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The following members have been elected at or since the last general meeting: — His Honour Mr. Justice W. The Rev. Elcum and W. Wrench have resigned their membership of the Society, and the Council regret to- record the loss by death of two members of the Society — Mr. Parkes, and Mr. Wise, who was killed at Jeram Ampai during the Pahang Rising.
During the year, Nos. Materials are also in hand for another number. It is reported that the Topographical Survey of the State of Selangor will not be complete before June, while no reliable map can at present be made of considerable portions of the State of Pahang. A number of publications have been added to the Society's Library during the year. There is scarcely one of our Straits worthies of whom so few personal particulars are knowm. He has of course left official records, and several of his private letters have been printed and preserved.
There is also the official Diary he kept during the first few months in Penang, which is printed in Logan's Journal Vol. Ill; but this is all. Cap- tain Light belongs to the ''active period" of the Straits, to which, as in other places, the "literary period" succeeded. The latter began with Marsden and Leyden of "many-lan- guaged lore," who commenced his journeys in Sumatra and the Peninsula in During the next fifty years there was no lack of scholars and wTiters in these countries.
But before their time almost the only English literature of the Far East consisted of accounts by ship captains, like Dam- PIER and Forrest, of their own and others' voyages. In these narratives there is much that is useful ; but we miss the literary side and the personal details that make Leyden, Marsden and Raffles seem so much more familiar to us than their predecessors. He met Captain LiGHT trading at Junk Ceylon in May, and at Malacca in November, ; and he refers to him in terms that show there was friendship between them, and that the Botanist found him an enhghtened and sympathetic com- panion.
It is curious that this MS. He was given Native "new- raised Marines" and 30 Native Lascars, as well as 15 Artille- rymen European and 5 Officers to support him in his undertaking to carry out the settlement of Penang. He first proceeded to Kedah. There he completed his negotiations, and provisioned his party. Sailing thence with three vessels on the evening of the 14th July, , he anchored off Pulau Tikus the following day. S, Journal V, and p. At last, on the 17th, he "disembarked Lieut.
Huts were run up for the marines and lascars, the tents which the set- tlers had brought not affording sufficient room. But this was not to last long. Writing to Mr. Andrew Ross of Madras, Cap- tain Light says: "Before we could get up any defence we " had visitors of all kinds, some for curiosity, some for gain, "and some for plunder.
It is easy to explain how the nnistake occurred; the 1 2th August was the Prince Regent's birthday, after whom the Settlement was named. So far back as , the 12th is given as the date of foundation in a minute on Land Administration by Mr. Phillips, who came to Penang with Sir George Leith in To encourage the wood-cutters, he is said to have ingeniously loaded a gun with a bag of dollars and fired it into the jungle. It is mentioned also that the Malays pro- vided nibongs for the stockade which was the precursor of Fort Cornwallis.
Once the establishment of the Settlement became known, people began to flock in from all quarters to live under the protection of the British flag. His work progressed favourably, especially in the matter of health. The early entries in his Diary often express surprise at the absence of all serious sickness ; until the following year. Then the dry season affected many, and struck him down with fever very severely in January, About the same time he began to feel the want of support from Calcutta.
In February, , he writes to Mr. Ross, of Madras : — "I " have received nothing from the Bengal Government since my " departure from Calcutta. Journal, vol. Meanwhile Penang had natural advantages which served it better than any patronage. The Superintendent, as he was called, lost no opportunity of assuring the East India Company of the success of his beloved Settlement as a commercial enterprise, and implored the Directors to estab- lish a proper Government and to make provision for the administration of justice.
This was a difficulty most keenly felt, but in spite of his earnest recommendation no proper remedy was applied. The sole tribunal up to the beginning of the 19th century was an informal kind of Court Martial, com- posed of Officers and respectable inhabitants. All the minor offences and petty disputes were adjudicated by the '' Capi- tans" or headmen of the various nationalities inhabiting the island ; and there was no regularly organised judicial system in the island till the establishment of the Recorder's Court in In Captain LiGHT's time persons convicted of murder were sent prisoners to Bengal; and by the express order of the Indian Government it was "made understood upon the " island for the sake of example that they were to remain in "slavery for life.
Early in , the financial question confronted the Super- intendent of the new Colony. He was much averse to laying- burdens on the people, and especially to interfering with the freedom of the port, and expresses his regret at the insistence of Government. I arrived here in July, The Government approved of these, but con- sented to postpone the evil day. Later on, however, in , Penang became a "customs port;" and was not set free from this obstruction to its trade till In , Captain LiGHT went to Calcutta, and was closely questioned by the Government as to the capabilities of Pe- nang Thus challenged, he proved equal to the occasion, and eulogised his Settlement in a voluminous reply.
He con- cludes a despatch by the following optimistic summary of such advantages as, he says, are visible and undeniable : — " I. A harbour with good anchorage, secured from bad ''weather and capable of containing any number of vessels.
An island well watered, of excellent soil, capable of " sustaining 50, people and abounding in all necessary ma- '' terials for their service and security. A place of refuge for merchant ships where they may " refit and be supplied with provisions, wood and water, and " protected from the insults of enemies. An emporium centrally situated where the merchants ''of all nations may conveniently meet and exchange their "commodities. So strongly did he feel this that we find him proposing to the authorities in Calcutta that he should be precluded from engaging in trade, receiv- ing " such increase of salary as will support the office with " decency and enable me to make a small provision for ap- " proaching old age.
His combined position of Superintendent and principal merchant in Penang gave him abundant opportunity of enriching himself; and in those lax days, with examples like Vansittart and Mac- PHERSON before him, such scruples must have seemed to many almost Quixotic. In the following year there was trouble with Kedah.
