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As regards the transposition of directives, infringement procedures for non-communication were launched, mainly in relation to the automotive, pharmaceutical and cosmetic sectors. Concerning the other cases non-conformity, incorrect application and contraventions of Articles EC , complaints made by citizens and economic operators continued to be the most important source of information for monitoring the application of Community law.

In accordance with its obligations, the Commission tried find a solution to each complaint made in the shortest possible time. However, due to deadlines and available resources, the Commission had often to deal with the complaints in order of their date of registration.

The others related to non-conformity of national transposition measures with directives 16 and to incorrect application In , complaint cases were closed after the Member States removed the obstacle in question. Cooperation with the Member States was improved in the early stages of investigations in order to try to solve the alleged problem without launching article EC proceedings. The Commission often sent administrative letters to the Member States asking for clarification and information.

In general, the Member States cooperated with the Commission and respected the deadlines set. Moreover, the Commission uses other instruments e. In this sector, the Commission monitored in particular the transposition of directives whose deadlines for transposition were due in The directives in the automotive sector contain a multitude of detailed technical specifications for different vehicle systems and components and they are frequently modified to adapt them to technical progress.

They are highly prescriptive and confer minimal discretion on the Member States. Accordingly many Member States implemented them in national law by reference or simply by repeating the text of the directive in national law. During the year, infringement proceedings were launched. All stemmed from non-communication of measures transposing EC Directives into national legislation.

Of these, 81 cases were closed after national implementation measures were notified by the Member States. It is interesting to note that the split between the EU and the EU Member States was 59 and 54 cases respectively. The task of the group is to develop the common implementing guidance necessary for uniform implementation of the legislation in the Member States. The most important meeting was the regular meeting of the heads of the medicines agencies. Several complaints were received from economic operators and compliance with the procedural requirements of the directive was investigated.

The Commission sent reasoned opinions to four Member States which, in the Commission's view, had not complied non-conformity with the transparency rules of the directive Austria, Czech Republic, Italy and Spain. The Transparency Committee convened in November to discuss the application and interpretation of the directive.

In , three cases for non-communication of national measures transposing medical devices directives were closed by the Commission. By the end of , 8 of those Member States had communicated the national measures. The deadlines for transposition of the other directives passed in December Luxembourg, Austria, Slovenia and Finland had not communicated the relevant measures by the end of Member States were reminded of their obligations to communicate the measures that they had adopted for the implementation of these regulations.

Following this exercise, the Commission launched infringement procedures for non- communication of national measures concerning. By the end of only Luxembourg and France, The Netherlands and Italy had still not communicated the measures needed for the proper implementation of these Regulations. In this context, the Commission sent letters to four Member States concerning the setting up of an authority for the verification of GLP.

At the end of the year, 2 Member States had made progress toward setting up an authority. In the majority of cases no important problems were found. However, this study will be an opportunity for the Commission to contact Member States with a view to resolving problems brought to light by the study. Working group meetings for the various legislation are organised on a regular basis. At these meetings the competent authorities of Member States discuss problems in the implementation of the directives and regulations.

As a result possible incorrect implementation of directives and regulations can be avoided. Late payment and long payment periods impede the development, competitiveness and profitability of SMEs, and even endanger their survival, so tackling these problems is a priority for the European Commission.

Therefore, the rest of the rules which appear in the Directive were still governed exclusively by the national legal orders of the Member States. Letters asking for further information were sent to the Member States concerned. The Court of Justice held that a product must be considered as having been put into circulation, within the meaning of Article 11 of the Directive, when it leaves the production process operated by the producer and enters a marketing process in the form in which it is offered to the public to be used or consumed.

In accordance with Article 21 of the Directive, on 14 September the Commission published the third report on the application of the Directive[34]. The overall conclusions were that the Directive works satisfactorily and that there is no need for amendment at present. Infringement procedures for non communication against Latvia, Malta, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia, Sweden and the United Kingdom were closed, following notification of national implementing measures. The problem relates to obstacles to the free movement of industrial dry-cleaning machinery.

In addition during , the Commission paid special attention to the risks of incorrect application and organised two Standing Committee meetings on the deficient application of the directive detected in some Member States.

Bilateral contact with these Member States will be strengthened. The Commission also dealt with complaints relating to additional requirements for pressure equipment and some obstacles to the putting into service of gas appliances. The Commission also dealt with cases on additional requirements for the use of some construction products in some Member States.

Turkey considerably stepped up its participation in the simplified procedure and sent 19 notifications pursuant to the rules implementing the final phase of the Customs Union between the EC and Turkey. The new Member States also played an active part in the process, notifying draft texts. The sectors with most notifications were construction products, food and agricultural products, machinery, telecommunication and transport.

Particularly sensitive were notifications in the gaming industry sector, concerning the ban on certain chemical substances e. Deca-BDE, mercury , regarding animal welfare e. During , a large number of notifications concerned national measures transposing Community directives which also contained provisions which are not harmonised e. This allowed the Commission services to verify ex ante whether a Community act would be correctly transposed and to begin a productive dialogue within a non-contentious framework.

The Commission issued 59 detailed opinions and observations in response to drafts notified in , while the Member States issued 46 detailed opinions and observations. The Commission also blocked the adoption of 1 notified text for 12 months because it concerned a field covered by a proposal for harmonisation at Community level. The Member States have already replied to a very large number of detailed opinions and comments, proving that a real dialogue has been established between the Commission and the Member States as well as among the Member States.

Several replies received were satisfactory which means that the creation of new obstacles in various sectors was prevented e. The Commission did not only examine the compatibility of the notified texts with Community law but also formulated comments, when necessary, regarding their quality in terms of clarity, accessibility, effectiveness and avoidance of unnecessary burdens for economic operators. At the end of , 9 complaints for incorrect application were under scrutiny, while 7 were closed after the Member States concerned remedied their failures to fulfil their obligations.

Transparency is one of the key objectives of the notification procedure. On the TRIS-website[37] where all notified texts are publicly available, around , searches were carried out. The number of interested parties who have subscribed to a mailing list in order to be alerted to new notifications has increased to In many cases, professional organisations and individual enterprises, including several SMEs, submitted comments on notified texts and thus helped the Commission formulate its position.

Discussions were held with the Member States concerned to remedy the procedural error. In one case, however, concerning a law on online gaming, infringement proceedings were opened. The information procedure is facilitating an open dialogue among the Member States, and between them and the Commission. In , the Standards and Technical Regulations Committee met three times and four Member States Czech Republic, Hungary, Sweden and Slovak Republic organized seminars on the functioning of the notification procedure with the participation of their national administrations, the Commission services and, at the seminar in Bratislava, Bulgaria and Romania.

In the Commission continued handling complaints and infringements cases in various non-harmonised fields of goods, ranging from the registration of second-hand cars to the parallel importation of medicinal products and pesticides. By the end of the year, 78 active cases had been closed and some 95 complaints and infringement proceedings were ongoing.

In contrast with , the volume of new complaints registered declined in The amount of closures in was higher than in The number of open infringement proceedings on alleged breaches of Articles EC has therefore decreased. This development seems to be mainly due to successful negotiations with Member States in a number of cases.

Some cases were closed because no infringement of EC law was established or because the apparent restriction to free movement of goods was considered justified for reasons of general interest, such as the protection of public health, environment or public policy. Some problems required co-ordinated action against more than one Member State. For instance, obstacles to the importation of gaming machines where the Commission pursued infringement proceedings against Sweden and Greece as well as investigating a case against Italy.

To facilitate the authorisation procedure for parallel imports of medicinal products and plant protection products, the Commission brought infringement proceedings against Austria, Denmark, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom. Following the issue of reasoned opinions, Member States amended their legislation in a number of cases, including the following:. In addition, some judgments of the Court of Justice in infringement proceedings further clarified the scope of Articles 28 to 30 of the EC Treaty:.

During , the Commission also continued to screen the national legislation of the accession and candidate countries in the non-harmonised field of the free movement of goods. In competition policy, the priorities in were monitoring the transposal of the Directive on competition in the markets for electronic communications and the transparency Directive both of which are based on Article 86 EC.

As regards individual cases, the Commission handled several complaints relating to Article 86 combined with Article 82 EC, complaints relating to Article 31 and investigated infringements of Article 21 of the Merger Regulation. Since then, there have been significant developments in the case.

In November , three of the four yards were transferred through an open and transparent procedure. In the light of the measures adopted by Spain, further action under Article 2 EC was suspended and the liquidation of the pending yard is being monitored closely so as to ensure the correct implementation of the recovery decision.

On 12 December the Commission sent a letter of formal notice to Italy for failing to comply with a judgment of the ECJ[49] condemning Italy for the non execution of the Commission's recovery decision[50]. The Commission considered that Italy had not taken the necessary measures to recover the incompatible aid, and moreover it had not been informed of the measures adopted nor of the amounts recovered. The reply to the letter of formal notice is due by February In the area of digital broadcasting, following a complaint by the Italian consumer association Altroconsumo , the Commission is currently investigating whether the Italian legislation regulating digital switchover could introduce restrictions on broadcasters and grant competitive advantages to existing analogue operators, contrary to the Competition Directive.

The Directives relating to competition policy are based on Article 86 3 EC. In the field of electronic communications, the Competition Directive[51] of lays down the fundamental obligations arising from the Treaty which Member States must comply with as regards sectoral law.

Under its obligation to ensure compliance with Community law, the Commission pursued in the proceedings opened against Member States that had not yet transposed or inadequately transposed the Directive, or that did not implement it correctly. Following the judgments delivered on 14 April and 16 June against Greece and Luxembourg for failing to transpose the Competition Directive, a complementary letter of formal notice and a reasoned opinion were addressed to Greece[52] and a complementary reasoned opinion was addressed to Luxembourg[53] with a view to referring them to the Court of Justice a second time under Article CE.

Despite this obligation a state-owned company benefits from exclusive rights for providing access control services in the Swedish market for digital terrestrial broadcasting transmission services. Under the same Directive Hungary had to abolish all restrictions for providing broadcasting transmission services by 1 May However, Hungary has not yet abolished the Media Act provisions limiting the rights of cable operators to provide broadcasting transmission services.

In the field of free movement of workers, the Commission deals with problems linked to an incorrect application of the relevant provisions of the EC Treaty and of regulations existing in that area. These problems are brought to the attention of the Commission through individual complaints from citizens, petitions and written Parliamentary questions.

The Commission also verifies application of the preliminary rulings of the Court in this field. In other areas of activity, such as labour law, health and safety at the workplace, anti-discrimination and equal treatment the Commission mostly deals with problems related to the non-conformity and non-communication of national measures transposing the directives applicable. An important number of previously opened procedures have been continued.

In the field of social security, one example concerns a number of benefits for disabled persons. These procedures are still on-going. As regards free movement of workers, the majority of the ongoing procedures concerns issues linked to the public sector.

In the past, the Commission proceeded with numerous infringements concerning the existence of nationality clauses in access to posts in the public sector. Currently this problem seems to be reduced and only a few procedures are still open on this point. In the Commission focused on the issue of the recognition of previous professional experience acquired in one Member State for the purpose of access to the public sector as well as for determining the professional advantages in another Member State.

Considerable progress was achieved in the framework of these procedures. Two judgements of the Court of Justice were delivered in in the framework of infringement procedures against Spain[59] and Italy[60] on this issue. The Commission carried out also a systematic review of the legislations of all Member States following two preliminary judgments of the ECJ[61] regarding the nationality condition for posts of master and chief mate of merchant ships where the prerogatives of public authority are exercised by private sector workers.

In this respect, 14 infringement procedures were ongoing in The Commission decided to refer the case against France to the Court of Justice[62]. Furthermore, the Commission ensures a follow-up of preliminary rulings in cases Gattoussi[63] and Burbaud[64].

The Commission controls also the execution of the two judgments[65] concerning the car registration tax in Denmark and in Finland imposed on company cars used by frontier workers resident in these two respective counties and working in another Member States. The case against Denmark could be finally closed in Other open procedures concern cases of direct or indirect discriminations of migrant workers and the issue of the application of free movement rules to the sport's activities.

The pending case against Ireland[75] will be closed subsequently in further to communication of the necessary national transposition measures. The case against Estonia[81] will subsequently be withdrawn in as the necessary transposition measures were adopted and notified in the mean time. Having adopted the necessary national transposition measures following the notification of a reasoned opinion, the case against Finland could already be closed, whereas the case against Greece will be closed in due course.

As regards problems of non-conformity of the national transposition measures of Directives in the area of labour law a number of proceedings already in progress continued. The proceeding for wrong application initiated against Germany[89], which continued under Article EC could however be closed, the necessary measures to conform to the judgment of the European Court of Justice and thus transposing correctly the Directive having been adopted in the mean time.

A reasoned opinion was sent to Austria, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg and United Kingdom the case against Ireland and the United Kingdom were closed when they adopted the necessary national transposition measures. The cases against Austria[98] and Germany[99] were referred to the Court of Justice. In the case against Austria[], the Court of Justice delivered its judgment, and a proceeding under Article EC was prepared.

