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The cult of Sherlock Holmes is well known. When Dirty Harry or some other avenging hero kills off a string of villains, the audience is expected to identify with him, to revel in his success, to feel their own finger on the trigger.
It is conceivable that pushing a button or manipulating a toggle stick engenders an even deeper surge of aggressive joy, but of that there is no evidence at all. It was established in after that concerns arose about strong violence or sexual references in video games such as Night Trap, Mortal Kombat and Doom. The rating categories are: Early childhood.
The content of video games with this rating is intended for young children. Kendrick, et al. This content is generally suitable for all ages. It may contain mild or cartoon violence and infrequent use of mild language. This content is intended for people aged 10 or older.
Titles in this category may contain more mild or cartoon violence, mild language and minimal suggestive themes. This content is generally suitable for persons aged 13 and older. It may contain violence, suggestive themes, crude humour, minimal blood, simulated gambling and infrequent use of strong language. Video games with this rating are generally suitable for people aged 17 and older. The game may contain intense violence, blood and gore, sexual content and the use of strong language.
Adults only. This content is suitable for adults aged 18 and older. Rating Pending. A video game with this rating has been submitted to the ESRB and is awaiting a final rating. It generally appears on advertising material before the game is released. Together with age rating symbols content descriptors can be found, which give further details about the content of the game: Alcohol Reference.
Animated Blood. Unrealistic depictions of blood. Realistic depictions of blood. Blood and Gore. Depictions of blood and mutilation of body parts. Cartoon Violence. Violent actions involving cartoon-like situations and characters. May include violence where a character is unharmed after the action has been inflicted. Depictions or dialogue involving slapstick or suggestive humour.
Crude Humour. Depictions or dialogue involving vulgar antics, including toilet humour. Drug Reference. Reference to and images of illegal drugs. Fantasy Violence. Violent actions of a fantasy nature with human or non-human characters in situations easily distinguishable from real life. Intense Violence. Mild to moderate use of bad language. Mild references to profanity, sexuality, violence, alcohol or drug use in music. Mature Humour.
Graphic or prolonged depictions of nudity. Partial Nudity. Real Gambling. The player can gamble using real cash or currency. Sexual Content. Non-explicit depictions of sexual behaviour, possibly including partial nudity. Sexual Themes. References to sex or sexuality. Sexual Violence - Depictions of rape or other violent sexual acts. Simulated Gambling. The player can gamble without using real cash or currency. Strong Language. Strong Lyrics.
Strong Sexual Content. Suggestive Themes. Mild provocative references or materials. Tobacco Reference. Use of Alcohol. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is displayed. Use of Drugs. The consumption or use of illegal drugs is displayed. Use of Tobacco. The consumption of tobacco products is displayed. Scenes involving aggressive conflict that may contain bloodless dismemberment. References to violent acts. The Pan-European Game Information PEGI rating system The Pan-European Game Information age rating system was established in to help customers — especially parents — have information about the content of a video game before buying it.
The game is suitable for all ages. Some violence in a comical context is accepted, but there must be nothing that could scary or frighten young children. Bad language is banned. PEGI 7. It represents games that would be normally rated at 3, but contains scenes or sounds that may result scary or frightening. PEGI Games with this rating my contain violence in a fantasy setting. There could be moderate bad language and mild sexual references. Violence or sexual activities are portrayed realistically.
Games with this rating may contain extreme depiction of violence, including gratuitous violence, strong sexual content, strong language and glamorisation of drug use. The game contains bad language, such as profanity, threats or sexual innuendo. The game contains depiction of, or materials that may encourage, discrimination based on race, ethnicity, gender or sexual preferences.
The game refers to or depicts the use of drugs. The game contains scenes that are considered frightening or disturbing for young people. Elements in the game may encourage or teach gambling. The game may depict nudity or characters in suggestive clothing, and may contain references to sexual attraction or sexual intercourse.
The game may contain scenes of people getting injured or dying, often because of the use of weapons. Online Gameplay. The game can be played online. This category includes games for children and young persons, but also family-friendly games and titles for adults which do not represent any child protection risks for example simulation or management games.
Approved for children aged 6 and above in accordance with Art. Such games are similar to those of the previous category, but considered generally more exciting and competitive for example, games with faster speed and more complex tasks. Approved for children aged 12 and above in accordance with Art.
These games are more competitive, but the scenarios where they are set is fictional and enables players to distance themselves sufficiently from events. Approved for children aged 16 and above in accordance with Art. These games may present acts of violence and the use of weapons.
Action adventure, military strategy and shooting games fall within this category. Not approved for young persons aged under 18 in accordance with Art. These video games feature a vivid, brutal and realistic representation of violence and frequently generate a dark and threatening atmosphere. Titles on this list can be sold only to people over the age of 18, cannot be advertised in any media or displayed in shops.
Only games that are rated as not harmful to young people can obtain a USK rating. Dead bodies must disappear after a character is killed, and mutilated body parts cannot be displayed. Dialogues may also require revision if they contain too much profanity. Germany, moreover, is strict on hate symbols, particularly those related to the Nazi regime: swastikas and other Nazi elements are generally not allowed, unless they are placed in a historical context, and even in this case they may be subject to severe regulations.