The Raja of that country, grown jealous of the pros- perous Settlement that had sprung up in his neighbourhood, collected a force, and in instigated a fleet of twenty La- noon boats to enter Pry River. These were joined by the Kedah Bandahara.
A land force also came down to the banks of the river and threw up entrenchments. Light's force num- bered men, all well armed and disciplined. He took the initiative and attacked by land and sea the force at Kuala Pry, which had swelled to the number of over 8, Malays. After a few hours fighting the enemy were dispersed, notwithstand- ing their great preponderance of numbers. Since that day Penang has remained free from the attack of any enemy, native or foreign, even when the Siamese troops of the Phya Ligor were over-running Kedah in Light was justly proud of his victory and called his next son FranciS Lanoon Light in honour of it.
In a despatch dated 24th August, , Captain LiGHT continues to sound the trumpet of his little Colony and to pre- dict for it that success which it has since attained. In the same despatch he alludes to the dis- covery of tin on Bukit Timah the spur to the north of the " Crag" where the new Sanitarium of the Pulau Tikus Col- lege now stands , and the discovery of a wild nutmeg " whose ''fruit so nearly resembles a nutmeg that the Buggesses and " a Dutchman who had been at the spice islands declared to " be the real nutmeg.
Christopher Smith's Agricultural Mission in ; and then it was the imported nutmeg plant from Amboyna which for a time flourished so greatly in the island. The whole tone of Captain Light's letters bears testimony to the singleness of purpose and ad- ministrative insight that characterised this remarkable man, and it is matter for deep regret that he was not spared longer to bring his labours to full fruition.
The use he made of his short period of power in the Far East, and his great capacity as a leader of pioneer enterprise, prove him a worthy fore- runner to Sir Stamford Raffles, who founded Singapore, 35 years later, on very similar lines.
Captain Light died at Penang, like so many of the early Chiefs of the Settlement, on the 21st October, Some fever like that severe one recorded in his Journal in February, , probably caused his death; at any rate he was able to make a Will on the previous day. A letter to Government published in Vol. V of Logan's Journal, p.
In this he pleaded that a Civil Assistant trained to the work might be his successor, ''in case of his removal by death or otherwise," instead of the Officer Commanding as arranged in He also advocates "a mild and at the same time an active Government" as necessary for the "most wealthy and useful inhabitants " — that is, the Chinese, whose numbers he estimated at about 3, Mannington as Magistrate with the first approach to regular law in his infant Settlement appropriately closes the public career of such a man.
His chronicler — Colonel Low — - thus sums up his character and work : — " Although the rather implicit credence which he gave at "first to the Rajah of Kedah's assertion of his independence " of Siam, might have led to more serious consequences " than it did, still it would appear that he was a man of "sound sense, probity and judgment — active, practical, and "moderate.
That certainly reprehensible credence, how- " ever, secured to the British merchant and to the world the "port of Pinang, the most eligible one at this extremity of "the Straits. HI of Logan's Journal, This seems to be a just and friendly reference as regards him personally. But in estimating the political criticism it must be remembered who it is that writes. Colonel Low was an avow- ed partisan in the curious political controversy of his time re- garding the status of Kedah.
This matter bears so closely on Captain Light's principal works, and on his judgment and sin- cerity in carrying it out, that it must not be passed over in any account of his action as the Founder of the Settlement. The old controversy upon the point has long subsided.
As a matter of practical politics, the general " suzerainty " of Siam is now, and since the Malay Restoration in , ex- pressly admitted; but that in it was admitted, or even claimed, in any European sense of the word, ''suzerainty," cannot be maintained. Logan, and was held by those best-informed in Straits affairs when the dispute arose.
The opposite case, of which Colonel Low, a Siamese scholar, made himself the chief exponent, is best disposed of by quoting his own admissions in his paper on the question in Vol. Ill of Logan's Journal: — P. He admits that ''no coercion or intimidation was "employed to obtain the cession of Penang in In fact the triennial "bunga mas" remains the sole piece of evidence on which the whole figment has been constructed.
The value of this evidence can be gauged by Colonel Low's own reference p. The bunga mas was no more than a token of inferior pretensions, offered by a second-rate to a first-rate Eastern Power, in the same way as it was formerly offered by Siam to China.
It is clear from many of these passages pp. So also it must be confessed did Mr. Secretary Anderson and the partisans on the other side. The unfairness of this as affecting Captain LiGHT's action is obvious: especially because the strongest argument for his view of the independence of Kedah lay just in the fact that the question of dependence was never raised at all in the early days.
In the later controversy, at a time when the Siamese invasion was pressing and the Dutch power had passed away from the Peninsula, it was forgotten that in the eighteenth century things were different. IV, p. Salang Junk Ceylon ; which was in course of being carried out when "before the troops and ships were made ready, the "war with France in i led to its being neglected.
Macpherson, HASTINGS' successor, " readily accepted Penang, but declined taking Salang" on the two grounds : — i — that " it required a greater force" to keep ; 2 — that " as Goverment required a naval port with a port of commerce, Penang is more favourable than Salang.
It is also certain that when his ships — the Eliza, the Prince Henry and the Speedwell — came to Penang, they went there with the Rajah's full consent and support, though after some opposition from the Laxamana and the Chiefs. Captain Light's Journal shews that the i ith, 1 2th and 13th July, , were spent at Kedah "in embarking the people and provisions" for this expedition. There was nothing secret about it. Once arrived in Penang, he very wisely acted with a sole view to the success and safety of his young Settlement.
His Diary describes the numerous risks incurred in such an undertaking, and shows how piracy, scanty provisions, disease, the hostility of the Dutch in Ma- lacca, the jealousy of Kedah, had to be encountered in turn. One story that has obtained currency perhaps deserves contradiction, for strange to say it is repeated in a Work like Balfour's "Encyclopaedia of India" Vol.