In the case against Sweden[], concerning the definition of capabilities and aptitudes of persons designated to carry out activities related to protection against and prevention of occupational hazards, the Court dismissed the action of the Commission. The previous infringements against Germany, Finland and Austria for non-communication were therefore closed, as will be the one against Luxembourg. The UK, Sweden, France and Belgium took advantage of the extended deadline December to transpose the Directive's provisions on age and disability discrimination.

A reasoned opinion was sent to Greece for incorrect transposition of the same Directive. The Commission decided to refer Italy to the Court of Justice for a case concerning different pension ages for men 65 and women 60 in the public sector[]. A reasoned opinion was sent to Greece on a similar case involving differences of treatment between men and women in public sector pension schemes.

In the area of agriculture, monitoring the application of Community law concentrates on two main objectives: removing barriers to the free movement of agricultural produce and ensuring that the more specific mechanisms of the agricultural regulations are applied effectively and correctly. The objective of removing the traditional barriers to free movement of agricultural produce was further pursued: following the judgment of the Court[] the Commission addressed a reasoned opinion to France concerning the prohibition to market shallots grown from seeds under the denomination "shallots" although they are so produced and marketed under that name in other Member States.

The French authorities reserve the trade designation "shallot" for vegetables produced by vegetative propagation and products not satisfying their criteria can circulate only under another denomination. Therefore, instead of dealing with the question of consumer protection by way of neutral and objective labelling as envisaged by the Court, the French authorities maintained a barrier to trade contrary to Article 28 of the EC Treaty. The Portuguese authorities have been invited by the Commission to take necessary measures to comply with this judgement.

In view of Luxembourg's failure to comply with the above judgment in due time, the Commission launched proceedings under Article of the EC Treaty and communicated a letter of formal notice to Luxembourg. A letter of formal notice regarding the failure to submit annual aid reports for the subsequent years i.

In , DG TREN Energy and Transport treated infringement cases, of which concerned the failure to notify national transposition measures of directives and related to the incorrect transposition of directives or the incorrect application of Community law.

There was a slight increase in the number of infringement cases new infringement cases were opened, including for failure to notify, 47 complaints were registered despite the significant number of cases closed during the same period , of which for failure to notify.

The reason was mainly the slow transposition of directives as the Member States often fail to comply with the transposition deadlines. This specific trend can be explained by the efforts made by DG TREN departments in checking the compliance of national measures transposing directives, which led to large number of letters of formal notice 91 and reasoned opinions 53 sent out in non-compliance cases.

In , the percentage of Energy Directives implemented remained stable at The activity focused in on the proper transposition of the gas and electricity directives implementing the internal market for gas and electricity. These directives are essential to develop a genuine and competitive energy market in Europe. The European legislation must therefore be properly transposed into national legislation to enable the markets to operate and to ensure that they are effectively opened up for all consumers on 1 July The Commission has made the completion of the internal market in electricity and gas one of the six priority areas of the strategy for sustainable, competitive and secure energy adopted in March The Member States are currently opening up their markets in such different ways that the development of a genuinely competitive European market is being hampered.

The Commission is thereby pursuing its firm action to monitor the implementation of the legislation on the internal market in energy and to carry out a detailed examination of whether the basic legal frameworks set up by the Member States are in conformity with the gas and electricity directives.

In only two cases, Finland for electricity and Austria for gas, the arguments put forward by the Member States were satisfactory on all issues and enabled the Commission to close the case. For the remaining 26 procedures, 19 alleged grounds for infringement were dropped.

The vast majority, 58, remains. In addition, letters on formal notice were sent to Portugal and Slovenia in June and to Hungary in October for the wrong transposition of the electricity directive. During its examination of the conformity of the national legislations, the Commission focused in particular on those aspects which form the principal elements of market regulation and guarantee competition. These are: the extent to which the markets are opened up, a real possibility of changing supplier, and the emergence of new market entrants with non-discriminatory access guaranteed by strong, independent regulators.

The main deficiencies observed in transposition of the new internal market directives are the following:. In addition to the conformity checks, the procedures for non communication of transposition measures launched in led to the ECJ to state against:. Some Member States reported maintaining stocks levels below the compulsory minima. In addition to sending a number of letters of formal notice motivated by insufficient stocks levels, the Commission also decided to address reasoned opinions to Cyprus and Belgium for the same reason.

In other cases, Member States did not submit statistical summaries on their level of stocks on a monthly basis within the delay stipulated under the legislation or submitted non compliant statistics, which notably caused the Commission to issue reasoned opinions to Greece and Netherlands. New breaches, related to lack of conformity problems, were spotted in the course of the year and led to dialogues with the concerned Member States.

Several cases may result in the opening of new infringement procedures in The purpose of this Directive on the promotion of the electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the international electricity market is to promote an increase of the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Out of a total of 35 cases that were dealt with in 25 of which were opened in the same period , 21 cases could be closed by the end of the year.

Member States must report biannually , etc to the Commission on measures taken to promote the use of renewable energy sources. Infringement proceedings were initiated against all the Member States who had failed to report by 27 October All 17 cases which were opened in due to the non-communication of biannual reports were closed during the year, following submission of the reports. The open infringement cases on incorrect application of Community law are mainly based on the breach or incomplete transposition of several Articles of the Directive, such as on guarantees of origin, on simplification of administrative procedures on access to grid.

Biofuels have an important role to play in European transport and energy policy because they are one of the few options available for replacing petrol and diesel as transport fuels. Out of 44 open cases in , 11 were opened during the year and by the end of the year, 28 had been closed and in three cases the Court application was withdrawn. Nine of these cases were opened due to the submission of incomplete reports. Before 1st July each year, Member States must report to the Commission on measures taken to promote the use of biofuels or other renewable.

Infringement proceedings were initiated against the Member States who failed to report by 1 July in , and During , 14 cases were closed, in three cases the Court application was withdrawn, two were referred to the Court of Justice, and in four cases a letter of formal notice was sent. The infringement cases linked to the incorrect application of Community law are mainly based on breach of Article 3. The transposition is now achieved in all Member States, after the missing national transposing provisions were adopted by Luxembourg Labelling Directives on refrigerators and freezers, air conditioning appliances and electric ovens and Portugal Labelling Directive on refrigerators and freezers.

This will now allow also for Luxembourg and Portuguese consumers to be made aware in shops of the energy efficiency performance of the appliances they intend to purchase and help them to save energy while also contributing to mitigate climate change. The aim of the Directive is to reduce energy consumption in buildings by obliging Member States to lay down minimum energy performance standards and apply those for new buildings and for renovations of larger existing buildings.

The Directive is an important part of EU legislation aimed at improving overall energy efficiency. Infringement proceedings were initiated in February against the 21 Member States who had failed to notify full implementation of the Directive by this date. Two cases were closed during the year, following the notification of legislation by Lithuania and Portugal.

In all 22 open cases the transposition of the Directive is still partially incomplete. Most of the Member States have implemented minimum energy performance requirements for new buildings and about half of the Member States have implemented inspections of boilers. The requirements for existing buildings in case of refurbishment, the certification of buildings and the inspection of air-conditioning systems are pending for almost all open cases.

In , the Commission dealt with a total of 51 infringement procedures within the scope of the Euratom Treaty. The major part of the work was mainly concentrated on the following issues:. Following notification of the measures, 13 cases could be closed by the end of the year. In , 7 infringement procedures were started for those Member States who had not fulfilled this obligation yet. The "Jason"[] case-law was confirmed in March in the "Tireless" ruling[], where the Court stated that the use of nuclear energy for military purposes falls outside the scope of the Euratom Treaty and its secondary legislation.

The Commission therefore decided to close all 4 cases dealing with the protection of workers and the population against the dangers arising from ionising radiation originating in military activities. The Commission decided to refer Spain, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Portugal and the Czech Republic to Court as they had not yet notified the national implementing measures for working time in road transport.

Five other Member States, which had received a reasoned opinion in , notified their implementing measures in The rules on working time include time for driving, loading and unloading, vehicle maintenance and administrative tasks. The aim of this legislation is to improve and harmonize social conditions for road transport workers in the European transport market thus contributing to better health and safety for workers, fair competition and enhanced road safety. It is intended to ensure that professional drivers do not work excessively long hours and thus become a danger to themselves and other road users.

It also seeks to counter unfair competition, where Member States might be tempted to give their national fleet an advantage by permitting longer working hours. In , the Commission continued to examine the transposition and correct application by the Member States of the so-called "Eurovignette Directive"[] on road charging. Infringement proceedings are under way against 13 countries.

In , one letter of formal notice and two reasoned opinions were sent. The Commission decided to refer one Member State to the Court of Justice and two proceedings have been closed. In , the national implementation measures for the Directives of the second railway package[] had to be notified to the Commission.

The examination of the national implementation measures for the first and second railway package started in The examination will be focussed around 4 themes to verify the compliance of the national measures with the Community's rail acquis. These 4 themes are:. Account separation and management independence of railway undertakings and infrastructure managers. Track access charging principles, including the conditions under which performance regimes are enabled. Conclusions on the effective transpositions by Member States are expected to be drawn in the fall of following a detailed inquiry to be launched in March The major part of the infringement cases in the road safety sector concern the lack of communication of the national implementing measures.

The number of new infringement procedures increased from … to … because the national implementing measures for three directives Directive on seat belts[], Directive on professional drivers[] and Directive on tunnel safety[] had to be notified during the year A majority of Member States transposed the Directive timely, but in five cases, the lack of communication of the national measures led to sending reasoned opinions, one cases being referred to the Court of Justice.

Infringement proceedings were initiated against all the Member States that have bilateral agreements with the United States 20 countries out of These air agreements contain "nationality" clauses whereby only national companies in the signatory countries can benefit from the agreement, which is a flagrant breach of European law. The Commission is negotiating with the United States to conclude an overall agreement. The European Union has been gradually opening the market of groundhandling services such as passenger check-in, baggage handling and aircraft refuelling at airports by way of a Directive[] adopted in This directive allows Member States to take measures to protect the rights of workers, but these must not prevent the effective application of the directive.

In a judgement, the Court considered the Italian requirement that newcomers entering the market are obliged to take over staff inasmuch as they gain business from the incumbent discourages them from entering the market. This subsequently limits the benefits of the directive such as reduced prices and improved quality of service. Italy has since then not fully complied with this ruling of the Court.

On the contrary, after Germany adopted new measures compatible with the Directive on groundhandling services, the infringement case was closed. The Commission sent a reasoned opinion to Malta for the airport tax levied at Malta International Airport. The airport tax differentiates between passengers in a discriminatory way as it is only levied on an air passenger beginning an international journey from Malta airport, but not levied if the passenger had started the journey outside Malta.

The tax therefore puts an unfair burden on residents in Malta and makes it more difficult for them to receive and provide services in other Member States. Furthermore, domestic destinations are exempted from the airport tax. The Commission takes the view that the airport tax should not differentiate between domestic and other intra-Community flights.

The Commission decided to refer Greece to the European Court of Justice for failure to respect EU legislation on the establishment of a national supervisory authority in the context of the single European sky. The single European sky framework regulation[] entered into force in April It separates the provision of air navigation services on the one hand and the supervision and regulation of these services on the other hand.

Member States are required to create or establish an independent national supervisory authority to assume the different tasks identified in EU-legislation including the certification of air navigation service providers. Greece having failed to fully establish an independent authority, the Commission sent a reasoned opinion to Greece in June In Luxembourg was referred to the Court for failure to notify measures transposing legislation which aims at a harmonised approach by Member States to phasing out of the noisiest aircraft in EU airports.

In a judgement[], the Court declared that the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg had failed to transpose the Directive on aircraft noise, which requires the application of specific procedures prior to introducing noise restrictions in sensitive EU airports. Failure to implement a harmonised approach to noise would result in a patchwork of different solutions, provoking distortions between airports with similar noise problems as well as creating obstacles for an effective, EU-wide improvement.

In particular, the Commission is given the mandate to conduct, in cooperation with the national administrations, inspections, including a suitable sample of airports, to monitor the application by Member States of this Regulation. Since February , the Commission has been conducting inspections on the level of national administrations and on airport level.

In total 73 inspections were carried out, 24 inspections concerned national administrations, 49 concerned airports. In addition, whenever appropriate, follow-up inspections took place to verify corrective actions taken by Member States. According to this Regulation the Commission shall also publish each year a report on the implementation of the Regulation and on the situation in the Community as far as aviation security is concerned, drawing conclusions from the inspection reports.

The Commission has already published its first report[], the second report will be published in the course of The Commission decided to request the European Court of Justice to impose a lump sum penalty and a periodic penalty on Greece for its failure to implement its decision in relation to the recovery of a State aid granted by Greece to Olympic Airways between and In December the Commission found that Greece had granted illegal restructuring aid to Olympic Airways between and and ordered its recovery.

These countries failed to respect the EU legislation on the improvement of the availability and use of port reception facilities for ship-generated waste and cargo residues. The Commission decided to act against these Member States for failure to adequately implement the Directive[], that aims at reducing the discharges of ship-generated waste and cargo residues into the sea from ships using ports in the Community by improving the availability and use of the facilities designed to receive and treat such waste and residues, thereby enhancing the protection of the maritime environment.