Video games as a solitary activity Another general idea against video games is that video games are not only a solitary activity, but that they even contribute to creating lone individuals. In other words, the computer destroys social relations and playing.
PC games were usually copied for friends and this state of affairs, although sometimes illegal, fostered interaction among gamers. On this level, the screen play provides an Carsten Jessen For some games, collaboration with other users is not only desirable, but even necessary if the player wants to complete the game.
In order to collect all of them, the player had to connect up with someone who had the other version of the game and engage in a battle or trade. The player can of course play alone, but the fun of titles such as Wii Sports Figure 1. The standard game allows up to four players to simulate the performance of a rock band by playing with controllers modelled after musical instruments. Players can play lead guitar, bass guitar, keyboard, and drums parts to songs, as well as sing using a dedicated microphone.
Players score on their ability to match scrolling musical notes while playing instruments. Once again, games like Rock Band aim to increase the amount of time that players of all age can spend together. The audience was somehow asked to pretend that what was performed on stage was actually plausible.
Suspension of disbelief is extremely important in any kind of story-telling, and this applies to video games as well, where players experience a high degree of immersion that derives from simultaneous elements working together: video, written text, spoken text, music, sometimes even tactile stimuli think of gamepads that vibrate when the player hits against a wall, for instance.
But, above all, a video game user is getting into the fantastic world of a video game through active interaction: Video game players do not watch an automobile race; they take an active part in it. They do not follow the adventures of unsullied and fearless heroes […]; they are those heroes. MultiLingual, October , Vol. Suspension of disbelief is considered to be one of the main ingredients in creating a successful videogame, but there is a constant risk of breaking it, since video games are a collective effort, the result of sometimes years of cooperation among hundreds of people: keeping everyone constantly focused on the overall picture can be demanding, but it is absolutely necessary to create the magic in a game.
It is an action-adventure stealth video game that achieved great success thanks to its visuals, a great soundtrack and its original ideas, while giving players a deep and intricate story and unconventional characters to deal with. After each day, Kojima would see which ideas he liked and if it was possible to implement them in the game.
This was done in order to get the whole Ibidem. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She underwent a 3D scan of her face, motion capture and facial capture sessions, as well as voice recording: the result is that the character Quiet will look, move and talk exactly like her Figure 1.
It is an action-adventure video game set in an open world, which means that players can go wherever they want, without being limited by artificial obstacles such as invisible walls or loading screens. Other elements draw references to the novel, such as cult of personality for the director of the vault, the Overseer, who imposes martial law and controls brutal security forces. PMC soldiers are equipped with nanomachines that enhance their abilities on the battlefield and even control their emotions.
The protagonist, Solid Snake, has visibly aged and is now on a mission in the Middle East to find and eliminate Revolver Ocelot. It is not just a game about shooting and action. It features long animated sequences, making the boundaries between video game and film Figure 1.
Video games are generally triumphant, the protagonist is a powerful hero and he eventually succeeds in saving the world or the princess, or completing the mission and there is a happy ending. The protagonist is aging and dying, he coughs when smoking and his back hurts. Video games and art The idea of video games as an art form has been a controversial topic. Debates started in the late s, but became known to the wide public only in , when film critic Roger Ebert, during an online interview, explained that video games, because of the very nature of the medium, cannot be regarded as an art form: To my knowledge, no one in or out of the field has ever been able to cite a game worthy of comparison with the great dramatists, poets, filmmakers, novelists and composers.
That a game can aspire to artistic importance as a visual experience, I accept. But for most gamers, video games represent a loss of those precious hours we have available to make ourselves more cultured, civilized and empathetic. Video games are made by hundreds, sometimes even thousands of people: they represent a collective effort, not the result of a creative genius. Despite of that, he explained that he does not consider video games as art: Art is something that radiates the artist.
A videogame should make sure that all people that play that game should enjoy the service provided by that videogame. The New York Times. One example is Journey, released in for PlayStation 3 Figure 1. The player takes the role of a robed figure that wakes up in the middle of a desert made of shimmering golden dunes. There is no direction given, no instructions.
The player is immediately attracted by a huge mountain with a crevice on top, looming on the horizon. The player can walk and jump and the only way to interact with the environment is with a chime, that makes things come to life. Journey is not about completing a level or getting a high score. None of these elements are there: there is no time limit and the player cannot die or fail.
Journey cannot actually be defined a game. Not in a conventional sense, at any rate. No message that another player is entering the game is given, no instructions and no specified purpose or advantage to interact. The player simply sees another robed wanderer in the distance, and can choose to either ignore or approach him. And at the centre of Journey, is the conundrum — how do two players Keith Stuart 15 March And what is the game trying to tell us, anyway?
The game requires only a minimal interaction from the player, there is no mission to complete or enemies to fight and all the player can do is wander around. Dear Esther focuses on the story, told through epistolary fragments and read in first person by a middle-aged well-spoken Englishman, who recounts events from his life, both past and present, that lead up to his incarceration on the island. During his last monologue he jumps off and while falling down his shadow turns into that of a seagull.
