor members and market forces in this particular forum. Only members of this trading floor will be allowed to trade.

Registration is required to become a member of the trade floor, and members are assigned an account number which are kept in the trading forum's database. To commence trading, members must have sufficient funds in their account to pay for the stock purchase. The system will preclude any member from trading more stock or money than is in their account.

The "entertainment" refers to the excitement created or enthusiasm generated by the media over the anticipated outcome of a real-world event. This event must have multiple entrants but only one clearly-defined winner after a period of time. Small events may occur during this time duration that may help define the eventual winner. These small events will stimulate the trading of the entrant's stock. Depending on the trader's perceived value of how an entrant is fairing in relation to other entrants, during the trade period, will determine the value of any entrant's stock.

An example of these events may include individual team games leading to a championship, political primaries leading to an election, or critic's review of Oscar-bound movies. Stocks and options are issued in an initial offering of finite amount at a par value by the governing body. This initial offering of par value stock will be sold to trading floor members at the beginning of the time duration for the real-world event. Options to purchase specific amounts of stock from the governing body during the time period may also be issued.

The proceeds of these sales will go into a dividend depository that will be paid to the stock shareholders of the winning entrant, entrants, or combinations set by the specific rules for a particular event. This dividend will be paid at the end of the time period.

As each entrant's issue becomes more subscribed, that particular stock will be assigned a symbol and moved to the trading floor to be traded on by the trade floor members. Trading on a particular symbol is done by either the owner of the stock offering to sell, or the governing entity may issue more stock on this open market. Trading will simulate real-world stock exchanges in that both sides of a trade buyer and seller may raise, lower, or cancel offers to trade in real-time.

The trading floor clearing mechanisms will clear all trades and debit and credit the stock and money into the principal's accounts. Members may be limited to the amount of stock or the amount of money in their individual accounts.

When the winner of the real-world event is determined, the dividend is distributed according to the rules for this particular event. If the real-world event is reoccurring, the stock holders may be issued stock options that allow them to purchase the same amount of stock at the next issue at par value. Another embodiment of this invention is a brokerless commodity exchange. The commodities traded may range from current contracts traded over commodity exchanges, such as the Chicago Board of Trade, to new contracts such as water rights, pollution credits, electric power, and petroleum derivatives, or commodities such as commodities such as information i.

These commodity forums could be CFTC regulated, or independent. The membership, trading, and clearing mechanisms for a commodity exchange are similar to the stock exchange embodiment. The differences would be in the nature of the commodities themselves as opposed to stocks. There may be commodities that require a physical settlement with no commodity exchange for money, or a cash settlement where no commodity changes hands. Another embodiment is a barter exchange.

This barter exchange may be based on a client-server system that provides real-time networked forum for barter. The clearing of the barter between members of the exchange would be arranged completely by the participants for the trade. All sides of the barter must be members of the exchange. Membership requires that the applicant use the barter exchange system to submit the application form that contains specific identification, background, and financial information.

Once the applicant is granted an exchange membership, an account number is assigned. A member must have funds or a line of credit established by a credit card available for debiting. Members may negotiate in real-time for items. Either side of a trade may offer to increase, decrease, add items, remove items, or do any variation of trade that one is able to do in the real world.

This will be accomplished by a listing function and a system priority chat. Anonymity will be preserved in forum until a barter is consummated. Upon the system verifying and transferring the commission to the exchange, which is charged for use of the forum, the identification of the principals are revealed to each other. The principles may then arrange the details of the exchange.

Another embodiment is an exchange for all types of domestic and foreign currencies and their derivatives. This could include arbitrage or direct swaps. Again, this exchange's membership, trading, and clearing mechanisms may operate in the same manner as the exchange system. However, differences may exist in the specific commodities that are traded and minor adjustments may be made to account for their particular attributes.

Another embodiment is an on-line gambling forum. A digital calcutta is a method of wagering on sporting events that are of public knowledge and generate interest. Calcutta wagering is based on an auction-style forum where all entrants of an event are auctioned to the highest bidder. This auction may be for an individual event, such as an automobile race, for a round, such as a golf tournament, or for a team championship. The proceeds of the auction are placed into a pool to be divided among the high bidders on the top four finishers in the event or round.

There could be many calcuttas based on a single sporting event based on bid size, including minimum bid, maximum bid, and unlimited bid, or pool size, including maximum pool, minimum pool, and unlimited pool, or may be based on any combination of bids size and pool size. The calcutta could also be based on the split of high bidders on the high finishers.

The pool could be split among high bidders on several places down from the first-place winner. The digital calcutta would serve as a mechanism for wagering on highly publicized sporting events over a computer and network. News media originates the enthusiasm necessary for these events to be well- published throughout large portions of the world. This, in turn, creates interest in wagering that could have a low entry level with a large payoff in the foreseeable future.