In all eight cases, Commission action was prompted by the insufficient implementation of the obligation to develop, approve and implement waste reception and handling plans relating to all national ports, including fishing ports and marinas.

These plans are a key element in ensuring that port reception facilities made available meet the needs of the ships normally using the ports, that their operation does not cause undue delay to ships and that fair, transparent and non-discriminatory fees are applied. The Commission sent a reasoned opinion to Portugal and brought Malta to the Court for failure to respect EU legislation on port State control of shipping[] adopted in , whose provisions were strengthened in the wake of the Erika accident.

The Directive aims at reducing substandard shipping in the waters under the jurisdiction of Member States through increased compliance with international and relevant Community legislation on maritime safety, protection of the marine environment and living and working conditions on board ships of all flags.

To this purpose, the directive establishes common criteria for control of ships by the port State and harmonises procedures on inspection and detention of substandard ships. Whilst Portugal notified the Commission of the national measures to transpose the directive, these contained several legal or technical inconsistencies. The Commission closed the infringement procedure against Portugal as it modified the arrangement of its public service obligations for the islands.

This Regulation foresees that the Commission shall start a series of inspections, including inspections of a suitable sample of port facilities and relevant companies, to monitor the application by Member States. By 31 December , 37 inspections have been conducted: 24 inspections concerned national administrations including 1 follow-up inspection , 8 concerned port installations and 4 concerned ships.

One maritime company and one recognized security organization were also inspected. Where necessary, the inspected entities were asked to take corrective actions. Due to the intense cooperation of the Member States and operators concerned, no infringement procedure has been initiated. The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive[] EIA requires Member States to carry out environmental impact assessments of certain public and private projects, before they are authorised, where it is believed that the projects are likely to have a significant impact on the environment.

The objective is to identify the environmental impacts and assess whether prevention or mitigation is appropriate. The public must be consulted and its comments taken into account when a decision is taken on whether to authorise the project. The Birds Directive[] is the key piece of EU legislation setting out measures for the protection, management and control of all species of naturally occurring birds, as well as introducing rules to protect their habitats.

The Directive requires Member States to establish a general system of protection for the bird species it covers. On the basis of an assessment of the national legislation implementing the Birds Directive in each Member State, the Commission identified a number of areas where Member States fail to fully comply with the Directive giving rise to inadequate protection for birds. Different grounds for non-compliance were identified in each Member State, with issues raised concerning for example the scope of the national legislation, whereby the eggs or young of birds were not fully protected; circumstances where hunting is permitted, without respecting the conditions set out in the Directive; or where measures to ensure protection of habitats were insufficient.

Natural habitats and wild flora and fauna throughout the EU are protected under the Habitats Directive[]. The main aim of the Directive is to promote the maintenance of biodiversity and to create a Europe-wide network of special conservation areas to assist in this aim.

Given the transboundary nature of the threats to the European Union's natural heritage, the Directive is intended to ensure a coordinated approach in all Member States. On the basis of an assessment of national legislation implementing the Habitats Directive, the Commission identified a number of areas where Member States failed to comply with the Directive. The grounds for non-compliance vary for each Member State, some issues addressed include: where there is no requirement for compensatory measures to be undertaken, in the case that an activity or project will impact upon a special conservation area; where the legislation does not cover the taking of eggs from the wild; or where certain species are not afforded strict protection, as required under the Directive.

The Directive obliges Member States to ensure that those who supply drinking water are made subject to strict requirements on the quality and monitoring of drinking water as well as on remedial action and consumer information. The Commission considers that national legislation that is fully in line with the Directive will act as a safeguard against the risk of sub-standard drinking water being supplied to the public.

The warning letters sent are intended to draw attention to identified shortcomings. These vary according to Member State and range from failures to ensure that requirements are made directly binding on drinking water suppliers to incorrect details with regard to certain standards.

Compliance with the Landfill Directive[] is a serious problem throughout the European Union. The aim is to ensure that landfills operate in full accordance with the Directive, i. In the European Commission has decided to start legal action against seven Member States Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Portugal for inadequately transposing the legislation on the landfill of waste into their national law. Further cases on conformity with the Landfill Directive will follow.

A variety of provisions have not been fully transposed into national or regional law. Common problems identified in the seven Member States include incomplete, incorrect or non-transposition of definitions for instance definitions of different types of waste and storage methods ; the scope of the Directive including the types of waste that may be exempted from its requirements ; the three categories of landfills laid down in the Directive i.

Horizontal cases on illegal landfills in France, Greece, Ireland and Italy are actively followed. These Member States were referred to the Court of Justice in and in some cases Greece, Ireland judgments were already delivered. In , a certain progress was achieved and some landfills were closed and rehabilitated. In order to comply with rulings of the European Court of Justice, the Commission sent final written warnings to Italy in several cases violating the Waste Framework Directive[] which stipulates definitions and basic requirements for waste management in order to protect human health and the environment.

Although some steps were taken by the Italian authorities to comply with the judgments, the Commission concluded that these were not sufficient. This landfill is close to the sea and located on a site which is part of the Natura network of protected areas. It has been designated as a site of Community importance in the context of the Habitats Directive. This Directive requires larger towns and cities to collect and treat their waste water. Untreated waste water can be contaminated with harmful bacteria and viruses and thus present a risk to public health.

It also contains nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous which can damage freshwater and the marine environment by promoting excessive growth of algae that chokes off other life, a process known as eutrophication. The Commission decided to take Finland, Sweden and Portugal to the European Court of Justice for failing to ensure proper treatment of urban waste water in a significant number of towns and cities. The failure of Finland and Sweden to systematically remove nitrogen when treating the waste water of their inland cities and towns is contributing to the environmental problems of the Baltic Sea.

Portugal failed to respect a special decision[] on urban waste water discharges from Estoril, near Lisbon, and the surrounding area. The European Commission sent Ireland a written warning for failing to comply fully with a European Court of Justice ruling requiring drinking water supplies to be kept free of E-coli bacteria. The Drinking Water Directive requires an absence of e-coli in drinking water supplies in order to protect human health. A final warning letter was sent to the United Kingdom for its failure to ensure the adequacy of collecting systems for urban waste waters in a number of locations in the United Kingdom including in London due to an over reliance on storm water overflows which spill untreated urban waste waters even during times of moderate rainfall.

A final warning letter was also sent to the United Kingdom for its failure to designate sufficient nitrate vulnerable zones and its failure to adopt action programmes for existing designated areas under the Nitrates Directive. In a case against Austria, the Commission decided to send a final warning for not proposing sufficient national nature sites for the Natura network of protected sites.

The Austrian network of proposed sites is still far from being complete eleven years after Member States were obliged to provide their national lists of proposed sites for the Natura network. Altogether, fifteen habitat types and ten species are at present not sufficiently covered in the proposed list put forward by Austria.

On the same issue of sites designation, the Commission notes that France has reacted to a final written warning from the Commission in December by designating 87 new sites and extended others in the framework of the Habitats Directive. France has also put forward proposals for new zones and to extend 32 others in the context of the Birds Directive, after the Court of Justice had ruled in November that France had not designated enough special birds protection zones.

These proposals were completed in early with 56 additional areas and the cases are now closed. These islands are an important wintering area for Steller's Eider which is under threat worldwide. In the meantime, the authorities have given development consent for construction on the islands of a wind farm, which could pose a potential danger to birds in the area.

According to the method of the invention, at least one of the starting components, i. Insofar as the starting components for hydrotalcite production have already been sufficiently activated by the intensive milling provided in the method according to the invention, in many cases additional intensive grinding is no longer required during or after mixing the compounds of divalent and trivalent metals.

The same can apply if only one of the above components A and B is used as an inactive raw material, in particular as a suspension, while the other component is used in the form of a solution. Als Verbindung des dreiwertigen Metalls Komponente B kann dann Aluminiumhydroxid eingesetzt werden, das durch Zugabe von Natronlauge zu Natriumaluminat umgesetzt wird. According to a particularly preferred embodiment, inactive magnesium oxide is used as the compound of the divalent metal component A and subjected to the intensive grinding according to the invention.

As the compound of trivalent metal component B can then be used aluminum hydroxide, which is converted by the addition of sodium hydroxide to sodium aluminate. Intensive grinding of the sodium aluminate solution is thus not required. The initially inactive magnesium oxide is at least partially converted into the hydroxide during the intensive grinding wet grinding. Preferably, carbon dioxide is already supplied as a carbonate source at this time. Subsequently, the mixture is mixed with the compound of trivalent metal, preferably the above-mentioned sodium aluminate solution.

Insofar as the intensive grinding takes place according to a preferred embodiment during or after the mixing of the compounds of divalent and trivalent metals, it can be advantageously continued until an amorphous or crystalline hydrotalcite phase is formed. Durch eine solche Intensivmahlung der Mischsuspension, die z. By such intensive grinding of the mixed suspension, e.

The amorphous hydrotalcite precursor phase is present in a small grain size. When increasing the amount of energy input, e. Carbonat pro Mol eingesetzte dreiwertige Metalle angesehen. It has been found that in order to obtain good results in the process according to the invention, a carbonate source must be added in excess. The excess is considered to be 1. The addition is carried out according to the invention before or during the mixing of the compounds of divalent and trivalent metal, but in any case before a possibly carried out hydrothermal aftertreatment of the approach.

Jedoch wird die Zugabe von CO 2 deutlich bevorzugt. It has surprisingly been found that the addition of carbon dioxide as a carbonate source gives particularly advantageous results. Alternatively, the carbonate can also be carried out via the use of a corresponding carbonate-containing compound of the di- or trivalent metal or by additional addition of carbonate-containing salts. However, the addition of CO 2 is clearly preferred.

By adding CO 2 , the pH of the suspension of the raw materials or the mixed suspension can be adjusted to the desired value or held there. If, according to one embodiment of the invention, at least one of the components A or B is activated separately by intensive grinding, this is done according to the invention shortly before further reaction in the process according to the invention. This is to ensure that the activation achieved by the intensive grinding is not lost by undesired reactions before the reaction in the process according to the invention.

As a rule, therefore, the intensive grinding is carried out for a maximum of 5 hours before the further reaction according to the method according to the invention. It is believed that the active particle surfaces formed during intensive milling may play a role.

Der Feststoffgehalt der eingesetzten Suspension en bzw. Diese Grenzen haben sich auch im Hinblick auf die zur Intensivmahlung eingesetzten Vorrichtungen als praktikabel erwiesen. These limits have also proven to be practicable with regard to the devices used for intensive grinding. Somit sind Umsetzungszeiten vor der thermalen oder hydrothermalen Weiterverarbeitung zwischen 0 und 48 Stunden in der Regel ausreichend.

The reaction of the mixture of the compounds of divalent and trivalent metals components A and B starts immediately. Thus, conversion times before the thermal or hydrothermal processing between 0 and 48 hours usually enough. Natriumaluminat ersetzt werden. Letzteres hydrolysiert in der Suspension, so dass im Ergebnis eine Reaktion zwischen dem gebildeten Aluminiumhydroxid und dem Carbonat des zweiwertigen Metalls stattfindet.

The latter hydrolyzes in the suspension, so that as a result a reaction takes place between the aluminum hydroxide formed and the carbonate of the divalent metal. The resulting NaOH is used to adjust the pH. Dieser liegt vorzugsweise im Bereich von etwa 6 bis 13,5. In this way, the pH of the suspension can be adjusted to the desired value.

This is preferably in the range of about 6 to These soluble carbonates or bicarbonates can also be added using the insoluble carbonates of the divalent metals. Die amorphe Hydrotalcitphase bzw. The individual phases depend on the size of the system. The hydrothermal aftertreatment further increases the proportion of the crystalline hydrotalcite phase characterized by a sharp X-ray diffraction pattern, while the proportion of the amorphous hydrotalcite precursor phase correspondingly decreases.

Im allgemeinen wird aus den Rohstoffen eine Suspension Schlempe mit einem Feststoffgehalt von etwa 30 bis 60 Gew. In general, a suspension vinasse with a solids content of about 30 to 60 wt. In the course of the grinding process, the viscosity of the vinasse increases. In a preferred embodiment, a particle size of approximately 0. Letzterer liefert die Kristallisationskeime bei der optionalen weiteren Aufarbeitung durch eine hydrothermale Nachbehandlung.

If an intensive grinding of the mixing suspension containing components A and B takes place, the introduced energy leads directly to the formation of a mixed phase of an X-ray amorphous and a crystalline hydrotalcite. The latter provides the crystallization seeds in the optional further workup by a hydrothermal aftertreatment.

This process step is significantly better in comparison to a known hydrothermal hydrotalcite synthesis higher crystallinity, higher yield, shorter synthesis time and better quality. As a result of the upstream intensive grinding process, as mentioned above, the overall process can thus be optimized with regard to greater flexibility in the choice of raw materials cheaper raw materials and shorter synthesis times.