Here are two extracts of narration from the game Dear Esther. I have found myself to be as featureless as this ocean, as shallow and unoccupied as this bay, a listless wreck without identification. My rocks are these bones and a careful fence to keep the precipice at bay. Shot through me caves, my forehead a mount, this aerial will transmit into me so. I will carry a torch for you; I will leave it at the foot of my headstone.
You will need it for the tunnels that carry me under. I have been folded along a crease in time, a weakness in the sheet of life. When we become waterlogged, and the cage disintegrates, we will intermingle. When this paper aeroplane leaves the cliff edge, and carves parallel vapour trails in the dark, we will come together.
The narrated story is accompanied by marvellous graphics depicting the island and a suggestive and haunting soundtrack. All these elements merge perfectly together, and make Dear Esther different from an average game: Dear Esther is more of an experience than a game. The story in Dear Esther works well in video game form--possibly more than as a book or movie. Obviously, the narration and images could be conveyed in either medium, but video games allow for pacing and discovery that would be impossible to reproduce elsewhere.
It is based on a true story: Joel Green, the four-year-old son of programmer Ryan Green, was diagnosed with brain cancer when he was one Figure 1. The doctors expected him to live a couple of weeks, of months at the most. But after several surgical interventions, chemotherapy and radiation treatments the kid, against all odds, is still alive. His father decided to make a video game to tell the experience of raising a child with terminal cancer. It was gut wrenching. The greatest artists, you see, want to communicate in the most popular media of the time, they want to be heard.
Because video games are now a language and language is a tool of expression and change. They represent a new way to tell a story and convey emotions. They can be fun but also critical. They can tell a fictional story or transport players directly inside the Iranian revolution. Figure 1. Globalisation, internationalisation, localisation Video games have become both increasingly popular and articulated at the same time. As Johann Roturier explains: Since its birth in the early s the video game industry has passed several milestones, starting with the entry of Sega and Nintendo in the s, followed by Sony in the mids and Microsoft in In order for video game producers to access international markets and both increase and accelerate their ROI return on investment , translating games was felt as necessary.
Bert Esselink highlights the monetary interests which lie behind localisation, generally intended as the translation from one language to another: Over the past decades, localization has progressed from being an added effort by some software publishers to a multi-billion dollar professional industry. Localization, web site globalization, language engineering, and software internationalization have become important issues for companies that want to James Newman, Videogames, p.
Dunedin: University of Otago, , here p. In many cases, localization has proven to be the key factor for international product acceptance and success. Making a product or, in this case, a software product ready for the international market is something that cannot be improvised and requires specific efforts and accurate planning.
This process is generally referred to as product globalisation Figure 2. Globalisation means designing a product with international vocation in mind from the very beginning. It is not a process that starts once the product has been finished; it actually influences and determines how a product will be designed.
In order to be successful, globalisation cannot be treated as an afterthought or a minor concern. According to LISA Localization Industry Standards Association , globalisation can be imagined as a cycle rather than a single process, where two main processes combine together and affect each other: internationalisation and localisation.
LISA defines internationalisation as follows: Internationalization is the process of enabling a product at a technical level for localization. In other words, an internationalized product does not require remedial engineering or redesign at the time of localization. Instead, it has been designed and built to be easily adapted for a specific market after the engineering phase.
Internationalisation requires technical elements to be taken into account. The software should also be able to properly display languages — such as Hebrew and Arabic — that are written from right to left. Another important element to consider during the internationalisation process is represented by cultural aspects which may need to be modified or eliminated in order to accommodate an international audience.
Elements such as violence and gore, sexuality, bad language or drugs can hurt the sensitivity of foreign cultures and could even cause a video game to be banned or retired from the market see 1. If all these aspects have been carefully taken into account, a successful localisation process is possible. This is how Chandler defines localisation: Localization is the actual process of translating the language assets in a game into another language. The latest version of Unicode contains a repertoire of more than , characters covering scripts.
Collins English Dictionary — Complete and Unabridged. Bernal Merino July The Journal of Specialised Translation, Issue 6: , here p. Software vs game localisation Game software localisation and application software localisation share similarities. In both cases language translation is combined with software engineering and space for text is limited, which of course constrains freedom in translation. Another element in common is the so called sim-ship simultaneous shipment model : releasing the original product generally in English together with its localised versions.
While the former has English as the main language and a predominance of references to North American cultural background, the latter has a predominance of Japanese as the main language and Japanese cultural models. Moreover, a video game is software meant to be entertaining rather than productive. A software application tutorial aims to illustrate as quick and clear as possible how the software is to be used for example, how to save or open a document in Word.
In video games, tutorials explain the basic controls to the player, but do not tell them how to actually win the game. Indeed, success with the game is not guaranteed it is simply possible and tutorials may be partial or even purportedly vague, in order not to spoil exploration in and with the game. Kolko Perspectives - Studies In Translatology, 14 4 , , , here p. Degrees of localisation Chandler distinguishes between different levels of game localisation, namely no localisation, packaging and manual localisation, partial localisation and full localisation.