Ill , , published by Bernhard Quaritch: — " Penang. She lived with him to his death, and inherited his house ''Suffolk" and other property. She bore him five children, one of whom at least he took care to bring up in Englandf — Colonel William Light, born in , died This son followed in his father's steps; for it was his pride to be the "Founder of Adelaide.
The success of Captain Light's enterprise in establishing Penang was already clear at the time of his death. Wellesley which is to be found, under date , in Vol. I of Gleig's " Supplementary Despatches. Published in Logan's Journal, Vol. The other domestic facts are also gathered from it and from some Memoranda industriously collected by Mr, F. This destpatch gives no mean tribute to Captain Light's work ; and it deserves to be quoted at some length, for it explains with curious minuteness the policy of the East India Company during the first nineteen years of Penang history.
It is diffi- cult to conceive a better testimony to his work and to the merits of his young Settlement. This Regulation stopping perpetuity grants in favour of five-year leases was to take effect from ist January, When the Resolution arrived he allowed it to be known and stopped issuing grants; but at the same time he informed Mr. YoUNG and others that he would not promulgate it, but would get it rescind- ed: ''well knowing says Mr. YoUNG the publication would instantly stop all further advance," and especially the pep- per-planting near Glugor which he had started in and had done so much to promote.
Before the Resolution could come into force, he had died. But his immediate successor Mr. Mannington took the same view; and on the 22nd August, , "the Governor-General in Council rescinded his Resolu- tion of the 1st August, ," viz. Papers relating to Land Revenue Ad- ministration, published It has since been contended that these Perpetuity Grants were a mistake; but the contemporary evidence points entire- ly the other way.
In any case the blame would fall on his superiors. The responsibility for that policy lies with Sir J. His preference for "perpetuity settlement" may have carried him too far in an old country like Bengal.
But in a new Colony it is the only policy that can succeed ; as was soon made clear at Penang when he left, and when Lord TeigNMOUTH endeavoured to reverse it and adopt restrictive measures. This was frankly admitted in paragraph of Lord Auckland's well-known minute of But this controversy belongs to a later chapter.
The Founder's work was done, and it did not "follow him. His "infant Port," once made a Presidency Government, lay very snugly under the shelter, not only of Penang Hill but of the ''Honourable Court" itself. What the Treaty of Holland effected for the security of Singapore, the recognition given in by this new Commission of Government effected for Penang.
Henceforth experiments could be tried without risking the very life of the Settlement. Some of them suc- ceeded — like that of receiving Indian convicts, and like the "forward policy," which culminated in our occupying Java, and afterwards Singapore. Some of them failed — like the attempts to evacuate Malacca in , and to federate with Acheen in Most of the experiments encountered, as usual, something both of failure and success.
Among these may count the rage for nutmeg-planting, in , and the Honourable Court's attempt to make Penang pay its way by Customs duties and otherwise. No period of its history can better illustrate "the spirit of " British rule even when imperfectly administered" than that in which Captain LIGHT played his part alone. Those first eight years form a truly successful record of what British courage and perseverance, local experience amounting to adroitness, and a large-minded sense of public duty can achieve, even when almost unsupported.
These qualities are shewn by the public records. The inscription to his memory at St. The best part of his life — from to — had been given to this place, and he rests in our old Cemetery. His grave and the brief Inscription on it the first four lines as printed above are well kept. It is only right that his successors should gratefully recall those who came first and bore the hard work of Pioneers ; and should give special honour to so worthy a " Founder," upon the hundredth Anniversary of his Death, A.
They see then in a cursory way something of these English trading places, but in general Dutchmen still know very little of this Col- ony, and of the adjacent Malay Peninsula. I was astonish- ed to see how little of the literature that exists on this sub- ject is to be found in Holland. The influence that for years has spread of its own accord and in a natural way from there to our Colonies, ought not to be under-estimated. To enquire into these influences, to put to a certain extent on a safe footing the relations be- tween both Colonies, is naturally the delicate task of the Dutch Consular Officials in Singapore and Penang, who are, as it were, our advance guards there.
For some years I have been honoured with this trust in Penang. For this reason, I wish this evening, at the solicitation of your Committee, to draw your attention to this interesting part of the English transmarine possessions, in the hope that this lecture may contribute in some degree to increase your interest in these regions, and may perhaps induce you to make a closer investigation into the present condition of things prevailing in the Straits Settlements and in the Ma- lay Peninsula.
I would ask your indulgence for any deficiencies and shortcomings which may be found in this contribution, which had to be compiled from scattered notes. It is English miles long, near Krah 40 miles broad, and further down averages Eng- lish miles in breadth, giving an area of about 75, English square miles, of which 40, are under Siam, and 35, under England, with a population of about one-and-a-half million souls.
The mountain ranges that run through the whole length of the Peninsula are continuations of the mountain land of Further India, chiefly of granite formation, not subject to volcanic influences, and varying in height from 4 to 12 thousand feet.
The highest peaks are in Kedah, Perak and Tringganu. These mountain ranges are bordered on both sides by alluvial plains from 10 to 30 English miles broad, broader as a rule on the West than on the East Coast. The hills are covered with rich forests, in which the wild tribes that live from the chase lead a wandering life ; the plains, with their fertile soil and rich tropical culti- vation, are inhabited by the more stationary population.
The vsdld tribes Negritos , which are but scanty in num- bers, are called Sahais North of the Perak River, and South of that Semangs ; older Malay hill-dwellers are distinguished as Orang Benua. The stationary population consists in the North to the 8th degree North latitude of pure Siamese, between the 7th and 8th degree of latitude they are called Samsams, a mixture of Siamese and Malays, and South of that the population is Malay.