Wird die Schlempe im Kreislauf durch den Mahlraum gepumpt, kann durch die Mahlung auf direktem Wege kristalliner Hydrotalcit hergestellt werden, ohne dass eine hydrothermale Nachbehandlung erforderlich ist. Examinations of the X-ray diffraction spectrum showed that the proportion of crystalline hydrotalcite in the vinasse increased with increasing residence time in the grinding chamber.

If the vinasse is pumped through the grinding chamber in the cycle, the grinding can be used to produce crystalline hydrotalcite in a direct manner, without the need for hydrothermal aftertreatment. The grinding process proceeds particularly favorably when using basic carbonates or bicarbonates of divalent metals and of aluminum hydroxide. Dabei zeigen:. According to Fig. Depending on the degree of grinding, one obtains predominantly an amorphous hydrotalcite phase with a small proportion of crystalline hydrotalcite phase left branch of the process scheme or predominantly the crystalline hydrotalcite phase with a smaller proportion of amorphous hydrotalcite phase right branch of the process scheme.

In the right branch, no hydrothermal post-treatment is carried out, and the product is immediately isolated, dried and calcined. Die amorphe Hydrotalcitphase wird im linken Zweig einer hydrothermalen Nachbehandlung unterzogen, wobei der geringe Anteil an kristalliner Hydrotalcitphase die Kristallisationskeime liefert. Das erhaltene Produkt wird filtriert, getrocknet und gegebenenfalls calciniert. The amorphous hydrotalcite phase is subjected to a hydrothermal aftertreatment in the left branch, the small proportion of crystalline hydrotalcite phase providing the nuclei.

The product obtained is filtered, dried and optionally calcined. Dabei erfolgt auch eine zumindest teilweise Umsetzung zu Magnesiumhydroxid. Subsequently, the intensive grinding according to the invention is carried out as wet grinding.

In this case, an at least partial conversion to magnesium hydroxide takes place. Subsequently, the addition of carbon dioxide, whereby on the one hand, the pH can be lowered and adjusted to the desired range between pH 9 and pH At the same time, the excess of carbon dioxide provides the carbonate required for the intermediate hydrotalcite layers.

After mixing the Na aluminate solution with the MgO suspension treated as described above to a mixed suspension and reacting it for about 1 hour, a conventional hydrothermal treatment may be followed to achieve the desired hydrotalcite crystallite size. Finally, a filtration, then drying and optionally a deagglomeration. The hydrotalcites obtainable by the process according to the invention can in particular be used either as a catalysts or catalyst supports or b as fillers and co-stabilizers for polymers.

However, the products obtained in the hydrothermal aftertreatment are also suitable for this application if catalysts or catalyst supports having a lower surface area and larger crystallites are desired. Weitere Reaktionen sind in Chem.

These catalysts can be used for all reactions in which hydrotalcite catalysts were used. Examples are the synthesis of glycol ethers from olefin oxides US-A-5,, and the epoxidation of olefins US-A-5,, Other reactions are in Chem. For other reactions, the hydrotalcites according to the invention can be coated with activating components, such as nickel and noble metals.

In this form, the catalysts are suitable for hydrogenations, dehydrogenations, alkylations, etc. The crystalline hydrotalcites obtainable according to the invention are particularly well suited for use as fillers, since they can be prepared completely white, which makes it possible to produce completely white or translucent polymeric composite materials. Furthermore, there was surprisingly an excellent incorporability of the hydrotalcites obtainable by the process according to the invention in plastics.

However, depending on the requirements of the individual case, the amorphous hydrotalcite precursor phase can also be used for this purpose. As a polymer phase for the nanocomposite fillers used in the invention, almost all technically usable polymer materials are suitable. Im allgemeinen umfassen diese Verfahren folgende Schrittet. Geeignete Polymere sind z. Polyolefine, Polyhalogenkohlenwasserstoffe z. Polyolefins, polyhalogenated hydrocarbons e. High-shear dispersing aggregates include high-speed stirrers, colloid mills, kneaders, extruders and other dispersing units.

The dispersion can be carried out at room temperature or at elevated temperature. Im ersten Fall fangen sie das bei der Zersetzung entstehende HCl ab. The hydrotalcites according to the invention are also suitable as co-stabilizers for polymers, in particular for polyhalogenated hydrocarbons and olefins. In the first case, they catch the HCl which forms during the decomposition.

In the latter case, they prevent the discoloration resulting from chain degradation caused by residues of the catalysts used in the preparation of the polyolefins. The invention is illustrated by the following examples. Initially, preliminary tests were carried out with the raw materials MgCO 3 , MgO, Al OH 3 , basic ZnCO 3 , ZnO in order to investigate their behavior in the mill and to correctly adjust the sludge for the actual experiments solids content.

It has also been found that the viscosity of the vinasse increases greatly; sometimes the vinasse had to be diluted with H 2 O. Die Versuchsparameter sind in Tabelle I zusammengefasst. Passage 2. Passage 3. Passage 4. Passage 5. Passage 4 2 bas. Passage auf 10 eingestellt pH nach 1.

H 2 O Sodaleg. H 2 O after 1st passage 4 2 bas. H 2 O 2, 1, 2, 3,06 10 4 A laser diffraction particle size analyzer from Malvern Mastersizer was used by means of which the particle size distribution in the range from 0. The device works on the principle of light diffraction on small particles. Zur Probenvorbereitung wurde eine Probe von etwa 50 mg in einem 20 ml-Becherglas mit etwa 10 ml Ethanol versetzt und 5 min.

Am Ende der Messung wurden die Ergebnisse sowohl gespeichert, als auch ausgedruckt. For sample preparation, a sample of about 50 mg in a 20 ml beaker was mixed with about 10 ml of ethanol and 5 min. The suspension was transferred to the dispersing unit of the apparatus and ethanol was added until the correct concentration of the samples was set on the meter.

At the end of the measurement, the results were both stored and printed. Tabelle II Versuch Nr. Table II Experiment No. Here, g of MgO were dispersed by means of a Pendraulik stirrer. Cold water was used to prevent immediate reaction to Mg OH 2. After intensive milling, the mean particle size was about 0. When the suspension is heated, it is at least partially already converted to Mg OH 2. Es wurde von unten 58,8g CO 2 eingeleitet.

Das Magnesiumhydroxid setzt sich dabei zumindest teilweise zu Magnesiumcarbonat um. Der pH-Wert sinkt dabei von etwa pH 11 auf etwa pH 10 ab. It was introduced from below The magnesium hydroxide is at least partially converted to magnesium carbonate. The introduction takes place over a total of about 2 to 3 hours. The pH drops from about pH 11 to about pH In a separate container Subsequently, the Magnesiumhydroxycarbonatdispersion as formed above is mixed with the Na-aluminate solution.

During the mixing is stirred intensively. The product thus obtained may be filtered, washed and dried in a conventional manner, e. Depending on the requirements of the hydrotalcite produced, a conventional hydrothermal treatment may also follow. The X-ray diffractogram of this product shows a pure hydrotalcite phase. Die Mischsuspensionen aus Beispiel 2 sowie den Vergleichsbeispielen 1 und 2 vgl.

In each case g of the vinasse from Example 1 were diluted with 2 liters of water. The mixed suspensions from Example 2 and Comparative Examples 1 and 2 see below were used undiluted. III angegeben. The degree of crystallinity K thus determined is given in Tab. III, among other properties of the products obtained. The proportion of crystalline hydrotalcites increases with the residence time in the mill. The reflex width of the hydrotalcite reflections suggests that very small hydrotalcite crystals have formed.

After 5 passages through the mill, the D 90 value is between 1. The use of the basic carbonates of the divalent metals leads to higher proportions of the crystalline hydrotalcite phase in the product mixture. When using the oxides, the pH of the vinasse had to be adjusted again and again. Der Autoklav wurde geschlossen und 23,7 g Kohlendioxid wurden eingeleitet. In an autoclave, The autoclave was closed and A solution of This solution was then pumped into the autoclave after the carbon dioxide dosage within 2 hours.

Die Suspension wurde abfiltriert und chloridfrei gewaschen. Diese Suspension wurde dann der Hydrothermalbehandlung wie vorstehend in Punkt 2 beschrieben unterzogen. The suspension was filtered off and washed free of chloride. Subsequently, the remaining residue was slurried again in 3 liters of water in which previously This suspension was then subjected to the hydrothermal treatment as described in point 2 above.

The hydrotalcite synthesis including the hydrothermal post-treatment was carried out according to Example 2, with the exception that no intensive grinding was carried out. Furthermore, a corresponding MgO was used as in Example 2, but with an average particle size of about 0. In einem Schnellmischer Fa. This dryblend is used after 24 hours of rest for further testing.

Der Abstand zwischen den Walzen wird auf 0,4 mm eingestellt. The front roller is operated at 15 rpm, the rear roller at 11 rpm. The distance between the rollers is set to 0. A litmus paper is positioned at the top of the tube to detect the first traces of HCl that are split from the PVC.

The time to first Occurrence of HCl traces, recognizable by the red coloration of the indicator paper, is determined. The value is called the VDE value. The above results clearly show that particularly advantageous hydrotalcites can be prepared by the process according to the invention which are themselves superior to the products prepared by the coprecipitation method in the case of the VDE values.

A method according to Claim 1, characterised in that the intensive grinding is carried out until an average particle size D 50 in the range of approximately 0. A method according to any one of the preceding Claims, characterised in that a fine-particle, powdery hydrotalcite is prepared, preferably with an average particle size D 50 in the range from 0. A method according to any one of the preceding Claims, characterised in that sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate or carbon dioxide are added as a carbonate source to at least one of the suspensions with the components A or B, preferably to the mixed suspension of the oxides or hydroxides of the divalent and the trivalent metals.

A method according to any one of the preceding Claims, characterised in that an aqueous suspension of magnesium dioxide is used as component A and, prior to mixing with component B, is subjected to intensive grinding so as to activate the magnesium dioxide and form magnesium hydroxide.

A method according to any one of the preceding Claims, characterised in that a sodium aluminate solution is used as component B, which can be prepared by mixing caustic soda with aluminium hydroxide. A method according to any one of the preceding Claims, characterised in that the intensive grinding is carried out at a pH value in the range from approximately 7 to A method according to any one of the preceding Claims, characterised in that the intensive grinding is carried out in a wet mill, in particular in an annular gap mill or bead mill.

A method according to any one of Claims 1 to 23, wherein the hydrotalcite obtained is further used as a catalyst or catalyst support. DE DEA1 en USB2 en. EPB2 en. JPB2 en. ATT en. CAA1 en. DEA1 en. EST3 en. PTE en.

WOA1 en. Process for the enrichment or depletion of biomolecules from liquid or fluid media using layered double hydroxides and use of biomolecules attached or embedded in a layered double hydroxide as an inorganic vector. USA1 en. Nanocomposite material comprising rubber and modified layered double hydroxide, process for its preparation and use thereof. Methods, systems, and apparatus for obtaining biofuel from coffee and fuels produced therefrom. Porous catalyst body for decomposing hydrocarbon and method for producing the same, method for producing mixed reformed gas containing hydrogen from hydrocarbon, and fuel cell system.

Heat stabilizers containing hydrotalcite particles with specific zeta potentials that demonstrate improved processing and performance in molded vinyl compounds. Spherical hydrotalcite compound and resin composition for electronic component encapsulation. Hydrotalcite with extremely low content of sodium, process for preparing it and synthetic resin composition comprising it. CAC en. A kind of magnalium hydrotalcite and the method for preparing magnalium hydrotalcite.

Hydrotalcite particles, method for producing hydrotalcite particles, resin stabilizer containing hydrotalcite particles, and resin composition containing hydrotalcite particles. Polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer and vinyl chloride polymer composition. Soft polyvinyl chloride resin composition for injection molding type shoe sole and injection molding method of shoe sole. USA en.

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SPORTS BETTING EXPERT PICKS

The deadlines for transposition of the other directives passed in December Luxembourg, Austria, Slovenia and Finland had not communicated the relevant measures by the end of Member States were reminded of their obligations to communicate the measures that they had adopted for the implementation of these regulations. Following this exercise, the Commission launched infringement procedures for non- communication of national measures concerning. By the end of only Luxembourg and France, The Netherlands and Italy had still not communicated the measures needed for the proper implementation of these Regulations.

In this context, the Commission sent letters to four Member States concerning the setting up of an authority for the verification of GLP. At the end of the year, 2 Member States had made progress toward setting up an authority. In the majority of cases no important problems were found. However, this study will be an opportunity for the Commission to contact Member States with a view to resolving problems brought to light by the study.

Working group meetings for the various legislation are organised on a regular basis. At these meetings the competent authorities of Member States discuss problems in the implementation of the directives and regulations. As a result possible incorrect implementation of directives and regulations can be avoided. Late payment and long payment periods impede the development, competitiveness and profitability of SMEs, and even endanger their survival, so tackling these problems is a priority for the European Commission.

Therefore, the rest of the rules which appear in the Directive were still governed exclusively by the national legal orders of the Member States. Letters asking for further information were sent to the Member States concerned. The Court of Justice held that a product must be considered as having been put into circulation, within the meaning of Article 11 of the Directive, when it leaves the production process operated by the producer and enters a marketing process in the form in which it is offered to the public to be used or consumed.