Packaging, manual and the game itself are not translated. This generally happens for titles that are not expected to generate big sales abroad and are usually minor titles; the publisher simply tries to sell some extra copies abroad with little or no risk of investment. The game remains in the source language but manual, packaging and supporting materials are translated.
They will of course come handy to the end user explaining for example the commands and how to install the game, or giving a concise description of the story , but the game experience may not be as immersive for the player as in the original culture. This kind of localisation is done when the game is not expected to sell more than a few thousand copies in other countries. It is a low risk process, since both the game code and the game language are not altered by the developer.
The third option described by Chandler is partial localisation; all in-game text is translated, but voice- overs remain in the original language. This means, for instance, having the text and menus, tutorials, as well as manual and packaging fully translated into a target language, e. Italian, whereas the character voices are in English. This method is cost effective, since no money is spent to translate voice-overs, employ professional actors, rent a recording studio, record all the assets in another language and All the following descriptions about the different levels of localisation are taken from Heather Chandler, The Game Localization Handbook, pp.
A text-only localisation is riskier, because it requires altering the original game code, which means that more development and further testing will be necessary, but brings the game closer to the international player, who can fully understand and appreciate the story, which of course adds to the overall gaming experience. To conclude with, Chandler mentions full localisation. It is the most expensive option and is normally reserved to big titles, expected to generate big sales. Full localisation means translating voice-overs, text, manual and packaging.
Integrating localised voice-over files in a game can be challenging, especially if the localised version has to respect lip synching matching the recorded audio with the lip movements and facial animation of the character on screen ; this means that facial animations must be redone for each locale in order to deliver a quality product. Issue 11, January , Interviews.
The first video games appeared in the US market and could initially be found only in amusement arcades together with pinball machines, billiard and table football tables. The Japanese immediately realised the huge potential behind these products and were the first to join the market by the end of the decade, producing games that would have been sold in the US as well. Apart from the US there were barely cases of exportation; sometimes arcade games reached Europe, mainly the United Kingdom, but rarely made it to other European countries.
In any case, games were not localised yet. There was actually no need, since they contained little text, generally in English Figure 2. Even early Japanese-developed games did not have much text to be translated beyond a few simple sentences, or any significant culturally-bound content needing to be modified.
One of the best examples is Pac-Man, released in in Japan by Namco. In the game, Pac-Man has to eat dots and collect fruits in a maze, without being reached by four ghost enemies roaming around. This is one of the first examples where the contents of a game are altered to accommodate the target market. At the beginning of the s the entertainment industry experienced a setback, due mainly to the fact that games became repetitive and were lacking creativity see 1.
After a couple of years the industry recovered, and the first, new home entertainment consoles were released. One of the most popular video games for the NES Super Mario Bros, originally released in , whose manual and package was translated into German, French, Spanish, Italian and Dutch, although the in-game text remained in English it is interesting to note that the original Japanese game was not developed in Japanese but in English, one of the reasons for this being the fact that technological limitations made it easier to just include the 26 uppercase letters of the English alphabet in games rather than the around Japanese kana characters.
The Journal of Internationalisation and Localisation, Vol. A meaningful example of bad translation from Japanese can be found in the introduction of Zero Wing, a video game released in in Europe for Sega Mega Drive. Captain: What the heck was that? Communications operator: Captain! Captain: What? Captain: Y-you!! During the s video games began then to be localised, although the number of available languages was generally very limited. Meanwhile, technology moved forward and third-generation consoles hit the market.
Thanks to the use of the CD as storage medium, it was now possible to incorporate recorded dialogues within the game, although these were generally in English and were not translated into other languages. The use of subtitles — available for the source language, too — opened the entertainment market to the deaf and hard-of-hearing community and made video games more enjoyable and accessible for many more players.
During the last decade the video-game industry has grown significantly and full Figure 2. Some video game titles nowadays have the production budget of a blockbuster film see 1. With such production budgets, video games need to sell as much and as fast as possible, which makes localisation a key factor. Simultaneous shipment of all languages is also necessary, because games have a rather short life span, even when immensely successful. This means that localisation needs to start when the game is still in development, which of course has serious repercussions on the translation process.
Implications of localisation The general idea behind localisation is that localised products should retain the look and feel of the original, which is something that strays away from the idea of equivalence between source text and target text in translation studies. Localisers are given the liberty of including new cultural references, jokes, or any other element they deem necessary to preserve the game experience and to produce a fresh and engaging translation.
The technique of compensation, i. However, the extent of freedom in including new features in game localisation, regardless of the original content, departs completely from one of the central notions of traditional translation theories: fidelity to the original.
With games, fidelity takes a different meaning whereby the translator does not have to be loyal to the original text, but rather to the overall game experience. The answer is no, at least according to Bernal Merino. MultiLingual, September , Vol.
On the contrary, we must favour the target culture. The acceptance of the product by the receiving culture is more important than its nationality. The transition from fifth generation consoles see 1. The technical possibility of incorporating human voices and in-game text led to the need of dubbing and subtitling when localising video games.