In addition, there are to be found settlements of aliens, chiefly Chinese, Klings and Arabs. Numerous but necessarily small streams, flow from the mountains to both coasts. The Perak and Pahang Rivers are the most considerable and the most navigable.
They have more value for drainage and irrigation purposes than for purposes of communication, and provide the plains with a plentiful supply of water. The mouths of the rivers are, on both coasts, nearly everywhere shallow, and blocked by sand and mud banks. Those on the East coast are, during the whole of the East monsoon, closed to navigation, but on the West coast are generally well protected, and only now and then rendered less secure by heavy short squalls known as " Sumatras.
Tlie land is adapted to nearly every kind of tropical cultivation. In tlie animal kingdom are to be found tlie rhinoceros, the tapir, the elephant, the tiger, the bison, the wild bnll, apes, snakes, etc. Further, a rich variety of birds, fish and splendid butterflies is to be found. The climate is warm and damp, especially on the South, but the nights are very cool. The dry weather of the North-East monsoon prevails from the middle of October to the middle of April, the wet weather of the South- West monsoon during the rest of the year.
The digging of a ship canal through the Isthmus of Krah has been for some years the subject of enquiry and dis- cussion, and was especially a favourite idea of the French. The journey from Europe to Siam and China would thus be shortened by miles. The plan that is now in view of a railway connection between Penang and Singgora is, on the other hand, more in accordance with English ideas. In spite of the fact that its coasts and harbours were from the earliest times visited by navigators and traders, and subsequent to the voyages of discovery by Europeans, more especially by Spaniards, Portuguese, English and Dutch; in spite of the fact that it has repeatedly been the scene of sanguinary conflicts between these nations, as well as between Javanese, Malays, Siamese and Achinese ; in spite of the fact that we Dutch for two and a half centuries were in almost unbroken possession of Malacca, and maintained trading relations with the surrounding States of Selangor, Perak, Kedah, Johor, Junk Ceylon, Patani, Tringganu and Kelantan, where we had factories for shorter or longer periods — in spite of all this, it remained till our own times pretty well a terra incognita.
We have contributed almost nothing to this, and confined ourselves almost ex- clusively to the town of Malacca, where all our Government and trading influence in that district were concentrated. In Malacca itself there was no further extension than was absolutely necessary, and indeed, on many occasions, the interests of Malacca were sacrificed to those of Java.
Tin, pepper, and also gold were already then the most consider- able articles of export, and our efforts were directed to obtain the monojDoly of these in every way. Achinese influeuce was at first great on the Peninsula, so that it was even necessary to obtain the sanction of the Sultan of Acheen to trade either with Perak or Kedah. The role which we played here was not always a brilliant one, as may be seen from an article entitled "The Dutch in Perak," written, for the Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, by the present Acting Governor of the Straits Settlements, Mr.
The proportion of English trade at this period in these parts was small, although they, the indefatigable rivals of the Dutch, also had their factories in many places. In- deed, India took up nearly all their attention, just as Java and the Moluccas did with us. Skixxer writes as follows in his "'British Connections with Malaya" a name first given, a short time ago, on the founding of the above-mentioned Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, to the whole of the countries wLere Malay or one of its related dialects is spoken, viz.
The first expedition of the English against Manila took place in Their fleet had stopped at Penang, and they were struck with the importance of the position of that place. This expedition ended with the occupation of the island of Balambangan, opposite Marudu Bay in North Bor- neo. It was abandoned again in , on account of its un- healthiness. The island of Labuan was then occupied, but was almost immediately abandoned, and in was again taken possession of. The desirability of obtaining some fixed place in or near the Straits of Malacca was the more evident from the cir- cumstance that the trading fortresses in Sumatra, of which Bencoolen, raised in to an independent Presidency, was the capital, were less suited for that purpose.
Acheen was chosen, but the negotiations with the Sultan of that kingdom led to no satisfactory result. Now, Francis Light, of the British India Marine, who was acquainted with the trade of Kedah, came with the proposal to choose for this the island of Penang, which was to be acquired by a payment to the Sultan of Kedah.
It was then a desert, uncultivated, almost uninhabited island, and was only touched at by ships to take water or to wait for good weather. The first Englishman whom we know to have done this was Captain Lancaster of the Bonaventura, who visited Penang in , and the first Dutchman was Cornelis Matelief, who went there in The Straits Government pays up till the present time to him a rent or hire of from 10, to 12, dollars.
For political reasons, the British Government did every- thing in its power to further British influence in these parts, and Penang was the starting point for several expeditions during the great war. In , Malacca was taken from us from there, and other possessions on the West coast of Sumatra came into the hands of the English. In , a second expedition against Manila was prepared. The later expeditions against Java and the Moluccas were also got to- gether and prepared in Penang.
Penang was at first governed in a very irregular way by commercial superintendents. In , it was estabhshed as a Penal Settlement for Indian convicts, and remained so till , the year of the Indian Mutiny. In , it was put under a Lieutenant-Governor, and in was promoted to be a Presidency, but still placed under the East India Com- pany in Bengal. It is natural that Penang, through one thing and another, should become a place of importance as a free port.
Its trade had at once become noticeable as a trading centre for the neighbouring coasts, and it soon not only took the place of Malacca, but the merchants from still more distant places, came to trade in free Penang. Malacca was given back to us by the English in , after they had made agreements with Perak and other States, which made it impossible for us to regain or improve our former position.
KRUYT ON From the beginning, the object and aim of the English in these parts was the overthrow of the trade monopoly of the Dutch, and this was joined to a hatred born of jealousy or ignorance, and a contempt which shows itself in almost all writings of this period. Thus one may read the follow- ing, in a letter of Sir Francis Light, in , from Pe- nang: — "I suspected the Dutch would throw obstacles in "my way.