In accordance with Article 21 of the Directive, on 14 September the Commission published the third report on the application of the Directive[34]. The overall conclusions were that the Directive works satisfactorily and that there is no need for amendment at present. Infringement procedures for non communication against Latvia, Malta, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia, Sweden and the United Kingdom were closed, following notification of national implementing measures.

The problem relates to obstacles to the free movement of industrial dry-cleaning machinery. In addition during , the Commission paid special attention to the risks of incorrect application and organised two Standing Committee meetings on the deficient application of the directive detected in some Member States. Bilateral contact with these Member States will be strengthened. The Commission also dealt with complaints relating to additional requirements for pressure equipment and some obstacles to the putting into service of gas appliances.

The Commission also dealt with cases on additional requirements for the use of some construction products in some Member States. Turkey considerably stepped up its participation in the simplified procedure and sent 19 notifications pursuant to the rules implementing the final phase of the Customs Union between the EC and Turkey.

The new Member States also played an active part in the process, notifying draft texts. The sectors with most notifications were construction products, food and agricultural products, machinery, telecommunication and transport. Particularly sensitive were notifications in the gaming industry sector, concerning the ban on certain chemical substances e. Deca-BDE, mercury , regarding animal welfare e.

During , a large number of notifications concerned national measures transposing Community directives which also contained provisions which are not harmonised e. This allowed the Commission services to verify ex ante whether a Community act would be correctly transposed and to begin a productive dialogue within a non-contentious framework.

The Commission issued 59 detailed opinions and observations in response to drafts notified in , while the Member States issued 46 detailed opinions and observations. The Commission also blocked the adoption of 1 notified text for 12 months because it concerned a field covered by a proposal for harmonisation at Community level.

The Member States have already replied to a very large number of detailed opinions and comments, proving that a real dialogue has been established between the Commission and the Member States as well as among the Member States. Several replies received were satisfactory which means that the creation of new obstacles in various sectors was prevented e.

The Commission did not only examine the compatibility of the notified texts with Community law but also formulated comments, when necessary, regarding their quality in terms of clarity, accessibility, effectiveness and avoidance of unnecessary burdens for economic operators. At the end of , 9 complaints for incorrect application were under scrutiny, while 7 were closed after the Member States concerned remedied their failures to fulfil their obligations.

Transparency is one of the key objectives of the notification procedure. On the TRIS-website[37] where all notified texts are publicly available, around , searches were carried out. The number of interested parties who have subscribed to a mailing list in order to be alerted to new notifications has increased to In many cases, professional organisations and individual enterprises, including several SMEs, submitted comments on notified texts and thus helped the Commission formulate its position.

Discussions were held with the Member States concerned to remedy the procedural error. In one case, however, concerning a law on online gaming, infringement proceedings were opened. The information procedure is facilitating an open dialogue among the Member States, and between them and the Commission. In , the Standards and Technical Regulations Committee met three times and four Member States Czech Republic, Hungary, Sweden and Slovak Republic organized seminars on the functioning of the notification procedure with the participation of their national administrations, the Commission services and, at the seminar in Bratislava, Bulgaria and Romania.

In the Commission continued handling complaints and infringements cases in various non-harmonised fields of goods, ranging from the registration of second-hand cars to the parallel importation of medicinal products and pesticides. By the end of the year, 78 active cases had been closed and some 95 complaints and infringement proceedings were ongoing.

In contrast with , the volume of new complaints registered declined in The amount of closures in was higher than in The number of open infringement proceedings on alleged breaches of Articles EC has therefore decreased. This development seems to be mainly due to successful negotiations with Member States in a number of cases. Some cases were closed because no infringement of EC law was established or because the apparent restriction to free movement of goods was considered justified for reasons of general interest, such as the protection of public health, environment or public policy.

Some problems required co-ordinated action against more than one Member State. For instance, obstacles to the importation of gaming machines where the Commission pursued infringement proceedings against Sweden and Greece as well as investigating a case against Italy. To facilitate the authorisation procedure for parallel imports of medicinal products and plant protection products, the Commission brought infringement proceedings against Austria, Denmark, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom.

Following the issue of reasoned opinions, Member States amended their legislation in a number of cases, including the following:. In addition, some judgments of the Court of Justice in infringement proceedings further clarified the scope of Articles 28 to 30 of the EC Treaty:. During , the Commission also continued to screen the national legislation of the accession and candidate countries in the non-harmonised field of the free movement of goods.

In competition policy, the priorities in were monitoring the transposal of the Directive on competition in the markets for electronic communications and the transparency Directive both of which are based on Article 86 EC. As regards individual cases, the Commission handled several complaints relating to Article 86 combined with Article 82 EC, complaints relating to Article 31 and investigated infringements of Article 21 of the Merger Regulation.

Since then, there have been significant developments in the case. In November , three of the four yards were transferred through an open and transparent procedure. In the light of the measures adopted by Spain, further action under Article 2 EC was suspended and the liquidation of the pending yard is being monitored closely so as to ensure the correct implementation of the recovery decision. On 12 December the Commission sent a letter of formal notice to Italy for failing to comply with a judgment of the ECJ[49] condemning Italy for the non execution of the Commission's recovery decision[50].

The Commission considered that Italy had not taken the necessary measures to recover the incompatible aid, and moreover it had not been informed of the measures adopted nor of the amounts recovered. The reply to the letter of formal notice is due by February In the area of digital broadcasting, following a complaint by the Italian consumer association Altroconsumo , the Commission is currently investigating whether the Italian legislation regulating digital switchover could introduce restrictions on broadcasters and grant competitive advantages to existing analogue operators, contrary to the Competition Directive.

The Directives relating to competition policy are based on Article 86 3 EC. In the field of electronic communications, the Competition Directive[51] of lays down the fundamental obligations arising from the Treaty which Member States must comply with as regards sectoral law. Under its obligation to ensure compliance with Community law, the Commission pursued in the proceedings opened against Member States that had not yet transposed or inadequately transposed the Directive, or that did not implement it correctly.

Following the judgments delivered on 14 April and 16 June against Greece and Luxembourg for failing to transpose the Competition Directive, a complementary letter of formal notice and a reasoned opinion were addressed to Greece[52] and a complementary reasoned opinion was addressed to Luxembourg[53] with a view to referring them to the Court of Justice a second time under Article CE. Despite this obligation a state-owned company benefits from exclusive rights for providing access control services in the Swedish market for digital terrestrial broadcasting transmission services.

Under the same Directive Hungary had to abolish all restrictions for providing broadcasting transmission services by 1 May However, Hungary has not yet abolished the Media Act provisions limiting the rights of cable operators to provide broadcasting transmission services. In the field of free movement of workers, the Commission deals with problems linked to an incorrect application of the relevant provisions of the EC Treaty and of regulations existing in that area.

These problems are brought to the attention of the Commission through individual complaints from citizens, petitions and written Parliamentary questions. The Commission also verifies application of the preliminary rulings of the Court in this field. In other areas of activity, such as labour law, health and safety at the workplace, anti-discrimination and equal treatment the Commission mostly deals with problems related to the non-conformity and non-communication of national measures transposing the directives applicable.

An important number of previously opened procedures have been continued. In the field of social security, one example concerns a number of benefits for disabled persons. These procedures are still on-going. As regards free movement of workers, the majority of the ongoing procedures concerns issues linked to the public sector. In the past, the Commission proceeded with numerous infringements concerning the existence of nationality clauses in access to posts in the public sector.

Currently this problem seems to be reduced and only a few procedures are still open on this point. In the Commission focused on the issue of the recognition of previous professional experience acquired in one Member State for the purpose of access to the public sector as well as for determining the professional advantages in another Member State. Considerable progress was achieved in the framework of these procedures. Two judgements of the Court of Justice were delivered in in the framework of infringement procedures against Spain[59] and Italy[60] on this issue.

The Commission carried out also a systematic review of the legislations of all Member States following two preliminary judgments of the ECJ[61] regarding the nationality condition for posts of master and chief mate of merchant ships where the prerogatives of public authority are exercised by private sector workers.

In this respect, 14 infringement procedures were ongoing in The Commission decided to refer the case against France to the Court of Justice[62]. Furthermore, the Commission ensures a follow-up of preliminary rulings in cases Gattoussi[63] and Burbaud[64].

The Commission controls also the execution of the two judgments[65] concerning the car registration tax in Denmark and in Finland imposed on company cars used by frontier workers resident in these two respective counties and working in another Member States. The case against Denmark could be finally closed in Other open procedures concern cases of direct or indirect discriminations of migrant workers and the issue of the application of free movement rules to the sport's activities.

The pending case against Ireland[75] will be closed subsequently in further to communication of the necessary national transposition measures. The case against Estonia[81] will subsequently be withdrawn in as the necessary transposition measures were adopted and notified in the mean time.

Having adopted the necessary national transposition measures following the notification of a reasoned opinion, the case against Finland could already be closed, whereas the case against Greece will be closed in due course. As regards problems of non-conformity of the national transposition measures of Directives in the area of labour law a number of proceedings already in progress continued.

The proceeding for wrong application initiated against Germany[89], which continued under Article EC could however be closed, the necessary measures to conform to the judgment of the European Court of Justice and thus transposing correctly the Directive having been adopted in the mean time. A reasoned opinion was sent to Austria, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg and United Kingdom the case against Ireland and the United Kingdom were closed when they adopted the necessary national transposition measures.

The cases against Austria[98] and Germany[99] were referred to the Court of Justice. In the case against Austria[], the Court of Justice delivered its judgment, and a proceeding under Article EC was prepared. In the case against Sweden[], concerning the definition of capabilities and aptitudes of persons designated to carry out activities related to protection against and prevention of occupational hazards, the Court dismissed the action of the Commission.

The previous infringements against Germany, Finland and Austria for non-communication were therefore closed, as will be the one against Luxembourg. The UK, Sweden, France and Belgium took advantage of the extended deadline December to transpose the Directive's provisions on age and disability discrimination. A reasoned opinion was sent to Greece for incorrect transposition of the same Directive.

The Commission decided to refer Italy to the Court of Justice for a case concerning different pension ages for men 65 and women 60 in the public sector[]. A reasoned opinion was sent to Greece on a similar case involving differences of treatment between men and women in public sector pension schemes.

In the area of agriculture, monitoring the application of Community law concentrates on two main objectives: removing barriers to the free movement of agricultural produce and ensuring that the more specific mechanisms of the agricultural regulations are applied effectively and correctly. The objective of removing the traditional barriers to free movement of agricultural produce was further pursued: following the judgment of the Court[] the Commission addressed a reasoned opinion to France concerning the prohibition to market shallots grown from seeds under the denomination "shallots" although they are so produced and marketed under that name in other Member States.

The French authorities reserve the trade designation "shallot" for vegetables produced by vegetative propagation and products not satisfying their criteria can circulate only under another denomination. Therefore, instead of dealing with the question of consumer protection by way of neutral and objective labelling as envisaged by the Court, the French authorities maintained a barrier to trade contrary to Article 28 of the EC Treaty. The Portuguese authorities have been invited by the Commission to take necessary measures to comply with this judgement.

In view of Luxembourg's failure to comply with the above judgment in due time, the Commission launched proceedings under Article of the EC Treaty and communicated a letter of formal notice to Luxembourg. A letter of formal notice regarding the failure to submit annual aid reports for the subsequent years i. In , DG TREN Energy and Transport treated infringement cases, of which concerned the failure to notify national transposition measures of directives and related to the incorrect transposition of directives or the incorrect application of Community law.

There was a slight increase in the number of infringement cases new infringement cases were opened, including for failure to notify, 47 complaints were registered despite the significant number of cases closed during the same period , of which for failure to notify.

The reason was mainly the slow transposition of directives as the Member States often fail to comply with the transposition deadlines. This specific trend can be explained by the efforts made by DG TREN departments in checking the compliance of national measures transposing directives, which led to large number of letters of formal notice 91 and reasoned opinions 53 sent out in non-compliance cases.

In , the percentage of Energy Directives implemented remained stable at The activity focused in on the proper transposition of the gas and electricity directives implementing the internal market for gas and electricity. These directives are essential to develop a genuine and competitive energy market in Europe. The European legislation must therefore be properly transposed into national legislation to enable the markets to operate and to ensure that they are effectively opened up for all consumers on 1 July The Commission has made the completion of the internal market in electricity and gas one of the six priority areas of the strategy for sustainable, competitive and secure energy adopted in March The Member States are currently opening up their markets in such different ways that the development of a genuinely competitive European market is being hampered.

The Commission is thereby pursuing its firm action to monitor the implementation of the legislation on the internal market in energy and to carry out a detailed examination of whether the basic legal frameworks set up by the Member States are in conformity with the gas and electricity directives. In only two cases, Finland for electricity and Austria for gas, the arguments put forward by the Member States were satisfactory on all issues and enabled the Commission to close the case.