Producing game titles in different language versions requires much more than conventional translation. It also involves wider considerations of international marketing. Technical aspects of localisation Text in a video game is made up of different components, or assets, which combine together to generate entertainment: in-game text assets, art assets, audio assets, cinematic assets and printed materials.
Text assets represent all that is visible in the game under the form of written text: descriptions and narrations, dialogues, menus, help messages, system messages, and so on. Art assets are images or graphic elements containing text. It is not simply text, but text embedded in graphic elements. If translated it is not always requested or even necessary such elements need to be redesigned by a graphic artist. As said above, audio and cinematic assets are not always localised and sometimes subtitles are used instead.
Printed materials are mainly the packaging and the instruction manual of the game. Working with different teams and with different kind of texts requires coordination and integration of different types of work. The engineering team is expected to know how language works within the game and, at the same time, translators need to possess some technical knowledge of how text will be integrated and what constraints it may be subject to.
One of them, for example, is space limitation when translating menus, tutorials and help messages. The number of characters is limited, abbreviations must generally be avoided, and the translated text has to result both functional and natural. Game translators need, of course, to be familiar with the game and possess a genre-specific knowledge in order to deliver a good translation. It is therefore necessary that a game translator be able to cope with such issues and possess sufficient familiarity with both hardware and software.
The translation would have made sense, but there would have been a consistency issue, since players who played previous episodes of the Kirby series would have been puzzled, perhaps even supposing it was a different ability. In order to avoid such errors, translators of a sequel can generally rely on glossaries and sometimes even translations from the previous game. Different textual typologies in video games Although video games are now a global phenomenon, the analysis of electronic entertainment from an academic and scientific point of view is still at an early stage.
Bernal Merino, that have been already quoted in this study. Merino lists six textual types which can be found in a video game: journalistic text, technical text, user-interface text, didactic text, legal text, narration and dialogue text. It can be found on the official website of the game, in parts of the manual and even as in-game text. World of Warcraft is an online game where players from around the world assume the roles of heroic fantasy characters and explore a virtual world full of mystery, magic, and endless adventure.
So much for the short answer! The text is relatively simple, but uses a specific jargon, and much attention must be paid to official trademark terminology. Bernal Merino October If you receive an error message about missing DLL files, reinstall DirectX from the install disc to correct the problem. User-interface text: it is represented by all the textual and graphical elements icons, for instance on screen that allow the user to actually interact with the game.
Figure 2. Didactic text: it explains how to run the game and how to play. It can be found in manuals, on dedicated websites and even in the game, under the form of tutorials or pop-up windows. Legal text: it generally refers to the terms and conditions the user accepts over purchase of a game or over installing by flagging the opposite option. What follows is an extract from Rockstar Games end user licence agreement: You agree not to: commercially exploit the Software; distribute, lease, license, sell, rent, convert into convertible currency, or otherwise transfer or assign the Software, or any copies of the Software, including but not limited to Virtual Goods or Virtual Currency defined below without the express prior written consent of Licensor or as expressly set forth in this Agreement.
One may think that plot in a video game is not so important, dismissing the story as a mere justification for action to take place the princess has been kidnapped and you, Mario, must embark on a mission to save her from the evil Bowser. This may be true for early games from the 70s and the beginning of the 80s. Nowadays different genres of video games boast an articulated storyline, which is not limited to RPGs: graphical adventure games, platform games, action adventure games often have a good story, although longer stories remain a prerogative of the RPG world.
It was a huge effort and resulted in a word count of around , words. Just to make a comparison, the whole trilogy of J. BioWare is one of the few companies that has full time employees dedicated entirely to writing. It is easy to imagine that localising a Formula 1 title, a first-person shooter set in World War II, a platform game based on the fictional character SpongeBob or a science-fiction role-playing game require different skills and will display different kinds of texts to different degrees.
Categorisations become even more complicated if a complex and compelling story is added to the game. A game such as Resident Evil — where the player impersonates a member of a rescue squad ended up in a scary mansion full of zombies and other monsters — can be considered an action game, a horror game, a survival game, a shooting game and a puzzle game; all these elements are held together thanks to an appealing and addictive story hinged on horror and mysteries.
In other words, the translation of video games may require a functionalist approach where particular strategies will be selected according to the context and the particular purpose or skopos to be fulfilled. Moving between domestication and foreignisation As seen in the previous paragraph, different textual types combine within a video game. From the point of view of translation, we can essentially divide games into two categories.
There is no freedom in this case; translation is constrained by a pre-existing terminology. Betraying the original translation may result in disappointed fans and therefore poor sales. Bernal Merino The contract signed by the game publisher with the licensee stipulated that all team members involved in the development were supposed to read the novel in the previous twelve months, as well as be able to pass a test on its contents. A source-oriented translation may preserve the original flavour of the game, but may sound odd or even difficult to understand to the receiving culture, eventually resulting in a poor quality product.