The contempt and derision however with which "they treat this place and the mean dirij acts they use would ""dishonour any but a Dutchman. In , Singapore was founded by Raffles, after he had been obliged to give back to us Java and the other Dutch possessions. This island, on which the town of Singapore stood in the twelfth century, he had purchased from Johor, which, at the same time, came under English influence and has remained so since.
In , a sort of treaty was made with Acheen, by which England stipulated or got the right to place a Resident in Acheen, and to exclude other European nations from establishing a Settlement there. The English, however, have never carried this treaty out. The remains of this occupation — kept in repair by the English — are to be seen at the present day.
The founding of Sin- gapore is a proof of this enterprising spirit and clear sight. It also neutralized to some extent the surrender of Java to us, an action that, to this day, no Englishman can remember without vexation and remorse.
In a letter in the Eaffles Museum in Singapore, we read the follow- ing on this subject: — "Xot our interests alone have suffered by "this unexpected return of the Dutch to Java but those of "humanity and civilization su:ffer more deeply. They the Dutch "ought to have had some common feeling for humanity, some ob- "ject in view beyond the cold calculations of profit and loss" etc. First Singapore came under the Presidency of Bencoolen; in it came with Penang under the Government of Bengal, and in Peuang, Singapore and Malacca were united as a Presidency with Penang as capital, until , when Singapore, which had developed very rapidly, was appointed the seat of Government as it now is.
However, it was not till 50 years after the English had become masters of the Straits of Malacca that they busied themselves directly with the affairs of the Peninsula. Different forms of Gov- ernment were in use during this interval until 1st April, , when the three Settlements, under the name of the Straits Settle- ments, were separated from British India, and as a Crown Colony, were brought under the direct authority of the mothercountry.
Although during this time the local Government attempted on several occasions to extend its jurisdiction, these plans never met with the sanction or approval of the Home Government, and ac- cordingly the policy of non-intervention in the Malay Peninsula was observed.
The so-called Xaning War, which ended in an ex- tension of the territory of Malacca, formed an exception to this. Naning, one of the Negri Sembilan hereafter mentioned and a real nest of robbers, was then incorporated with Malacca. In view of the fact that the British India Government had to pay the cost of this, and had always, even in ordinary circumstances, to lend the three Settlements pecuniary support, the expenses were limited to what was strictly necessary, and these possessions were left to themselves "to develop on their own resources.
KRUTT 0? In Calcutta, very little was kuown of this portion of the globe. There were incessant attempts made by individuals from the Straits to establish themselves in different points in our territory, just as James Beooke did in Sarawak, especially on the East Cost of Sumatra. These proceedings gave rise to much trouble, and on several occa- sions we were obliged to drive these fortune hunters by force from there. They frequently used as a pretext their ignorance of the boundaries of Acheen.
A new period begun in the history of these places with the es- tablishment of the Straits Settlements as a Crown Colony. We have chosen this evening as a subject for further discussion the re- markable progress which this Colony has enjoyed in the last years, by which it has become the most flourisLing of all the English Crown Colonies, and the almost entirely peaceful growth of its in- fluence upon the Malay Peninsula.
Let us now pass over the five years before the Straits Govern- ment interfered actively and formally with the affairs of the In- dependent Native States, and the policy of non-intervention made way for that of "active advice, assistance and control. Attacks upon vessels under the British flag occurred, and even upon the boats belonging to men-of-war, and upon Bri- tish Settlements. The knowledge that existed regarding the Malay Peninsula was then very small.
The issue of the Journal of the Indian Archi- pelago had contributed somewhat to spread this knowledge, al- though this as well as other writings of this period dealt chiefly with our possessions, but after this publication ceased, nothing more was done during 20 years. Further inland, bordering Malacca, are the so-called Negri Sembilan, now consisting of six States.
Between Malacca and Singapore lies Johor, with a coast line of miles English , and further up the East coast is Pahang. Different agreements with England have given Tringganu, Kelantan and Kedah certain rights to British protection. The state of insecurity mentioned before resulted in several punitive expeditions by men-of-war, but this led to no permanent improvement. In , on account of piracies and other acts of violence, the expedition from Langat took place, and in and , those at other places on the Jugra Eiver in Selangor.
In five large districts, of which it then consisted, great discord, civil war, and anarchy reigned. The liasil was here, in general, the origin of disputes. The same condition of things prevailed in Sungei UjoEg which was also mixed up in these quarrels, and was, in addition continually at war with Eembau. Both of these States border up- on the territory of Malacca. Linggi was also in a state of inse- curity; also the more inland States, particularly Jelebu, Sri Me- nanti and Muar, were constantly in a state of arms against one another.
The Chinese tin-miners in Perak, who had immigrated by thou- sands to different parts of the Peninsula, were especially the cause of great disorder; their tribes or hongsis had been for years in conflict with one another, with varying success, over the question of the possession of the tin mines.
The Prince of Perak and his Chieftains had taken sides in the matter ; with them the question was who should appropriate the export duties. Thus the Mantri of Larut, then the richest tin district, where about 40, Chinese of the Go Kwan tribe lived, had declared himself, in , in favour of these, and, by appropriating the rich revenues, had been able to make himself independent of the Sultan, who, in the inte- rior had allied himself with the more warlike Si Kwans.
Battles in which, it is said, that more than 3, Go Kwans perished, brought the Si Kwans into Larut; they took possession of the forts and of the river; robbery, murder and assassination became the order of the day, and a general cessation of business and flight of population ensued. The Mantri who, among others, had English Officers in his service, was a prisoner in his own country and found himself shut in on all sides at Kotah, the then Capital.