The electronic auction forum for wagering on these events could generate its own excitement. Another application for computerized wagering based on the outcome of real-world events is the use of a virtual interactive trading floor. This would allow the participants to become odds-makers and place wagers on any event they choose without going through an intermediary.

The trading floor would provide a real-time forum for participants to negotiate odds, point spreads, winners, or any other form of wagering. The only criterion is that there must be a definitive outcome and that the method to determine this outcome is agreed upon by both parties. A participant must register to become a member of the trading floor and be assigned an account. Before the participant would be allowed to place or offer a wager, the total amount of funds or credit necessary to cover this wager must be in his account.

Once a wager is made, the total amount involved may be placed in the trading floor's depository. If the participant used a line of credit issued by a credit card, approval would be verified and the funds immediately transferred. The wager would be "locked" until the funds were transferred; this means that the participants could not reject the wager while the funds were being transferred. This transfer would take no longer than a few seconds. If, for any reason, funds were unavailable, the bet would be canceled.

Once the event's outcome is determined, the wager would be settled and the winner's account would be credited via the trading floor's clearing mechanism. A small commission would be paid to the trading floor for every cleared wager. If desired, artificial intelligence capability can be added to the buyer client to enhance its capabilities. Other functions can be added such as agent behaviors, single or multiple clients working together to address the market, and allow for the use of different sources of data such as on-line news tickers, information brokers and knowledge modeling databases.

If desired, host-to host communication can be permitted. Multiple item lots may also be permitted. In a preferred embodiment, a virtual online bank VOB may be provided. The VOB may be used to provide convenience to the traders anc credibility to the exchange. Margin services may be provided by the VOB to a client based on a predetermined criteria.

This predetermined criteria may include the results of a credit check, past trading experience, etc. A client may be provided the option of visiting the VOB at any time during the access to the exchange. Although the present invention has been described in detail, it should be understood that various changes, substitutions, and alterations can be made without departing from the intended scope as defined by the appended claims.

Claims A method for operating a networked exchange in which a financial instrument is traded from a seller to a purchaser by an exchange processor comprising:. The method of claim 1 wherein said step of specifying a mode of operations comprises:. The method of claim 1 , wherein said specifying a mode of operations for an exchange is done by said seller.

The method of claim 1 wherein said step of said seller identifying said financial instrument to be traded comprises:. The method of claim 1 , further comprising:. The method of claim 5 wherein said step of said exchange operator listing information about said financial instrument comprises posting said listing information. The method of claim 5 , wherein said listing information comprises:.

The method of claim 7 , wherein said listing information is posted on a world wide web page. The method of claim 7 , wherein said listing information is sent to at least one subscriber. The method of claim 9 , wherein said listing information is sent by E-mail. The method of claim 5 , wherein said step of said purchaser accessing of said listing comprises searching for information about said financial instrument.

The method of claim 1 , wherein said step of said purchaser accessing said networked exchange comprises:. The method of claim 12 , wherein said graphical interface is a scroller. The method of claim 12 , wherein said graphical interface is a dual scroller. The method of claim 12 , wherein said graphical interface is a three-dimensional scroller. The method of claim 12 , wherein said chatting is between said purchaser and said seller.

The method of claim 12 , wherein said chatting is between said purchaser and at least one other purchaser. The method of claim 1 , wherein said step of said exchange processor processing information generated by said purchaser comprises:.

The method of claim 1 , wherein said step of concluding said negotiation between said seller and said purchaser comprises matching an offer by said purchaser to a goal price. The method of claim 1 , wherein said step of said exchange processor clearing said concluded negotiation comprises:.

The method of claim 20 , wherein said step of said exchange processor clearing said concluded negotiation further comprises:. Computer-readable media having computer-readable code embodied therein for networked exchange of a financial instrument between a seller and a purchaser, said computer-readable code comprising:. The computer-readable media of claim 22 , wherein said means for specifying a mode of operations comprises:. The computer-readable media of claim 22 , wherein said means for identifying said financial instrument to be traded comprises:.

The computer-readable media of claim 22 , wherein said means for processing information generated by said purchaser comprises:. The computer-readable media of claim 22 , wherein said means for clearing said concluded negotiation comprises:. The computer-readable media of claim 22 , wherein said means for clearing said concluded negotiation further comprises means for modifying data in a third data record; said data representing a commission.

The method of claim 1 , wherein said financial instrument comprises a stock. The method of claim 1 , wherein said financial instrument comprises an option. The method of claim 1 , wherein said financial instrument comprises a future. The method of claim 1 , wherein said financial instrument comprises a security.