The Journal of Specialised Translation, Issue , here p. Domesticating strategies and their implications As previously mentioned, many games are now produced in Japan. Namco, Sega, Konami, Taito, Nintendo, Square, to name but a few, account for the most creative game developers of all time and are all headquartered in Japan.
Since there are not so many translators from Japanese into languages other than English, an indirect translation from English into other locales is often used. Instead of using simple subtitling, having the characters actually talking would have made the game experience even more intense.
Lip synchronisation was also used: lip movements and facial expressions matched the pre-recorded dialogues, so that characters appeared to really talk. The cost of such an undertaking would have been enormous, so it was decided to dub the game only in English and use subtitles for the other target languages instead.
It was imperative to respect as much as possible synchronicity especially in close-ups between lip movements and character dialogues. Rather than accepting the cultural adaptation, some players felt betrayed by such a translation. RPGs role-playing games such as the Final Fantasy series have particularly long and intricate storylines, and it is mainly in this kind of games that issues arise when translating, and where originality and creativity are being used at most.
Linguistic variation and neutralisation One interesting example of creativity is linguistic variation or the use of dialects in the target text for characterisation purposes, although absent in the original. As a fan explains on her Final Fantasy dedicated web page, the result of this choice is very amusing and suits the character very well.
In the Japanese version, she argues, he probably speaks with an Osaka or Kansai accent because they sound like the Cockney accent. Sometimes accents or idiolects, absent in the original, are added by translators during the localisation process to better depict a character and get deeper into the target culture, something that is indeed uncommon — perhaps even deemed wrong — Figure 2.
An example of this is Wakka, one of the main characters in Final Fantasy X; although he speaks standard Japanese in the original version of the game, he was dubbed as Hawaiian in the American version because of his look and because of the fact that he lives on an island Figure 2. Since then, the game community has grown and boasts 7. There are different races and factions and a strong interaction between users, which make the game one of the most successful of all times.
Although rather creative, the solution of using Neapolitan dialect was not appreciated very much and has been criticised by many Italian players. According to them, Neapolitan dialect sounds out of context and introduces an unintended comic effect in the game, which spoils and breaks the atmosphere of the fantasy world. Is it too politically incorrect to have a Sardinian or a Milanese dwarf? On one hand we have a loss, but on the other we can have a gain. At the beginning of the game the main character, Link, wanders around Onset Island and meets Masao, a non-playing character who is cutting the grass in his garden and that suggests that Link find some grass-cutting tool, so that he can find treasures hidden in the vegetation.
In the original version, Masao is a simpleton, uneducated farmer, and the lines he delivers are hilarious. He speaks in a comical dialect from the southern islands of Japan. Masao was so turned into a simpleton, uneducated coiffeur, who uses comical hairdressing terminology to refer to grass. English and Italian texts are taken directly from the game, the English translation of the Italian localisation is mine.
Oh really? Well, congrats, compleanno? Tanti auguri, Congratulations buddy! Are you that old giovanotto! Are you that old already? Time just flies grande? You blink anche a te! Ah… Come passa il then! Oh dear, time just flies… and POOF! There goes a tempo… year! Cresce in fretta, con questi grass. It grows fast, you know, with grass in this field the other colpi di sole! Se non ci fossi io, such highlights! Table 2. As we can see, the Italian translation distances itself from the more literal English one and tries somehow to recreate the comical effect of the original, in order to make up for the loss of the funny Japanese accent.
The idea behind text customisation is that it can be considered appropriate if it contributes to maintaining the original intention of the source text. Instead of speaking of equivalence of meaning, we can speak of functional equivalence: a good translation must generate the same effect aimed at by the original.
Obviously this means that translators have to make an interpretation hypothesis about the effect programmed by the original text, or, to use a concept I like, to remain faithful to the intention of the text. Many hypotheses can be made about the intention of a text, so that the decision about what a translation should reproduce becomes negotiable.
Another freedom game translators may have, as long as the developer agrees, is to change the names of characters if they deem it either appropriate or necessary. European translators, however, thought it could cause legal problems, since it is also the surname of a famous French football player. They chose therefore to transliterate the name in a way that resembled the Japanese name.
One might wonder — and with reason — whether it is really so important or even useful for a game to change the names of the characters in the localisation process. This point makes sense. The thing with video games is that they do not tell you a story. The player has Ibidem. Of course, there are cases where names are not translated. The original version of the game is in English, but the atmosphere of the Italian culture has been recreated in both the original and the localised versions.
The characters speak with an Italian accent although this does not happen in all locales: the German and Spanish Ezios, for instance, speak with no foreign inflection and even use Italian words or expressions when talking. This element contributes to creating the atmosphere of the game and is preserved in different locales.
Leonardo: Of course! This way. Ah, che Leonardo: Ma certo! Vieni, di qua. The English version of the game uses Italian expressions but puts their translation into brackets Figure 2. This is maybe done because players may not be familiar with Italian and therefore not understand what the characters are saying, since sometimes even whole sentences are left in Italian.