When these Si Kwans had been insolent enough to extend their devastations and plunderings beyond Perak, and even in Penang and its harbour attacks and hong si fights occurred, in , their fortifications were taken and destroyed by the English under Cap- tain WooLCOMBE, and the Mantri came again into possession of his river. Thanks to the influence of the Straits Government, the only orderly State being situated in the immediate neighbourhood of Singapore was Johor.
Their secret societies would be a danger to the British Settlements, and the inland Chiefs were quite unable to control them and to keep them under. Indeed, the Chinese were beginning themselves to have enough of it, and it only required a strong leading and organising hand to settle the existing differences.
One of their Chief s was heard to exclaim at this time: — "When the " British flag is seen over Perak and Larut, every Chinaman will "go down on his knees and bless God. Now an attempt had to be made to settle the differences of the Malay Chiefs in Perak. They too all came to Pangkor and their mutual relations towards one another and towards England were defined by the Treaty of Pangkor of the 25th January, By it Perak came under English protection, a piece of land in Perak on the other side of the Krian Eiver was joined to the Province, and the Binding Islands and a piece of the mainland on the Pang- kor Eiver under the name of the "Bindings" were joined to Pangkor, where now for the first time an English Settlement was established, at first under the authorities at Singapore, and after- wards and now under Penang.
The different States had to pay the cost of the former armed interference. At the request of the Sultan of Perak, the Straits Government sent a Eesident there in to lend the Native Government "active advice and assistance. These Eesidents were placed, and are still under the supervision and guidance of the Governor of the Straits, and are responsible to him. Meanwhile it was soon evident that this settlement with the Chiefs of Perak was only satisfactory on the surface.
Bircf, was treach- erously murdered, and the whole of Upper Perak rose against the English. The British Grovernment was compelled to send an im- portant expedition there in order to punish this crime and to res- tore order in the country. The Sultan was taken prisoner and banished, and another was appointed in his place.
As there were at the same time appearances of disorder in Sungei Ujong and the Negri Sembilan, it was not till that it can be said that quiet and order returned to all these countries. It was then that the rapid development in progress and well-be- ing began, which has never since been disturbed by any resort to arms.
In , the then Governor Sir Eeederick Weld, after various preliminary discussions, induced the so-called Negri Sembilan to enter into an agreement and to place the Government under the protection and guidance of the Straits Government represented by a Resident. This was first carried into execution in The iudependent State of Pahang, situated to the North of Sin- gapore, refused stubbornly, till, , to enter into a treaty with the Straits Government.
The misgovernment and insecurity that prevailed there formed a marked contrast to the condition of things in the neighbouring State of Johor. On several occasions the re- lations between Pahang and Singapore itself were very strained, and the interference of France was once spoken of.
However that may be, Pahang acknowledged the sovereignty of England in and signed an agreement similar to that of Johor, which, in , had come definitely under British influence. In , serious disturbances took place in Pahang, which had every appearance of insurrection against the English, and led to the so-called Pahang war, which ended in the restoration of the former order of things. It is remarkable that almost exclusively Perak Police was employed against Pahang.
There came no change in the relations with Tringganu and Ke- Jantan. This, in view of the exist- ing ex-territorial rights, gives them great power over the thousands of Natives who call themselves British subjects, and at the same time over those States themselves, and, in my opinion, prepares the way for future annexation In , England established herself in the Eastern portion of New Guinea.
In , she took possession of the Cocos or Keel- ing Islands to the South of Java, which were joined to the Straits and in of Christmas Island, which is also situated in the In- dian Ocean. It is my pleasant duty to add here that the Straits authorities have always maintained a most considerate and friendly attitude towards us, especially during the Achinese war. Let us now return to the Colony as it now is. It is impossible for any one who travels now through the Protected States of the Malay Peninsula and sees everywhere the outward signs of civili- zation and meets with an industrious, contented population, to pic- ture to himself what their condition was a short time ago under the Native G-overnment.
Without any military assistance, the Residents have been able to bring their residencies to a flourish- ing condition and continual progress. Surrounded by a staff of able Europeans and Natives, they formed part of the legislative and executive power, the State Council, or rather, with their powerful personality, they alone represented it. Indeed the arti- cles of the above-mentioned Pangkor Treaty left great power to the discretion of these Residents, whose advice had to be sought and followed by the Princes in all questions which did not affect religion and custom, while the collection and control of the reve- nues, as well as the general government of the land, depended upon their advice.
They were responsible for everything to the G-overnor of the Straits. The Officer is told he is responsible for " everything, but he is not to interfere in details. His advice must " be followed, but he must not attempt to enforce it, and so on. Out of this difficult position has grown the present ''administration. They took measures to further and extend trade, cultivation and indus- try, and to develop the resources of the country, to maintain order and justice, to facilitate communication by roads, railways and telegraph, and to improve the education and instruction, and thus the material and moral condition of the people.
Sixteen years ago there was almost no roads : one had to travel on foot or by elephant, armed, and generally accompanied by an armed escort, and to take shelter in the best native house one could find. The whole population went about armed. Now there are everywhere to be found in all the States broad, hard, carriage roads, railways, and free Grovernment buildings, schools, hospitals and police stations, and these like all other works of evident utility are being continually extended.
The population has in- creased, and security reigns everywhere. Slavery and bondage have completely disappeared, while it was calculated that even in , one-sixteenth of the population was still in slavery Armed Natives are now never seen. The development of the Protected and Native States was natu- rally accompanied by increased prosperity and progress in Penang and Singapore This was enhanced by the contemporaneous suc- cess of the Deli tobacco cultivation, the improvement in the tin- mining industry and land cultivation on the example of its neigh- bours, in Kedah and other small Northern States tributary to Siam.