For the remaining 26 procedures, 19 alleged grounds for infringement were dropped. The vast majority, 58, remains. In addition, letters on formal notice were sent to Portugal and Slovenia in June and to Hungary in October for the wrong transposition of the electricity directive.

During its examination of the conformity of the national legislations, the Commission focused in particular on those aspects which form the principal elements of market regulation and guarantee competition. These are: the extent to which the markets are opened up, a real possibility of changing supplier, and the emergence of new market entrants with non-discriminatory access guaranteed by strong, independent regulators.

The main deficiencies observed in transposition of the new internal market directives are the following:. In addition to the conformity checks, the procedures for non communication of transposition measures launched in led to the ECJ to state against:.

Some Member States reported maintaining stocks levels below the compulsory minima. In addition to sending a number of letters of formal notice motivated by insufficient stocks levels, the Commission also decided to address reasoned opinions to Cyprus and Belgium for the same reason. In other cases, Member States did not submit statistical summaries on their level of stocks on a monthly basis within the delay stipulated under the legislation or submitted non compliant statistics, which notably caused the Commission to issue reasoned opinions to Greece and Netherlands.

New breaches, related to lack of conformity problems, were spotted in the course of the year and led to dialogues with the concerned Member States. Several cases may result in the opening of new infringement procedures in The purpose of this Directive on the promotion of the electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the international electricity market is to promote an increase of the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework.

Out of a total of 35 cases that were dealt with in 25 of which were opened in the same period , 21 cases could be closed by the end of the year. Member States must report biannually , etc to the Commission on measures taken to promote the use of renewable energy sources. Infringement proceedings were initiated against all the Member States who had failed to report by 27 October All 17 cases which were opened in due to the non-communication of biannual reports were closed during the year, following submission of the reports.

The open infringement cases on incorrect application of Community law are mainly based on the breach or incomplete transposition of several Articles of the Directive, such as on guarantees of origin, on simplification of administrative procedures on access to grid. Biofuels have an important role to play in European transport and energy policy because they are one of the few options available for replacing petrol and diesel as transport fuels.

Out of 44 open cases in , 11 were opened during the year and by the end of the year, 28 had been closed and in three cases the Court application was withdrawn. Nine of these cases were opened due to the submission of incomplete reports. Before 1st July each year, Member States must report to the Commission on measures taken to promote the use of biofuels or other renewable.

Infringement proceedings were initiated against the Member States who failed to report by 1 July in , and During , 14 cases were closed, in three cases the Court application was withdrawn, two were referred to the Court of Justice, and in four cases a letter of formal notice was sent. The infringement cases linked to the incorrect application of Community law are mainly based on breach of Article 3.

The transposition is now achieved in all Member States, after the missing national transposing provisions were adopted by Luxembourg Labelling Directives on refrigerators and freezers, air conditioning appliances and electric ovens and Portugal Labelling Directive on refrigerators and freezers. This will now allow also for Luxembourg and Portuguese consumers to be made aware in shops of the energy efficiency performance of the appliances they intend to purchase and help them to save energy while also contributing to mitigate climate change.

The aim of the Directive is to reduce energy consumption in buildings by obliging Member States to lay down minimum energy performance standards and apply those for new buildings and for renovations of larger existing buildings.

The Directive is an important part of EU legislation aimed at improving overall energy efficiency. Infringement proceedings were initiated in February against the 21 Member States who had failed to notify full implementation of the Directive by this date.

Two cases were closed during the year, following the notification of legislation by Lithuania and Portugal. In all 22 open cases the transposition of the Directive is still partially incomplete. Most of the Member States have implemented minimum energy performance requirements for new buildings and about half of the Member States have implemented inspections of boilers.

The requirements for existing buildings in case of refurbishment, the certification of buildings and the inspection of air-conditioning systems are pending for almost all open cases. In , the Commission dealt with a total of 51 infringement procedures within the scope of the Euratom Treaty. The major part of the work was mainly concentrated on the following issues:. Following notification of the measures, 13 cases could be closed by the end of the year.

In , 7 infringement procedures were started for those Member States who had not fulfilled this obligation yet. The "Jason"[] case-law was confirmed in March in the "Tireless" ruling[], where the Court stated that the use of nuclear energy for military purposes falls outside the scope of the Euratom Treaty and its secondary legislation.

The Commission therefore decided to close all 4 cases dealing with the protection of workers and the population against the dangers arising from ionising radiation originating in military activities. The Commission decided to refer Spain, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Portugal and the Czech Republic to Court as they had not yet notified the national implementing measures for working time in road transport. Five other Member States, which had received a reasoned opinion in , notified their implementing measures in The rules on working time include time for driving, loading and unloading, vehicle maintenance and administrative tasks.

The aim of this legislation is to improve and harmonize social conditions for road transport workers in the European transport market thus contributing to better health and safety for workers, fair competition and enhanced road safety. It is intended to ensure that professional drivers do not work excessively long hours and thus become a danger to themselves and other road users.

It also seeks to counter unfair competition, where Member States might be tempted to give their national fleet an advantage by permitting longer working hours. In , the Commission continued to examine the transposition and correct application by the Member States of the so-called "Eurovignette Directive"[] on road charging. Infringement proceedings are under way against 13 countries. In , one letter of formal notice and two reasoned opinions were sent.

The Commission decided to refer one Member State to the Court of Justice and two proceedings have been closed. In , the national implementation measures for the Directives of the second railway package[] had to be notified to the Commission. The examination of the national implementation measures for the first and second railway package started in The examination will be focussed around 4 themes to verify the compliance of the national measures with the Community's rail acquis.

These 4 themes are:. Account separation and management independence of railway undertakings and infrastructure managers. Track access charging principles, including the conditions under which performance regimes are enabled. Conclusions on the effective transpositions by Member States are expected to be drawn in the fall of following a detailed inquiry to be launched in March The major part of the infringement cases in the road safety sector concern the lack of communication of the national implementing measures.

The number of new infringement procedures increased from … to … because the national implementing measures for three directives Directive on seat belts[], Directive on professional drivers[] and Directive on tunnel safety[] had to be notified during the year A majority of Member States transposed the Directive timely, but in five cases, the lack of communication of the national measures led to sending reasoned opinions, one cases being referred to the Court of Justice.

Infringement proceedings were initiated against all the Member States that have bilateral agreements with the United States 20 countries out of These air agreements contain "nationality" clauses whereby only national companies in the signatory countries can benefit from the agreement, which is a flagrant breach of European law.

The Commission is negotiating with the United States to conclude an overall agreement. The European Union has been gradually opening the market of groundhandling services such as passenger check-in, baggage handling and aircraft refuelling at airports by way of a Directive[] adopted in This directive allows Member States to take measures to protect the rights of workers, but these must not prevent the effective application of the directive.

In a judgement, the Court considered the Italian requirement that newcomers entering the market are obliged to take over staff inasmuch as they gain business from the incumbent discourages them from entering the market. This subsequently limits the benefits of the directive such as reduced prices and improved quality of service. Italy has since then not fully complied with this ruling of the Court. On the contrary, after Germany adopted new measures compatible with the Directive on groundhandling services, the infringement case was closed.

The Commission sent a reasoned opinion to Malta for the airport tax levied at Malta International Airport. The airport tax differentiates between passengers in a discriminatory way as it is only levied on an air passenger beginning an international journey from Malta airport, but not levied if the passenger had started the journey outside Malta.

The tax therefore puts an unfair burden on residents in Malta and makes it more difficult for them to receive and provide services in other Member States. Furthermore, domestic destinations are exempted from the airport tax. The Commission takes the view that the airport tax should not differentiate between domestic and other intra-Community flights. The Commission decided to refer Greece to the European Court of Justice for failure to respect EU legislation on the establishment of a national supervisory authority in the context of the single European sky.

The single European sky framework regulation[] entered into force in April It separates the provision of air navigation services on the one hand and the supervision and regulation of these services on the other hand.

Member States are required to create or establish an independent national supervisory authority to assume the different tasks identified in EU-legislation including the certification of air navigation service providers. Greece having failed to fully establish an independent authority, the Commission sent a reasoned opinion to Greece in June In Luxembourg was referred to the Court for failure to notify measures transposing legislation which aims at a harmonised approach by Member States to phasing out of the noisiest aircraft in EU airports.

In a judgement[], the Court declared that the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg had failed to transpose the Directive on aircraft noise, which requires the application of specific procedures prior to introducing noise restrictions in sensitive EU airports. Failure to implement a harmonised approach to noise would result in a patchwork of different solutions, provoking distortions between airports with similar noise problems as well as creating obstacles for an effective, EU-wide improvement.

In particular, the Commission is given the mandate to conduct, in cooperation with the national administrations, inspections, including a suitable sample of airports, to monitor the application by Member States of this Regulation. Since February , the Commission has been conducting inspections on the level of national administrations and on airport level.

In total 73 inspections were carried out, 24 inspections concerned national administrations, 49 concerned airports. In addition, whenever appropriate, follow-up inspections took place to verify corrective actions taken by Member States. According to this Regulation the Commission shall also publish each year a report on the implementation of the Regulation and on the situation in the Community as far as aviation security is concerned, drawing conclusions from the inspection reports.

The Commission has already published its first report[], the second report will be published in the course of The Commission decided to request the European Court of Justice to impose a lump sum penalty and a periodic penalty on Greece for its failure to implement its decision in relation to the recovery of a State aid granted by Greece to Olympic Airways between and In December the Commission found that Greece had granted illegal restructuring aid to Olympic Airways between and and ordered its recovery.

These countries failed to respect the EU legislation on the improvement of the availability and use of port reception facilities for ship-generated waste and cargo residues. The Commission decided to act against these Member States for failure to adequately implement the Directive[], that aims at reducing the discharges of ship-generated waste and cargo residues into the sea from ships using ports in the Community by improving the availability and use of the facilities designed to receive and treat such waste and residues, thereby enhancing the protection of the maritime environment.

In all eight cases, Commission action was prompted by the insufficient implementation of the obligation to develop, approve and implement waste reception and handling plans relating to all national ports, including fishing ports and marinas. These plans are a key element in ensuring that port reception facilities made available meet the needs of the ships normally using the ports, that their operation does not cause undue delay to ships and that fair, transparent and non-discriminatory fees are applied.

The Commission sent a reasoned opinion to Portugal and brought Malta to the Court for failure to respect EU legislation on port State control of shipping[] adopted in , whose provisions were strengthened in the wake of the Erika accident. The Directive aims at reducing substandard shipping in the waters under the jurisdiction of Member States through increased compliance with international and relevant Community legislation on maritime safety, protection of the marine environment and living and working conditions on board ships of all flags.

To this purpose, the directive establishes common criteria for control of ships by the port State and harmonises procedures on inspection and detention of substandard ships. Whilst Portugal notified the Commission of the national measures to transpose the directive, these contained several legal or technical inconsistencies.

The Commission closed the infringement procedure against Portugal as it modified the arrangement of its public service obligations for the islands. This Regulation foresees that the Commission shall start a series of inspections, including inspections of a suitable sample of port facilities and relevant companies, to monitor the application by Member States. By 31 December , 37 inspections have been conducted: 24 inspections concerned national administrations including 1 follow-up inspection , 8 concerned port installations and 4 concerned ships.

One maritime company and one recognized security organization were also inspected. Where necessary, the inspected entities were asked to take corrective actions. Due to the intense cooperation of the Member States and operators concerned, no infringement procedure has been initiated.

The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive[] EIA requires Member States to carry out environmental impact assessments of certain public and private projects, before they are authorised, where it is believed that the projects are likely to have a significant impact on the environment.

The objective is to identify the environmental impacts and assess whether prevention or mitigation is appropriate. The public must be consulted and its comments taken into account when a decision is taken on whether to authorise the project. The Birds Directive[] is the key piece of EU legislation setting out measures for the protection, management and control of all species of naturally occurring birds, as well as introducing rules to protect their habitats.

The Directive requires Member States to establish a general system of protection for the bird species it covers. On the basis of an assessment of the national legislation implementing the Birds Directive in each Member State, the Commission identified a number of areas where Member States fail to fully comply with the Directive giving rise to inadequate protection for birds.

Different grounds for non-compliance were identified in each Member State, with issues raised concerning for example the scope of the national legislation, whereby the eggs or young of birds were not fully protected; circumstances where hunting is permitted, without respecting the conditions set out in the Directive; or where measures to ensure protection of habitats were insufficient.

Natural habitats and wild flora and fauna throughout the EU are protected under the Habitats Directive[]. The main aim of the Directive is to promote the maintenance of biodiversity and to create a Europe-wide network of special conservation areas to assist in this aim. Given the transboundary nature of the threats to the European Union's natural heritage, the Directive is intended to ensure a coordinated approach in all Member States.

On the basis of an assessment of national legislation implementing the Habitats Directive, the Commission identified a number of areas where Member States failed to comply with the Directive. The grounds for non-compliance vary for each Member State, some issues addressed include: where there is no requirement for compensatory measures to be undertaken, in the case that an activity or project will impact upon a special conservation area; where the legislation does not cover the taking of eggs from the wild; or where certain species are not afforded strict protection, as required under the Directive.