It is interesting to note that even Italian expressions in the English version are often retranslated into Italian, since they do not sound properly right or are even wrong. In an animated sequence Leonardo da Vinci warns Ezio about not messing with Caterina di Sforza, since she is as powerful and dangerous as she is beautiful. A non-translation strategy can be used at discretion by the translator at any given Figure 2.
This often happens with Japanese titles where the game experience would be ruined if all names, dialogues and other elements are translated. An example of this is the famous and very well acclaimed Street Fighter series. When performing a special move, characters shout its name in Japanese. The characters speak Japanese, with subtitles for the target locales. An attempt of localising voice-overs was done with Dead or Alive 2, a fighting game released in Japan by Tecmo in arcades in and later ported for the Dreamcast and PlayStation 2 in Among these, characters, pictures and moves were altered to appear more realistic, lessening the Japanese anime look see 2.
Such games requires therefore only a partial localisation see 2. As shown, two opposite approaches can be taken into account when localising a video game. Although there seems to be a tendency towards domestication in the video game localisation industry, it is a fact that players may appreciate the foreign flavour of a game and expect it not to be thoroughly changed in order to bring it closer to the target audience.
No matter what the approach, the general rule is that localisation should not spoil suspension of disbelief and the immersion of the player into the game world. Translating humour Translating humour into another language is always a challenge. Humour is an important element because jokes create atmosphere and entertain the player.
Most jokes are based on playing with how the language works, which means jokes can rarely be translated literally and need to be adapted to the target language and culture. Rikku: Disasterrific! Rikku: Disastragica! American localisers of Final Fantasy sometimes add references to US culture, puns, sayings or idioms that do not exist in the original Japanese version.
The text of the Italian localisation was taken directly from the game. It was a big success. The live concert in the Thunder Plains. It is a reference to Lollapalooza, a very famous annual rock concert in the US and it is combined with Yuna, the name of one of the main characters, who is also a singer in the game. Coming up with a creative solution when translating humour is not always possible, especially when translation is technically constrained.
The game is actually based on riddles, humour and nonsense; creativity is often required from the player to solve the puzzles. In this specific case, the player will have to use a monkey, that will function as a monkey wrench Figure 2. The original idea was hilarious and in line with the spirit of the game, but problems arose during the translation.
If it was just narration this solution would have been a nice one, replacing the monkey with the parrot. The problem is that in the original version of the game the character is shown to actually use the monkey to turn off the water pump, eventually winking at the player for having got the subtle clue. So the visuals were left as they were and Italian players but they were not the only ones had to figure out an irrational solution to carry on with their adventure, which resulted in frustration for many of them.
In spite of this, humour and puns are generally very well adapted in the localised version of the game. In the following example, a long tongue-twister between the main character Guybrush and a carpenter is effectively delivered into Italian, although part of the alliteration of the original gets lost.
Guybrush: A woodchuck should chuck Guybrush: Un roditore dovrebbe rodere se if a woodchuck could chuck wood, as un roditore potesse rodere il legno e se un long as a woodchuck would chuck roditore volesse rodere il legno. Carpenter: Oh shut up. Falegname: Oh. Another element of humour in the game is represented by sword fighting between pirates. These unconventional duels are based on wit and sarcasm and are referred to as insult sword fighting. It differs from regular sword fighting in that the participants are required to fling insults and counter-insults to one another in order to win.
B: Then perhaps you should switch to B: Forse dovresti passare al decaffeinato. B: Then be a good dog. B: A quanto pare non ne hai neanche per te! A: Heaven preserve me! A: Somigli a quel fesso di mio zio Vito. It is very important because later in the game the player will come across a character named Rottingham, who will use new sentences in duels, and the player will have to figure out how to reply properly according to consistency and rhyme.
English version: Italian localisation: A: Your stench would make an A: Il tuo tanfo renderebbe uno spurgatore outhouse cleaner irritated! This is another example where translation alone would not suffice and transcreation is required.
Some lines are completely rearranged, with the idea of being faithful to the intention and function of the text, rather than to its form. Internationalisation strategies for Japanese video games Certain Japanese video games have been very popular not only in Japan, but also in Northern America and Europe, and some of them have even become famous worldwide. Their success is strictly bound with globalisation and internationalisation strategies, which aim to make the game appealing to an international audience.
References to Japanese culture are generally omitted, so that these games look international from the very start. Another possibility is to design games that refer to Japanese cultural elements that are popular and appreciated in the Western countries. Game series such as Tenchu, Onimusha or Ninja Gaiden rely on the appeal of ninjas as a key point.
Onimusha: Warlords released in , for instance, is set in the Sengoku period and narrates the story of the samurai Samanosuke Akechi who fights against the forces of warlord Nobunaga Oda Figure 2. This historical setting, the plot and the genuine Japanese atmosphere contributed to the success of the game, which achieved high popularity and became the first PlayStation 2 game to reach the one million sales.
Its sales eventually surpassed the two million units worldwide and the game was considered one of the best titles for the PlayStation 2 console. It also means generating characters with ambiguous or flexible phenotypes and national origins characters with blue hair, for instance, are a typical example of mukokuseki design.