What Singapore now is many of us know from our own observa- tion. It stands in commercial importance on the same footing as Malta and Hongkong, and surpasses all the ports of the other Crown Colonies in importanc3. As the seat of Gov- ernment, and a strongly fortified " coaling station" — ships take in in JSTew Harbour from 1, to 1, tons of coal in four hours — it forms one of the most strategical points of the English, on the great highway of traffic between Europe, "British India, and East Asia.
It may be seen from the following figures how greatly it has grown : — The population of the town and island, 27 miles broad and 14 miles long, amounted in to Malays, in to nearly 5, souls, in to nearly , and in to , The shipping wdthout counting the numerous Native coast ves- sels, amounted in earlier figures are not at my disposal to 4, ships with a tonnage of three millions, and in to 8, ships with a tonnage of nearly seven millions.
Penang, which also profited from the development of the coun- tries in her neighbourhood, increased as much in size, prosperity and well-being. The population of the town and island, 15 miles long and 9 miles broad, amounted, with Province Wellesley, in to Malays, in to 27,, in to ,, and in to , inhabitants.
The amount of imports and exports was in ,, in ,,, and in ,, The shipping rose from 1, ships with a tonnage of , in , to 3, ships with a tonnage of 1,, m , and 6, ships with a tonnage of 3,, in This complaint has several times been made to the English Grovernment by Penang agitators, and unfortunately has been supported by some of the authorities. It was thrown upon its own resources, and made but slow progress. KRUTT ON The development of the Negri Sembilan and of Paliang by the construction of a railway will probably result to her advantage, in view of the fact that there are no good ports in Pahang Its popu- lation in was 20,, in , 77,, and was in , 92, The shipping consisted in of 1, ships, with a tonnage of ,, and was improving somewhat, but not much.
Although Penang and Singapore thus took an important position, the Protected Native States afforded a no less remarkable spectacle of progress. Let us begin with Perak. Its population was at first estimated at very different figures, but we may take it that, without counting the wild tribes living in the forests and which were reckoned to comprise 6, souls, the Malay population amounted to from 25, to 50,, to which later 40, Chinese were to be added.
In , this had risen to ,, of which , were Malays. The export duties upon tin are very high, and amount to from 12 to 15 per cent. There seems to be an inexhaustible supply of this metal. More than two-thirds of the tin of the whole world comes from the Straits. The output amounted in to , pikuls, repre- senting a value of about 24 million dollars. It possesses among other things an excel- lent little force of 1, Sikh soldiers under English Officers.
Eour hundred of these, almost unaided, brought the Pahang war to an end. On receiving sudden orders, they were, in the space of one hour, ready for marching, and remained four months in the wilds of Pahang, without one of them having to be sent back during that time on account of illness. The figure for export and import was in one-and-a-half million dollars, ten years later, m , fifteen, and in it had risen to 18i millions. Both of these are the termini of the existing railways to the tin districts.
The duties upon tin and the farms contributed chiefly to this. Gold mine workiogs are also found here, and more agricul- ture than in Perak. It is for this reason that the economical con- dition of this country is supposed to be healthier than that of Perak. Trade here increased in the same proportion, and you find here in other respects the same favourable state of things as in Perak.
The port of Selangor is Klang, the terminus of the railway to the capital of the country, Kuala Lumpur, which is situated inland. The Klang Hiver is shallow higher up, and there is for this reason a proposal to extend the railway to the Kuala, and to make a new port there. Of fSungei Ujoug and the Negri Sembilan, with respective po- pulations of 24 and 40 thousand the latter having come so much later under British protection , there is not much to say, except that, with the construction of railways and roads, by the help of advances from the Straits Government, the exploiting of tin and agriculture promises them especially the last mentioned a good future.
Jelebu, one of the Negri Sembilan, which is rich in tin mines, was, in , joined to Sungei Ujong, which possesses little mineral wealth, and is thus thrown more upon agriculture. The port of Sungei Ujong is Port Dickson, with a splendid and safe harbour, from which a railway leads to the capital — Seram- ban.
On the 1st of January, , it owed P80, to the Colony. They are thus just begin- ning, but are on the right way. It remains only to mention Johor. Chinese capital and labour have been attracted there and have brought it to a state of great prosperity and wealth, especially through the cultivation of pepper, gambler and tapioca, as minerals are not found there.
The Sultan stays a good deal in Europe, and returned a short time ago from England. I can add here that the Chinese, who have done everything un- der British guidance, and still do so, are the pioneers of progress in the Malay Peninsula and in the Settlements.
Sir Chaeles Dil- KE says of this in his "Problems of Greater Britain": — "Our great "' success in the Malay Peninsula has lain in enlisting upon our " side the warm and ever enthusiastic co-operation of the Chinese. There can be no doubt as to the future of the Malay Peninsula, outside the towns of Penang and Singapore, under an enlightened and liberal-minded Government.
However, considerable experiments have been made in the cultiva- tion of rice, pepper, sugar, tapioca, gambler, tobacco, coffee, tea, cocoa, etc. This can be said of the islands of Singapore and Penang, and of the districts in their im- mediate neighbourhood — the Province, Malacca, Johor and Kedah — as regards sugar, pepper, gambler and tapioca; in Perak too the cultivation of sugar may be regarded as permanent, but the Straits planters have much to learn from Java as regards cheap and in- creased production.
Cheap transport, local markets, and a low rate of exchange are factors in their favour. Arabian and especially Liberian coffee has been started in all the States. Pepper is planted everywhere on a small scale; tapioca grows especially in Sungei Ujong and the Kegri Senibilan. Experiments with silk worm binding have been made in Perak, and are said to have given good results.
Experiments with tobacco, on the other hand, have not been successful. Coco-nuts, betel-nuts, fruits, especially pine- apples, the preserving of which has become a considerable industry, and vegetables are cultivated everywhere and supply chiejfly local requirements.