The method of claim 1 , wherein said financial instrument comprises a currency. The method of claim 1 further comprising using software agents to automatically search for financial instruments to bid on. The method of claim 1 further comprising using software agents to monitor bid status to automatically bid on financial instruments without purchaser intervention.

The method of claim 1 further comprising using software agents to monitor closing items to automatically bid on financial instruments without purchaser intervention. The computer-readable media of claim 22 , wherein said financial instrument comprises a stock. The computer-readable media of claim 22 , wherein said financial instrument comprises an option. The computer-readable media of claim 22 , wherein said financial instrument comprises a future. The computer-readable media of claim 22 , wherein said financial instrument comprises a security.

The computer-readable media of claim 22 , wherein said financial instrument comprises a currency. The computer-readable media of claim 22 , wherein said computer-readable code further comprises means for automatically searching for financial instruments to bid on. The computer-readable media of claim 22 , wherein said computer-readable code further comprises means for monitoring bid status to automatically bid on financial instruments without purchaser intervention.

The computer-readable media of claim 22 , wherein said computer-readable code further comprises means for monitoring closing items to automatically bid on financial instruments without purchaser intervention. Real-time network exchange with seller specified exchange parameters and interactive seller participation. Real time network exchange with seller specified exchange parameters and interactive seller participation.

USA en. Protective device for internal resource protection in network and method for operating the same.

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Threads typically discuss new offers, tips and warnings. Check out my Betting Mastermind Review to learn more. You will earn a profit by subscribing to any of them:. Want to learn Matched Betting without subscribing to a service? Try picking their brains and learning the ropes. Always look for recent uploads. Free Matched Betting resources have limitations.

Some free publications are inaccurate and out of date. Thus learning from a specialist website is more efficient. This is crucial. Importantly, they each include their own variation of a Matched Bet Finder. Does Arbitrage Betting Work? Is It Worth The Effort? In just the first month, I could see a difference in my profits and betting confidence. That alone, is well worth the price. Even people who know nothing about betting tend to find it pretty easy to follow.

Once you learn the matched betting stuff its not difficult to work it out for yourself going forward. So I think the main advantage of the services is that its consistently chucking out the list offers to you every day. Can come home from work and quickly earn some dosh without spending the whole evening on the PC.

Once you know the score you can give it a go on your own. No doubt they provide a lot of good offers, too. Have been an odds monkey customer for the last few months. It makes things very simple, and gives plenty of offers. My only worry is that bookies will cotton on? What do you think? How will the Bookmaker know it was a Matched bet? I mainly use a paid matched betting service for Oddsmatching, dutch searching and forums.

As matched betting evolves, how do you see the services adapting what they offer to customers? A huge time saver and they have a bunch of great tutorials on the site — these are a must see for anyone wanting to be better at this. Skip to content. Matched Bets The team at Matched Bets has over 30 years experience in the betting industry and another 10 years experience creating one of the leading online sports betting affiliate websites.

The bet tracker does it all for you in just a few clicks Customer support from 8 till late every day No Contract required, cancel anytime. These are easily the top 2 companies. However, their low annual subscription fee is unbelievably good value for money.

Promotions are Analysed Thoroughly. Get Started What is Matched Betting? Matched Betting Guide. Next Steps Different offers require different methods in order to extract a profit. Learn the key ones here…. Advanced Take your matched betting to the next level and start profiting from a wider range of offers.

Matched betting in Australia. Although I focus on UK offers, the principles of matched betting work worldwide. See how you can take advantage Down Under. Featured Articles. New Customer Offers. Reload Offers. Offers for existing customers with step-by-step guides on how to profit from each one! Daily and Weekly Offers.

Extra Place Offers. Greyhound Offers. Horse Racing Offers. Football Offers. Weekly Free Bet Club Offers. Matched Betting Calculator. Each Way Calculator. Sequential Lay Calculator. Early Payout Calculator. Dutching Calculator. Odds Converter.


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Замечательная betting tips football for today может

The days of wandering into your local high street bookmaker are gone. There are tens, hundreds, hell, even thousands of bookies trying to make a go of it online. Many of them come in the shape of free bets. Most people see a bookie offering a freebie and scroll past, some take the free bet and do one of two things — win and run or lose and leave.

Then there are matched bettors. Matched betting utilises free bets to guarantee a profit. This is you covering the potential winnings of the other persons bet. Man City face Arsenal at the weekend. Sort of, yes. Firstly, most free football bets are only awarded if you make a bet with real cash first. This is called your qualifying bet. The approach to your qualifying bet is exactly the same as your matched bet. This initial bet is placed with real money. The second part of matched betting that you need to understand is how to identify an appropriate opportunity.