Some scholars, such as the Sicilian sociologist and essayist Marco Pellitteri, though, point out that the tide is slowly turning in contemporary Japan, with a tendency towards a sort of post- modern nationalism. This mixture between elements of distant cultures occurs to a Figure 2. Talmadge Wright, David G. Embrick, and Andras Lukacs, eds. Cultural aspects of localisation Localisation is something that concerns much more than language.
This concept is very well pointed out by Francesca Di Marco: A challenging part of the process of localization of video games concerns the sphere of cultural localization; that is, the adaptation of visuals, sound and scripts conceived in one language by members of one culture to another language and another culture, in such a way that they seem at once fully consistent with the assumptions, values and other boundaries and outlooks of the second culture, and internally consistent within the semiotic strategies of the original video game text, visuals and sound.
Assuming that the text of a video game thus consists primarily not of language bur in fact of culture, […] the cultural localization of video games raises questions related to translatability, comprehension and loss of meaning, as well as to the possibility of establishing new identities in the indeterminate space of cultural translation. In the original version, the protagonist, Miku Hinasaki, is a seventeen-year-old girl wearing a school uniform.
Since Western countries prefer characters with more adult features, and since this could have hindered the success of the game in both the US and the European market, it was decided to customise the character according to the Western taste Figure 2. New Media Society, Vol. Although this is less frequent, once again the same phenomenon happens during localisation: the game is not only translated, but also modified, this time in order to bring it closer to Japanese users.
As it is easy to see, the main character, Ratchet, has got bigger eyebrows in the Japanese version right to make the character more anime style; besides, the Japanese cover has been hand drawn in anime style, whilst the American version left is made using computer graphics. Especially sports games such as Fifa or Pro Evolution Soccer are often modified to meet the expectations and preferences of the users in the corresponding countries where the games are sold.
The game ranks among the most appreciated DS titles ever to date, selling more than In an interview, the game producer Katsuya Eguchi explains that localisation was a long process: The localization for America took a long time simply because there are so many elements that have to fit with the audience. We took out so many things that were traditionally Japanese, and replaced them with things Americans would like. So it took a lot of time to make the game fit in each territory.
Another example of a video game that met great success in Japan thanks to a localisation effort that combines original cultural elements with country-specific elements is Crash Bandicoot, an American platform game originally released for PlayStation in He was also redrawn with black instead of green eyes, a feature that would seem rather strange in Japan.
Apparently the Japanese have a more than usual dislike of disfigured humanoids, so fingers were added to make them the normal five. The result was so well adapted to the Japanese culture that most Japanese gamers actually thought that Crash was developed in Japan. Making the content viable means removing all elements that could cause the local government and the audience to react negatively. Cattle are sacred for the Hindu religion and India has laws to protect them.
The way cows were depicted in the post- apocalyptic scenario may have actually hurt the sensitivity of Indian players. In non-Japanese versions, players were given the option of either defusing, ignoring, or detonating the unexploded atomic bomb in the town of Megaton. In the Japanese version Mr.
An example is Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare , a first-person shooter video game that was banned in both Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates for cruelty and violence against Islamic soldiers. A similar thing happened for the football management simulation game Football Manager A video game has therefore to be understandable properly translated , enjoyable properly adapted but, above all, viable.
All these elements work together in order to achieve the same result: preserve the magic of the original game. There is a tangible risk of breaking the immersive atmosphere of a video game during the process of translation. Localisers actually walk on thin ice and they need to take every single detail into account, paying particular attention to context, rhythm of game narration and to any Jean Snow 11 November What producers try to achieve is a simultaneous shipment sim-ship, in short : the game is released simultaneously worldwide in all the different markets, in order to benefit from the boost of an international and simultaneous advertising campaign.
This is due to the fact that new games often require years of work and a multi-million budget see 1. In spite of this, the average span of life of a game — even a good one — is generally a couple of months since it hits the shelves: after that period it is possible to find it in the bargain bin at a very low price. Another positive aspect of simultaneous shipment is that it enables to create a strong sense of community among international gamers, especially for multiplayer online titles.
Gamers of Europe do not have to wait for months, while seeing US gamers commenting about the game and interacting among themselves on forums. The game has been defined as an action-adventure survival horror video game and uses a third-person perspective. It was released on 14 June worldwide, with the exception of Japan, where it was released six days later, on 20 June. Upon its release, The Last of Us sold 1. As of January , the game has sold 4. He will have to cross the United States together with Ellie, a year-old teenager who seems to be immune to the infection, and escort her to a resistance group called the Fireflies, who believe that Ellie can represent the cure for mankind, allowing them to create a vaccine.
Running away is not something you do in video games. The concept for the story of The Last of Us came to Bruce Straley and Neil Druckmann, the game producers, when they happened to see a BBC documentary, Planet Earth, where they talked about the Cordyceps fungus and how it affected ants.
The Last of Us and the globalisation process As explained in the previous chapter, modern video games are developed with globalisation in mind, especially when they are titles with a big budget see 2. The Last of Us makes no exception. The game was developed by Naughty Dog, an American company, and it was clearly designed to be localised into different languages with the minimum effort.
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