In the Straits Settlements, one-third is cultivated, and in the Native States scarcely one two-hundredth part. There is thus an abundance of waste land waiting to be developed by capital and enterprise. The Goverument does its best to encourage this, being convinced of the desirability of obtaining a more permanent form of revenue from agriculture, in view of the uncertainty of tin, the supply of which must some time be exhausted. This has already happened, for instance, in Larut. The income from the opium farm is also dependent upon the tin mines.
Land can be obtained everywhere. The first pioneers in the Native States received pieces of land of 1, acres one acre- is about If houws quite free. Those who came later paid a rent of 20 cents an acre after the second year, for opening up the land, or three dollars per acre at once, which made them owners of the land.
The population of the English part was in , , for the three Settlements; for the Native States with Johor ,; thus about 1,, in all. The area of the three Settlements is 1, English square miles, and of the Protected States 35, square miles. There are thus in the three Settlements, counting the towns of course, nearly , and in the States only 15 inhabitants to the English square mile.
From this it may be seen that the Malay Peninsula is thinly in- habited, and but little cultivated. By far the largest proportion of this population consists of Chinese, who live at the mines, in the cultivated districts, and especially in the towns along the coasts. Fishing is practised by them on a large scale, and is an important means of existence, and a considerable branch of industry. Malays live further away from the towns, and supply, just, as in Deli, the daily necessities of the industrial centres, among others ataps and other building materials for the East coast of Sumatra.
KEUTT ON dustry, while formerly jungle produce was collected and exported by them on such a large scale that it degenerated into depredation. In Perak, for instance, the export of gutta had to be forbidden to prevent the further destruction of the gum trees. In Perak and Kedah there is an old population settled there centuries before Europeans came. In Selangor and Sungei Ujong, and especially in the Negri Sembilan, much younger settlements are to be found.
Two-thirds of the Malay population of these States were originally Nether- lands Indian subjects. In the beginning of the 18th century a set- tlement of Bugis from Goa in Celebes established themselves in Selangor. The Groverument accordingly spares no pains to meet the planter and assist him in this respect. However, as long as the tin mines last, the Chinese will prefer that kind of work, just as is the case with tobacco on the East coast of Sumatra.
The Grovernment of the Straits Settlements depends directly, as we have seen, upon the Mother-country, and is carried on by a Governor appointed by the Queen, supported by a Legislative and Executive Council. The majority of the members of the Legisla- tive Council — the ''Official members" — are so by virtue of their position. They form the Executive Council. The unofficial mem- bers, who form the minority, are private individuals, and are partly nominated by the Government and partly elected by the Chambers of Commerce.
All bills, all important Government measures, as well as the budget, are laid before the Council and dealt with, and must, after approval, be sanctioned by the Government of the Mother-country; although the official members nearly always vote with the Government, and the opposition can thus have but little influence in any other direction, still its existence has this indis- putable advantage, that all Government matters are treated, dis- cussed and decided upon publicly, and this compels the Govern- ment to consider carefully what it brings forward, and abstain from everything that will not stand the test of publicity.
Young officials, after passing an examination in England, are sent out as "Cadets" to the Straits, and are there employed in most of the Government positions, except legal, military, and some technical ones. The Judges come from other places. The Colony pays a fixed contribution towards the support of the garrison of the Straits which belongs to the English army The men-of-war of the China squadron visit from time to time different parts of the Colony, whenever it is necessary or desirable.
The excellently organized Police, with European officers and staff, consists of Europeans,. Sikhs, and Malays, and fulfils ail requirements. In Penang and Malacca, the Government is represented by Ee- sident Councillors, and though the Governor occupies this place in Singapore, affairs are usually managed, to a certain extent, by the Colonial Secretary, who is the highest official after the Governor.
Under these are Magistrates, Collectors and District Officers, who with all others except the Municipal officials are nominated by the Governor. One-half of its members are appointed by the Governor, and the other h ilf elected by the voting members of the com- munity. The officials in the Native States are appointed by the Sultan after consultation with the Eesident. The budgets and laws in these States have to be sanctioned only by the Governor. The Police are under the direct orders of the Resident.
At the end of , the Colony possessed a surplus of two and a quarter million dollars of which, it had but one-and-a-half million as advances to Municipal bodies and Native States. KEUYT ON sions where also changes in administrative matters, and decentra- lisation are being prepared a remarkable instance although upon a small scale, of administrative and financial decentralisation which works successfully — a central Government with central revenues and budget for the whole Colony, with tliree Municipal adminis- trations for Singapore, Penang and Malacca, and the five separate Governments of the Protected States, besides the State of Johor, which is independent as regards administration and where every- thiug also goes as well as one can wish.
Still neither here all is perfect, and complaints occur. The Settlements complain that the Protected States do not contribute directly to the Colonial Treasury, although they enjoy the advan- tages which are derived from the order of things that has been called into existence through the agency of the Straits Settlements.
This is still less the case with Johor. It is probable that these States will, after some time, either be incorporated in the Colony, or will form with it a federation. Circumstances, too, such as the recent complications between France and Siam, may soon lead the way which is already prepared to the annexation of the Siamese Malay States, from Kedah to Mergui and Tringganu with Kelantan all of which are rich in gold and lead.
Out of the central revenues are paid the expenses for salaries and pen- sions of officials, the cost of the military garrison, the expenses of Justice and Police, the medical service, education, harbours, coast lights and beacons, roads and bridges outside the Municipality, gaols, hospitals, schools, Government buildings, Colonial vessels, etc.
Penang pretends that Singapore, the lion town, also gets the lion's share, much m. Thence in Penang a cry for Home E-ule. It may be seen from this, that however much decentralisation there may be there will be always parts which consider themselves placed in a disadvantageous position with others.
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