The Directive obliges Member States to ensure that those who supply drinking water are made subject to strict requirements on the quality and monitoring of drinking water as well as on remedial action and consumer information. The Commission considers that national legislation that is fully in line with the Directive will act as a safeguard against the risk of sub-standard drinking water being supplied to the public.

The warning letters sent are intended to draw attention to identified shortcomings. These vary according to Member State and range from failures to ensure that requirements are made directly binding on drinking water suppliers to incorrect details with regard to certain standards. Compliance with the Landfill Directive[] is a serious problem throughout the European Union.

The aim is to ensure that landfills operate in full accordance with the Directive, i. In the European Commission has decided to start legal action against seven Member States Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Portugal for inadequately transposing the legislation on the landfill of waste into their national law.

Further cases on conformity with the Landfill Directive will follow. A variety of provisions have not been fully transposed into national or regional law. Common problems identified in the seven Member States include incomplete, incorrect or non-transposition of definitions for instance definitions of different types of waste and storage methods ; the scope of the Directive including the types of waste that may be exempted from its requirements ; the three categories of landfills laid down in the Directive i.

Horizontal cases on illegal landfills in France, Greece, Ireland and Italy are actively followed. These Member States were referred to the Court of Justice in and in some cases Greece, Ireland judgments were already delivered. In , a certain progress was achieved and some landfills were closed and rehabilitated. In order to comply with rulings of the European Court of Justice, the Commission sent final written warnings to Italy in several cases violating the Waste Framework Directive[] which stipulates definitions and basic requirements for waste management in order to protect human health and the environment.

Although some steps were taken by the Italian authorities to comply with the judgments, the Commission concluded that these were not sufficient. This landfill is close to the sea and located on a site which is part of the Natura network of protected areas. It has been designated as a site of Community importance in the context of the Habitats Directive. This Directive requires larger towns and cities to collect and treat their waste water. Untreated waste water can be contaminated with harmful bacteria and viruses and thus present a risk to public health.

It also contains nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous which can damage freshwater and the marine environment by promoting excessive growth of algae that chokes off other life, a process known as eutrophication. The Commission decided to take Finland, Sweden and Portugal to the European Court of Justice for failing to ensure proper treatment of urban waste water in a significant number of towns and cities.

The failure of Finland and Sweden to systematically remove nitrogen when treating the waste water of their inland cities and towns is contributing to the environmental problems of the Baltic Sea. Portugal failed to respect a special decision[] on urban waste water discharges from Estoril, near Lisbon, and the surrounding area.

The European Commission sent Ireland a written warning for failing to comply fully with a European Court of Justice ruling requiring drinking water supplies to be kept free of E-coli bacteria. The Drinking Water Directive requires an absence of e-coli in drinking water supplies in order to protect human health.

A final warning letter was sent to the United Kingdom for its failure to ensure the adequacy of collecting systems for urban waste waters in a number of locations in the United Kingdom including in London due to an over reliance on storm water overflows which spill untreated urban waste waters even during times of moderate rainfall. A final warning letter was also sent to the United Kingdom for its failure to designate sufficient nitrate vulnerable zones and its failure to adopt action programmes for existing designated areas under the Nitrates Directive.

In a case against Austria, the Commission decided to send a final warning for not proposing sufficient national nature sites for the Natura network of protected sites. The Austrian network of proposed sites is still far from being complete eleven years after Member States were obliged to provide their national lists of proposed sites for the Natura network. Altogether, fifteen habitat types and ten species are at present not sufficiently covered in the proposed list put forward by Austria.

On the same issue of sites designation, the Commission notes that France has reacted to a final written warning from the Commission in December by designating 87 new sites and extended others in the framework of the Habitats Directive. France has also put forward proposals for new zones and to extend 32 others in the context of the Birds Directive, after the Court of Justice had ruled in November that France had not designated enough special birds protection zones. These proposals were completed in early with 56 additional areas and the cases are now closed.

These islands are an important wintering area for Steller's Eider which is under threat worldwide. In the meantime, the authorities have given development consent for construction on the islands of a wind farm, which could pose a potential danger to birds in the area. A supplementary final warning letter was sent to the United Kingdom for its failure, inter alia to designate a number of large estuaries as Natura sites under the Habitats Directive.

This inventory has acknowledged scientific value and is used by the Commission and the Court as a reference for assessing the extent to which Member States have complied with their obligation. The Commission decided to close an infringement procedure brought against Germany under Article for failing to comply fully with a judgment of European Court of Justice requiring it to propose sufficient sites of Community interest under the Habitats Directive.

Since the Court judgment the Commission and the German authorities have worked together to identify which further habitats and species should be proposed for designation under the Directive. The Commission sent Germany a final warning in December as it was still not satisfied that sufficient SCIs had been proposed.

Since then, however, Germany has proposed further designations and the Commission considers that these now allow it to close the infringement procedure. The aim of infringement procedures under climate change legislation is to ensure that the European Union and its Member States meet all their various obligations under the UN Climate Change Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, notably to ensure that the EU Emissions Trading Scheme is fully operational and that the monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions is effective within the EU.

The Commission sent warning letters to several Member States for failing to submit national allocation plans for the second trading period of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. The deadline for doing so was 30 June and is laid down in the Emissions Trading Directive. In national allocation plans governments fix the total number of emission allowances and state methodologies to allocate them to individual installations covered by the Emissions Trading Scheme.

The national allocation plans for are an important element in Member States' strategies for achieving their emission targets under the Kyoto Protocol, which have to be met during the same period. Once Member States submit national allocation plans, the Commission has three months to assess them. The Commission attaches a high priority to taking its decisions on all allocation plans so that conditions for trading in are established and that no Member State will allocate more than needed.

The Commission also took action against Member States for failing to provide complete reports on their progress in limiting or cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The deadline for Member States to submit the reports was 15 January under Article 3 1 and 15 March under Article 3 2. The fixing of the assigned amount is a condition for a Member State's eligibility to participate in the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol such as Emissions Trading, the Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation, which allow countries to invest in emission-saving projects in third countries that generate emission credits.

Over 10, installations that are participating in the EU emissions trading scheme are not given emission allowances in printed form, but these are held in accounts in electronic registries set up by Member States. These registries are linked up via the Community Independent Transaction Log so that companies can directly trade with each other.

In order to link up to the registries system, each Member State must establish a national registry in the form of a standardised electronic database as well as a communication link. In , the Commission initiated several infringement procedures for failure to do so. Several cases responding to bad application of Bathing Water Directive[] were opened in The European Commission began an infringement procedure with Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden which had been removing bathing sites from their official lists and thereby avoiding application of rules aimed at protecting the health of bathers.

The Commission sent a first written warning to Poland after receiving complaints about at least eight road projects in North East Poland - new roads, bypasses or upgrades, which may be part of Via Baltica, the Helsinki-Warsaw road corridor. By going ahead with these individual road projects, the Polish authorities are influencing the final decision on the Via Baltica route, which has yet to be formally adopted.

The authorisation process for these projects is in breach of certain articles of nature protection legislation on deterioration of sites, significant disturbance of species, lack of appropriate assessment in situations likely to have significant effects on sites, and not taking into account the cumulative effects of projects on nature protection sites, either individually or collectively.

This is followed by a hydrothermal treatment. This method works for virtually all hydrotalcites that can be represented. A summary of such coprecipitation syntheses can be found eg in " Catalysis Today "11 2 , , pages to , in particular pages to These methods are limited in terms of technical application, since they require in part a certain quality of the soluble raw materials raw material costs and a pretreatment of the raw materials synthesis time and are very expensive equipment.

In addition, in the reaction as by-products soluble salts, such as sodium chloride, which must be washed out either from the precipitate of the precursor or from the final product, which requires larger amounts of wash water and increases the salt load of the wastewater. Among the most common and cheapest soluble salts are the chlorides of metals.

Chlorides cause severe corrosion in the system components. Parts of the system which come into contact with these raw materials must be designed accordingly. In general, only titanium equipment or coatings come into question. This leads to high costs for the equipment of the plant. In der Regel liegt dieser Wert im neutralen bis schwach basischen Bereich. Einer der Nachteile dieser Methode liegt in dem Problem, dass die Herstellung phasenreiner Produkte nur schwer gelingt.

The salt-oxide method describes the reaction of a metal salt with the oxide or hydroxide of the other metal. With acids or alkalis, the pH is finally set to an optimum value. As a rule, this value is in the neutral to weakly basic range. For example, MgO can be reacted with AlCl 3 to hydrotalcite.

With skillful choice of raw materials there is a cost advantage over coprecipitation, since the oxides are generally cheaper than the soluble salts. The wastewater also contains less salts. One of the disadvantages of this method lies in the problem that the production of phase-pure products is difficult to achieve. Neben vergleichsweise niedrigen Rohstoffkosten gibt es relativ wenig Salze im Abwasser.

The third method involves the reaction of oxides, hydroxides or carbonates of divalent and trivalent metals. In the patent literature, like the DE 20 61 , of the US 5,, and the US 5,, there are examples of this method. In addition to relatively low raw material costs, there are relatively few salts in the wastewater. Isupov, L. Chupakhina und R. Mitrofanova J. Dabei werden die Edukte trocken mechanisch aktiviert, indem eine Mischung aus Magnesiumhydroxid und einem Aluminiumsalz in einem Aktivator bei einer Beschleunigung von 60 g behandelt werden.

The educts are dry activated mechanically by treating a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and an aluminum salt in an activator at an acceleration of 60 g. Figusch und E. Figusch and E. As far as hydrotalcite is also produced, aqueous suspensions of MgCO 3. Es wird eine optionale Homogenisierung der Slurry beschrieben. An optional homogenization of the slurry is described.

This is followed by calcination, resuspension and aging of the moldings. Ihr Metallgehalt ist aufgrund des allgemein hohen Anionenanteils gering z. In summary, when using low-cost raw materials so far usually no high and constant product quality can be produced. The following essential disadvantages must be deduced from the state of the art: High costs of the raw materials used: Soluble salts are offered in the form of solutions eg MgCl 2 solution or AlCl 3 solution or solids. Solid products of soluble salts are more expensive than their solutions and can not be used economically.

Their metal content is low due to the generally high anion content eg MgCl 2. As far as oxides or hydroxides of the metals are to be used, however, they must be very reactive for a successful reaction. This in turn leads to high raw material prices. Ziel bei der Planung neuer Anlagen ist unter anderem ein schonender Umgang mit Ressourcen und der Umwelt. Die Anionen-Anteile, die nicht im Produkt eingebaut werden, gelangen ins Abwasser.

The aim of planning new plants is, among other things, the careful use of resources and the environment. When using salt solutions, the transport costs are disproportionately high due to the relatively low active ingredient content. The anion components that are not incorporated in the product get into the wastewater. According to the prior art as active as possible raw materials are used, especially if suspensions of solids are to be used. With active raw materials the storability is limited.

Die aktiven Rohstoffe sind in einer Anlage schwieriger zu handhaben. Bei zu langen Standzeiten bzw. Speziell MgO ist als aktiver Rohstoff schwierig zu handhaben. Die aktiven Spezies sollten als Suspensionen mit niedrigen Feststoffgehalten eingesetzt werden. The active raw materials are more difficult to handle in a plant.

The processing of these active raw materials is also problematic, since the reactivities change greatly due to different service lives in the plant. As a result, high quality fluctuations occur in the end product hydrotalcite. For example, MgO binds in water with strong evolution of heat.

Excessively long service lives or plant breakdowns therefore pose a safety risk to an aqueous MgO suspension. Specifically, MgO as an active raw material is difficult to handle. The active species should be used as suspensions with low solids contents. In the case of suspensions that are excessively diluted, however, the costs in the area of the batches increase because larger volumes have to be treated boiler size, pump units, stirring elements. Eine andere Schwierigkeit ergibt sich z.

Die Zucker werden nicht in das Produkt eingebaut und gelangen ins Abwasser. Another difficulty arises, for example, when using aluminum in the form of cheap and easily available aluminate solutions. They are stabilized with sugar derivatives to prevent crystallization of Al OH 3 during storage. The sugars are not incorporated into the product and get into the sewage.

Here you increase the COD value above the permissible limits. Cheap grades of sodium aluminate solutions have varying active substance contents. Bei Verwendung wenig reaktiver Rohstoffe gelingt es andererseits nicht, den Hydrotalcit mit hoher Phasenreinheit. On the other hand, when using less reactive raw materials, it is not possible to produce the hydrotalcite with high phase purity. There are phases of the starting materials to find, or other phases that indicate incomplete conversion of the raw materials.

The quality of the hydrotalcite obtained is for certain applications, e. The object of the invention was therefore to provide a process for the preparation of hydrotalcites that allows the advantageous use of inexpensive and environmentally friendly starting materials in the Hydrotalcitherstellung, avoids the above disadvantages of the prior art and still provides high quality hydrotalcites.