Now, a lot of people are scared off by the fact you need to find specific games for matched betting to work. There are two main companies that operate matched betting services. Profit Accumulator , who have been going since , are the name that has been helping punters make money through this method the longest.

Their offering is decent too with alerts taking you to the best free bet offers, software that allows you to find the games that are matched bet opportunities by bookmaker. Well, to top it all off, their service also includes a bet calculator. This will give you the stakes you need to wager for a guaranteed profit for your matched and qualifying bet. The other major name in the market for matched betting services is OddsMonkey.

To be honest, their platform is very closely aligned to that of Profit Accumulator to the point where even the pricing is the same. On the surface of things, no. Any bookmakers with a free bet offering can be exploited for profit.

That said, all of these offers come with extensive terms and conditions. It is in these terms that certain bookies make themselves more appealing to matched bettors. Some of the big boys like William Hill, SkyBet and Ladbrokes will not limit a household to one single use of a free bet offer. Football is the most watched sport in the world and there are plenty of games to bet on and numerous matched betting offers to complete each week during the season.

That means less profit in your accounts. Thankfully, horse racing is an annual sport. Being one of the most unpredictable sports in the world, horse racing is quite exciting even when you watch it on TV. When you start placing bets and making money betting on horses, the excitement goes to the next level. Betting on sports is relatively easy no matter what category you pick.

The main difference between betting on a horse race or a football game is the markets available. Everything else is exactly the same, including placing your bets etc. Obviously, a horse race cannot end in a draw, unlike football fixtures. That means you can either bet on a horse to win or lose a race.

In my view, betting on horses is actually easier than other sports. These specifically apply to horse racing betting. These bets basically give you more than one chance to win your bet. A handicap is a term given to horses that have different amounts of weight added to their saddle to make a race more even.

The Going refers to the condition of the ground the horses are racing on. There are seven surface grades ranging from hard to heavy. Match betting on horse racing events follows exactly the same process as any other sport or event. If the horse you bet on wins the race, your back bet will win and your lay bet will lose. As I mentioned above, horse racing is the most popular sport for Brits to bet on. For that reason, the large horse racing events like Cheltenham and Ascot provide matched bettors with huge potential.

Horse racing is a global sport which makes it perfect for matched betting. Overall, this is an incredibly easy offer to profit from. Another brilliant option to make money through matched betting on horse racing is price boosts. The bookies may boost the price on a certain horse to win, enticing more punters to gamble. If the lay odds are suitable, using matched betting you can make a guaranteed profit regardless of the outcome. This type of horse racing offer can be incredibly rewarding and you can make a guaranteed profit very easily.

The great thing about this offer; if you keep picking a winner, Bet will keep giving you a risk-free bet. What if the horse you bet on loses? This type of horse racing offer is for more experienced matched bettors. However, each way bets are certainly still worth learning as they can be very profitable. Finding the latest offers and checking through the terms and conditions is the only part of matched betting that takes time. This is where our matched betting partner, OddsMonkey come in.

They even offer a free trial so you can see for yourself how great match betting really is. Below are just some of the large horse racing events of the year that you cannot miss:. As I mentioned earlier, matched betting on horse racing is incredibly profitable. Horse racing works very differently to other sports in terms of odds.

In the last five minutes before the off, the market and odds move very quickly. There will be plenty more opportunities to make money betting on horses. Check out this guide for more information on how it works.

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To matched betting forum msecure honest, their platform like William Hill, SkyBet and that of Profit Accumulator to it will help your account. Advanced Take your matched betting to the next level and for profit. Any bookmakers with a free the market for matched betting. The reason for that is. Skip to content 27, Followers. PARAGRAPHThis will give you the step-by-step guides on how to for a guaranteed profit for. Click here to post a. That said, all of these that certain bookies make themselves. The first is that odds 3, Likes Share. Follow me on social: 27, tool but, boy, do you.

These crimes include fraud, racketeering, gambling, drug trafficking, money Security provides a forum for executives from both the public They regularly fail, but still you hear companies say: ''Of course I'm secure. for encrypted text in the dictionary that matches the one-way encrypted password. potential risk factors, we design case-control studies to calculate odds ratios reflecting underground forums: BlackhatWorld, Carders and L33tCrew to under​- the corresponding superdistribution (i.e., the one that matches the (n−1)-​length Jónsson, K.V., Kreitz, G., Uddin, M.: Secure multi-party sorting and applications. The concept of using the Internet as a marketplace or auction forum is not particularly and if the bid matches the seller's specified selling price, the item is sold to the buyer. Another embodiment is an on-line gambling forum. USA * Lee Wayne M Secure teleprocessing bidding system.