This object is achieved by the method according to claim 1. Preferred embodiments are specified in the subclaims. Vorzugsweise liegt der D 90 -Wert d. Preferred embodiments of the invention relate to the aforementioned compounds derived from the ideal formula [Mg 6 Al 2 OH 16 ] CO 3. Hydrotalcite has some magnesium ions over brucite Aluminum ions are replaced, whereby the single layer receives a positive charge. In the hydrotalcites according to the invention, the carbonate present primarily in the intermediate layers can subsequently be exchanged in whole or in part by one or more of the abovementioned anions, including anions having organic radicals.

With the present invention, inexpensive, commercially available inactive standard raw materials for the production of high quality hydrotalcites can advantageously be used. The process runs safely and pollutes the environment especially wastewater only very slightly.

Furthermore, the inventive method allows the production of finely divided, powdered hydrotalcites, in particular with an average particle size D 50 in the range of 0. Beispiele solcher inaktiver Rohstoffe sind die Oxide, Hydroxide und Carbonate der zwei- und dreiwertigen Metalle, bevorzugt von Magnesium und Zink, wobei unter dem Ausdruck "Carbonate" sowohl die neutralen Carbonate z.

MgCO 3 als auch die basischen Carbonate z. Magnesia alba bzw. Mg HCO 3 2 verstanden werden sollen. Besonders bevorzugt sind auch die Oxide von Zink und die Oxide von Aluminium. Inactive raw materials are those which are insoluble, ie a solubility in the reaction medium or solvent used, preferably water, at 25 degrees Celsius and pH 6 to 7 of less than 5 x 10 -8 , in particular less than 1 x 10 -9 , preferably less than 5 x 10 Such products are relatively storage stable, easy to handle and generally less expensive than active products.

The inactive raw materials can surprisingly be activated inexpensively by intensive grinding by the process according to the invention and converted into a high-quality hydrotalcite. Examples of such inactive raw materials are the oxides, hydroxides and carbonates of the divalent and trivalent metals, preferably of magnesium and zinc, where under the term "carbonates" both the neutral carbonates eg MgCO 3 and the basic carbonates eg Magnesia alba or the bicarbonates eg Mg HCO 3 2 are to be understood, the oxides of zinc and the oxides of aluminum being particularly preferred.

These insoluble inactive raw materials components A and B, respectively, which are not used as a solution are preferably used as suspensions. Dabei kann jeweils eine oder mehr als eine Verbindung verwendet werden, wobei unterschiedliche zwei- bzw. According to the invention, at least one source of a divalent metal and at least one source of a trivalent metal are used.

One or more than one compound can be used in each case, it being possible for different divalent or trivalent metals to be present. Mischung der Suspension. It was surprisingly found that in order to achieve particularly good results, the intensive milling should be carried out so that an average particle size D 50 between about 0. Letztendlich wird dadurch ein hochwertiger und feinteiliger Hydrotalcit erhalten, der sich beispielsweise besonders gut zur Verwendung als Kunststoffadditiv eignet.

Ultimately, a high quality and finely divided hydrotalcite is thereby obtained, which is for example particularly well suited for use as a plastic additive. The intensive grinding can generally be carried out with any suitable grinding device as long as the parameters according to the invention are observed. The intensive grinding is preferably carried out in a wet mill, in particular in a bead mill or annular gap mill.

During grinding, a high amount of energy about 0. In the final stage of milling, in a preferred embodiment, the amount of energy may be reduced, e. Preferably, the intensive milling is at a pH in the range of about 7 to During the grinding, a temperature increase takes place. According to the method of the invention, at least one of the starting components, i.

Insofar as the starting components for hydrotalcite production have already been sufficiently activated by the intensive milling provided in the method according to the invention, in many cases additional intensive grinding is no longer required during or after mixing the compounds of divalent and trivalent metals. The same can apply if only one of the above components A and B is used as an inactive raw material, in particular as a suspension, while the other component is used in the form of a solution.

Als Verbindung des dreiwertigen Metalls Komponente B kann dann Aluminiumhydroxid eingesetzt werden, das durch Zugabe von Natronlauge zu Natriumaluminat umgesetzt wird. According to a particularly preferred embodiment, inactive magnesium oxide is used as the compound of the divalent metal component A and subjected to the intensive grinding according to the invention.

As the compound of trivalent metal component B can then be used aluminum hydroxide, which is converted by the addition of sodium hydroxide to sodium aluminate. Intensive grinding of the sodium aluminate solution is thus not required. The initially inactive magnesium oxide is at least partially converted into the hydroxide during the intensive grinding wet grinding. Preferably, carbon dioxide is already supplied as a carbonate source at this time.

Subsequently, the mixture is mixed with the compound of trivalent metal, preferably the above-mentioned sodium aluminate solution. Insofar as the intensive grinding takes place according to a preferred embodiment during or after the mixing of the compounds of divalent and trivalent metals, it can be advantageously continued until an amorphous or crystalline hydrotalcite phase is formed. Durch eine solche Intensivmahlung der Mischsuspension, die z. By such intensive grinding of the mixed suspension, e.

The amorphous hydrotalcite precursor phase is present in a small grain size. When increasing the amount of energy input, e. Carbonat pro Mol eingesetzte dreiwertige Metalle angesehen. It has been found that in order to obtain good results in the process according to the invention, a carbonate source must be added in excess.

The excess is considered to be 1. The addition is carried out according to the invention before or during the mixing of the compounds of divalent and trivalent metal, but in any case before a possibly carried out hydrothermal aftertreatment of the approach. Jedoch wird die Zugabe von CO 2 deutlich bevorzugt.

It has surprisingly been found that the addition of carbon dioxide as a carbonate source gives particularly advantageous results. Alternatively, the carbonate can also be carried out via the use of a corresponding carbonate-containing compound of the di- or trivalent metal or by additional addition of carbonate-containing salts.

However, the addition of CO 2 is clearly preferred. By adding CO 2 , the pH of the suspension of the raw materials or the mixed suspension can be adjusted to the desired value or held there. If, according to one embodiment of the invention, at least one of the components A or B is activated separately by intensive grinding, this is done according to the invention shortly before further reaction in the process according to the invention.

This is to ensure that the activation achieved by the intensive grinding is not lost by undesired reactions before the reaction in the process according to the invention. As a rule, therefore, the intensive grinding is carried out for a maximum of 5 hours before the further reaction according to the method according to the invention. It is believed that the active particle surfaces formed during intensive milling may play a role. Der Feststoffgehalt der eingesetzten Suspension en bzw.

Diese Grenzen haben sich auch im Hinblick auf die zur Intensivmahlung eingesetzten Vorrichtungen als praktikabel erwiesen. These limits have also proven to be practicable with regard to the devices used for intensive grinding. Somit sind Umsetzungszeiten vor der thermalen oder hydrothermalen Weiterverarbeitung zwischen 0 und 48 Stunden in der Regel ausreichend. The reaction of the mixture of the compounds of divalent and trivalent metals components A and B starts immediately.

Thus, conversion times before the thermal or hydrothermal processing between 0 and 48 hours usually enough. Natriumaluminat ersetzt werden. Letzteres hydrolysiert in der Suspension, so dass im Ergebnis eine Reaktion zwischen dem gebildeten Aluminiumhydroxid und dem Carbonat des zweiwertigen Metalls stattfindet. The latter hydrolyzes in the suspension, so that as a result a reaction takes place between the aluminum hydroxide formed and the carbonate of the divalent metal. The resulting NaOH is used to adjust the pH.

Dieser liegt vorzugsweise im Bereich von etwa 6 bis 13,5. In this way, the pH of the suspension can be adjusted to the desired value. This is preferably in the range of about 6 to These soluble carbonates or bicarbonates can also be added using the insoluble carbonates of the divalent metals. Die amorphe Hydrotalcitphase bzw. The individual phases depend on the size of the system. The hydrothermal aftertreatment further increases the proportion of the crystalline hydrotalcite phase characterized by a sharp X-ray diffraction pattern, while the proportion of the amorphous hydrotalcite precursor phase correspondingly decreases.

Im allgemeinen wird aus den Rohstoffen eine Suspension Schlempe mit einem Feststoffgehalt von etwa 30 bis 60 Gew. In general, a suspension vinasse with a solids content of about 30 to 60 wt. In the course of the grinding process, the viscosity of the vinasse increases. In a preferred embodiment, a particle size of approximately 0. Letzterer liefert die Kristallisationskeime bei der optionalen weiteren Aufarbeitung durch eine hydrothermale Nachbehandlung.

If an intensive grinding of the mixing suspension containing components A and B takes place, the introduced energy leads directly to the formation of a mixed phase of an X-ray amorphous and a crystalline hydrotalcite. The latter provides the crystallization seeds in the optional further workup by a hydrothermal aftertreatment. This process step is significantly better in comparison to a known hydrothermal hydrotalcite synthesis higher crystallinity, higher yield, shorter synthesis time and better quality.

As a result of the upstream intensive grinding process, as mentioned above, the overall process can thus be optimized with regard to greater flexibility in the choice of raw materials cheaper raw materials and shorter synthesis times. Wird die Schlempe im Kreislauf durch den Mahlraum gepumpt, kann durch die Mahlung auf direktem Wege kristalliner Hydrotalcit hergestellt werden, ohne dass eine hydrothermale Nachbehandlung erforderlich ist.

Examinations of the X-ray diffraction spectrum showed that the proportion of crystalline hydrotalcite in the vinasse increased with increasing residence time in the grinding chamber. If the vinasse is pumped through the grinding chamber in the cycle, the grinding can be used to produce crystalline hydrotalcite in a direct manner, without the need for hydrothermal aftertreatment. The grinding process proceeds particularly favorably when using basic carbonates or bicarbonates of divalent metals and of aluminum hydroxide.

Dabei zeigen:. According to Fig. Depending on the degree of grinding, one obtains predominantly an amorphous hydrotalcite phase with a small proportion of crystalline hydrotalcite phase left branch of the process scheme or predominantly the crystalline hydrotalcite phase with a smaller proportion of amorphous hydrotalcite phase right branch of the process scheme.

In the right branch, no hydrothermal post-treatment is carried out, and the product is immediately isolated, dried and calcined. Die amorphe Hydrotalcitphase wird im linken Zweig einer hydrothermalen Nachbehandlung unterzogen, wobei der geringe Anteil an kristalliner Hydrotalcitphase die Kristallisationskeime liefert.

Das erhaltene Produkt wird filtriert, getrocknet und gegebenenfalls calciniert. The amorphous hydrotalcite phase is subjected to a hydrothermal aftertreatment in the left branch, the small proportion of crystalline hydrotalcite phase providing the nuclei.

The product obtained is filtered, dried and optionally calcined. Dabei erfolgt auch eine zumindest teilweise Umsetzung zu Magnesiumhydroxid. Subsequently, the intensive grinding according to the invention is carried out as wet grinding. In this case, an at least partial conversion to magnesium hydroxide takes place.

Subsequently, the addition of carbon dioxide, whereby on the one hand, the pH can be lowered and adjusted to the desired range between pH 9 and pH At the same time, the excess of carbon dioxide provides the carbonate required for the intermediate hydrotalcite layers.

After mixing the Na aluminate solution with the MgO suspension treated as described above to a mixed suspension and reacting it for about 1 hour, a conventional hydrothermal treatment may be followed to achieve the desired hydrotalcite crystallite size. Finally, a filtration, then drying and optionally a deagglomeration. The hydrotalcites obtainable by the process according to the invention can in particular be used either as a catalysts or catalyst supports or b as fillers and co-stabilizers for polymers.

However, the products obtained in the hydrothermal aftertreatment are also suitable for this application if catalysts or catalyst supports having a lower surface area and larger crystallites are desired. Weitere Reaktionen sind in Chem. These catalysts can be used for all reactions in which hydrotalcite catalysts were used.

Examples are the synthesis of glycol ethers from olefin oxides US-A-5,, and the epoxidation of olefins US-A-5,, Other reactions are in Chem. For other reactions, the hydrotalcites according to the invention can be coated with activating components, such as nickel and noble metals. In this form, the catalysts are suitable for hydrogenations, dehydrogenations, alkylations, etc. The crystalline hydrotalcites obtainable according to the invention are particularly well suited for use as fillers, since they can be prepared completely white, which makes it possible to produce completely white or translucent polymeric composite materials.

Furthermore, there was surprisingly an excellent incorporability of the hydrotalcites obtainable by the process according to the invention in plastics. However, depending on the requirements of the individual case, the amorphous hydrotalcite precursor phase can also be used for this purpose.

As a polymer phase for the nanocomposite fillers used in the invention, almost all technically usable polymer materials are suitable. Im allgemeinen umfassen diese Verfahren folgende Schrittet. Geeignete Polymere sind z. Polyolefine, Polyhalogenkohlenwasserstoffe z.

Polyolefins, polyhalogenated hydrocarbons e. High-shear dispersing aggregates include high-speed stirrers, colloid mills, kneaders, extruders and other dispersing units. The dispersion can be carried out at room temperature or at elevated temperature.

Im ersten Fall fangen sie das bei der Zersetzung entstehende HCl ab. The hydrotalcites according to the invention are also suitable as co-stabilizers for polymers, in particular for polyhalogenated hydrocarbons and olefins. In the first case, they catch the HCl which forms during the decomposition.

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